ethernet

Renesas Electronics accelerates industrial ethernet application development with new RZ/N1 solution kit

By Zenobia Hegde

Renesas Electronics, a supplier of advanced semiconductor solutions, announced the availability of the new RZ/N1 microprocessor (MPU) Solution Kit designed to support various industrial network applications including programmable logic controllers (PLCs), intelligent network switches, gateways, operator terminals and remote I/O solutions.

The new RZ/N1 Solution Kit is a complete development package that includes the hardware and software to enable faster prototyping of industrial Ethernet protocols such as EtherCAT, EtherNet/IP™, ETHERNET Powerlink, PROFINET, Sercos, and CANopen, thereby accelerating development and saving up to six months of industrial network protocol integration into customers’ applications.

The new kit includes a CPU development board based on the RZ/N1S MPU. In addition, a comprehensive software package is included with all the drivers and middleware, sample protocol stacks, U-Boot and Linux-based BSP, a unique inter-processor communication software, and even a user-friendly PinMuxing tool that can generate C-code header files that removes the complexity of pin configuration. The various software and sample code provides customers with a complete set of tools and frameworks to build their own application without any additional up-front costs or complexity.

Key features of the new RZ/N1 solution kit:

Enhanced operating system flexibility

Developers can now evaluate using the operating system (OS) ThreadX® for the applications subsystem, in addition to Linux that is already supported by the RZ/N1. This enables system developers to choose an OS depending on their specific application requirements. Both OS options support the leading industrial Ethernet protocols that have been implemented on RZ/N1.

Linux: A widely used OS with a very large knowledge base community. For Yocto based Linux development, Renesas provides the respective Yocto recipes to build the Linux, U-Boot and root file system. Using Qt abstracted set of APIs, GUI applications can also be developed and ported to different targets.

ThreadX: Renesas provides a sample reference port of Express Logic’s X-Ware IoT platform powered by ThreadX on the application subsystem. ThreadX is designed specifically for deeply embedded, real-time, and IoT applications. It provides advanced scheduling, communication, synchronisation, timer, memory management, and interrupt management facilities.

Enables PLC programming compatible with IEC 61131-3 by CODESYS

The new solution kit allows evaluation of CODESYS, a hardware independent IEC 61131-3 development system for programming and creating programmable logic controller (PLC) applications. Among others it supports Industrial Ethernet master stacks for EtherCAT, EtherNet/IP, Sercos, CANOpen and PROFINET.

Furthermore, the embedded LCD controller featured in the RZ/N1D makes great use of the CODESYS target visualisation tool, enabling product development with graphical visualisation screens. Having CODESYS support enables the device to be either a protocol slave device but also as a master, which highlights the flexibility of the RZ/N1 Group MPUs.

Availability

The enhanced RZ/N1 Solution Kit for the RZ/N1D and RZ/N1S Groups of MPUs are available now through Renesas Electronics and representative distributor partners. The solution kit for the RZ/N1L is scheduled to be available in 1H 2018. The kit includes a variety of sample applications, development tools, drivers as well as evaluation versions of the protocol stacks for faster prototyping and integration.

Renesas will demonstrate the new kit at SPS IPC Drives 2017 (stand 130 in Hall […]

The post Renesas Electronics accelerates industrial ethernet application development with new RZ/N1 solution kit appeared first on IoT Now – How to run an IoT enabled business.

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Teledyne LeCroy Inc and Spirent Communications partner for PAM4 generation and analysis

By Zenobia Hegde

Teledyne LeCroy, and Spirent Communications, the global providers in Ethernet and Fibre Channel test and measurement solutions, announced the industry’s first Ethernet generation and test solution for developers of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM4) networks.Spirent and Teledyne LeCroy have created the QSFP28 to SFP56 single w/PTAP adapter, an exclusive PAM4 adapter allowing design and test engineers the ability to source, synchronise, capture, and analyse PAM4 signaling for emerging IEEE 802.3cd-based applications.

PAM4 signaling enables higher throughput Ethernet connections to support the growing need for data storage and communications speeds. These higher signaling rates require increased attention to intricacies of establishing and maintaining robust and healthy link connections. Spirent TestCenter generates IEEE compliant 50GbE traffic for exercising these new Ethernet links. Teledyne LeCroy’s SierraNet analyser captures and decodes the traffic which is ported via the QSFP28 to SFP56 single w/PTAP adapter module.

Early adopters of the IEEE 802.3cd for 50GbE Ethernet transactions need generation and analysis tools to ensure their designs are specification compliant. Spirent and Teledyne LeCroy offer best-in-class solutions to ensure Network Equipment Manufacturers (NEMs) new products meet customer expectations of operation and conformance.

The NEMs reliance on the Test and Measurement community is increasing, as homegrown tools are not up to the task. This relationship allows Teledyne LeCroy and Spirent to focus on their core strengths, keep pace with market needs, and offer leading edge tools, which are paramount to successful Ethernet product deployments.

To learn more about PAM4, download our white paper here.

Comment on this article below or via Twitter: @IoTNow_OR @jcIoTnow

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How to configure the Kerlink IoT Station for GPRS/3G uplink connectivity

I have been working on getting a Kerlink IoT Station to work with GPRS/3G as its primary uplink path.

A client asked me to do this configuration because they did not have the resources to it themselves. No problem. I have been working with LoRa and Kerlinks for a while now doing a consultancy job for another client (a big telco). They did not want to connect the Kerlink to their local network for security reasons. They wanted to add their gateway to TheThingsNetwork.org (TTN), a global open crowdsourced Internet of Things data network that started in The Netherlands. Reading the forums, I noticed that many trying to do the same have run into issues. The documentation is sometimes incomplete and scattered so it takes a bit of effort to get it to work.

IoT lab at the home office

IoT lab at the home office

The task at hand:

Configure a Kerlink IoT station to use its GPRS/3G modem as its uplink path and connect it to TheThingsNetwork.org. The SIM provided was a PukData M2M SIM which uses the KPN mobile network in The Netherlands.

Normally, the Kerlink will use its  ethernet (eth0) uplink as its default path. The basic idea here is that, if configured correctly, an autoconnect mechanism will trigger the GPRS bearer, establishes a PPP connection and set a default route and DNS.

I had already installed the TTN firmware with the polypacket forwarder on the Kerlink and got it to work using the ethernet uplink. I used a LoRaMote to check if packets actually showed up in the TTN api. For the next step, I basically followed the GPRS/3G guide on the TTN Wiki  which boils down to:

  • Set the GPRS options to match your SIM and telco’s APN settings (i.e. APN name, pincode, username and password).
  • Configure auto connect in the knet monitor.
  • Set the bearers priority.
  • Because no username/password is set for this APN, and empty username/password fields trigger a bug, I also installed the patched GPRS init script.

 

I ran into a couple of things so these considerations may be useful:

  • If your SIM comes with a pin code (usually 0000), set it with ‘GPRSPIN=<your pin here>’.
  • If your APN username and password are to be left empty, replace the GPRS init script with the patched version as mentioned at the bottom of the guide.
  • Carefully choose your ip_link address in /knet/knetd.xml depending on your requirements. This address is pinged periodically to determine if the GPRS auto connect needs to be activated. In my case I wanted one that is only reachable over the GPRS APN (e.g. for KPN use their DNS server: 194.151.228.34) to force it to bring up the ppp0 interface whenever possible. If you’re using GPRS as a backup path this should be different (I guess an address only reachable via eth0 but make sure the PPP session is terminated as soon as the primary path becomes available again). Use tcpdump (e.g. tcpdump -i ppp0 -n -v port 1700 or icmp) to check if it is pinging the correct address and if status updates are sent.
  • I chose not to use peerdns (GPRSDNS=no) because the default DNS servers are not restored in case of a GPRS connection failure, thus breaking eth0 as a fallback path. I used the Google public DNS servers in stead as they work on both paths. This could also be fixed in /etc/ppp/ip-down.
  • Remember that your default gateway will be set to the ppp0 interface whenever that interface comes up. You may want to be able to connect through eth0 for maintenance…
  • The (poly) packet forwarder needs to be restarted whenever there is an interface change to make sure it binds to the right source address. If it isn’t you will see packets going out the ppp0 interface with the eth0 source address (or vice versa). I added ‘/usr/bin/killall poly_pkt_fwd’ to /etc/ppp/ip-up and /etc/ppp/ip-down.
  • The firewall is not enabled by default. Make sure to edit /etc/init.d/firewall to your needs and turn it on in /etc/sysconfig/network (FIREWALL=yes). Don’t forget IPv6 although dropbear for instance does not listen on a v6 socket.

Tests to do to make sure it all works:

  • Check if the gateway is still active (is sending status updates) and node messages are received in the TTN API after unplugging the ethernet uplink cable. If you’re using an ethernet power injector, make sure to unplug the cable going into the injector rather than the one going out to the Kerlink. Duh! 😉 Remember that you can’t log in to the gateway anymore, assuming access to the GPRS/3G address is blocked.
  • Plug the ethernet cable back in and see if you can log in again. Then check if updates/messages are still being sent over the ppp0 interface using tcpdump.
  • Power cycle the Kerlink while leaving the ethernet uplink cable unplugged. This will make sure the Kerlink will boot successfully in stand-alone mode, which was the whole purpose of this exercise.

Configuration:

/etc/sysconfig/network:

 # Selector operator APN
 GPRSAPN=internet.access.nl
 # Enter pin code if activated
 GPRSPIN=0000
 # Update /etc/resolv.conf to get dns facilities
 GPRSDNS=no
 # PAP authentication
 GPRSUSER=
 GPRSPASSWORD=
 # Bearers priority order
 BEARERS_PRIORITY="ppp0,eth0,eth1"

/knet/knetd.xml:

<!-- ############## connection parameters ############## -->
<!-- nb of second to retry to connect to server if connection failed-->
<CONNECT retry_timeout="10" />
<!-- port nunmber for local application kms connection -->
<CONNECT kms_port="35035" />
<CONNECT auto_connection="YES" />
<!-- frequency of connection monitoring -ping- (in seconds) -->
<CONNECT link_timeout="30"/>
<!-- DNS servers will be pinged if commented or deleted. Some operators can block the ping on there DNS servers -->
<CONNECT ip_link="194.151.228.34"/>

Questions?

Don’t hesitate to leave a comment below or send a message.

RFC 3232 – Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On-line Database

Network Working Group                                J. Reynolds, Editor
Request for Comments: 3232                                    RFC Editor
Obsoletes: 1700                                             January 2002
Category: Informational


Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On-line Database


Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo obsoletes RFC 1700 (STD 2) "Assigned Numbers", which
   contained an October 1994 snapshot of assigned Internet protocol
   parameters.

Description

   From November 1977 through October 1994, the Internet Assigned
   Numbers Authority (IANA) periodically published tables of the
   Internet protocol parameter assignments in RFCs entitled, "Assigned
   Numbers".  The most current of these Assigned Numbers RFCs had
   Standard status and carried the designation: STD 2.  At this time,
   the latest STD 2 is RFC 1700.

   Since 1994, this sequence of RFCs have been replaced by an online
   database accessible through a web page (currently, www.iana.org).
   The purpose of the present RFC is to note this fact and to officially
   obsolete RFC 1700, whose status changes to Historic.  RFC 1700 is
   obsolete, and its values are incomplete and in some cases may be
   wrong.

   We expect this series to be revived in the future by the new IANA
   organization.

Security Considerations

   This memo does not affect the technical security of the Internet.





Reynolds                     Informational                      [Page 1]

RFC 3232         RFC 1700 Replaced by On-line Database      January 2002


Author's Address

   Joyce K. Reynolds
   RFC Editor
   4676 Admiralty Way
   Marina del Rey, CA  90292
   USA

   EMail: rfc-editor@rfc-editor.org

RFC 2464 – Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks

Network Working Group M. Crawford
Request for Comments: 2464 Fermilab
Obsoletes: 1972 December 1998
Category: Standards Track

Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks

Status of this Memo

This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.

1. Introduction

This document specifies the frame format for transmission of IPv6
packets and the method of forming IPv6 link-local addresses and
statelessly autoconfigured addresses on Ethernet networks. It also
specifies the content of the Source/Target Link-layer Address option
used in Router Solicitation, Router Advertisement, Neighbor
Solicitation, Neighbor Advertisement and Redirect messages when those
messages are transmitted on an Ethernet.

This document replaces RFC 1972, "A Method for the Transmission of
IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks", which will become historic.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].

2. Maximum Transmission Unit

The default MTU size for IPv6 [IPV6] packets on an Ethernet is 1500
octets. This size may be reduced by a Router Advertisement [DISC]
containing an MTU option which specifies a smaller MTU, or by manual
configuration of each node. If a Router Advertisement received on an
Ethernet interface has an MTU option specifying an MTU larger than
1500, or larger than a manually configured value, that MTU option may
be logged to system management but must be otherwise ignored.

For purposes of this document, information received from DHCP is
considered "manually configured" and the term Ethernet includes
CSMA/CD and full-duplex subnetworks based on ISO/IEC 8802-3, with
various data rates.

3. Frame Format

IPv6 packets are transmitted in standard Ethernet frames. The
Ethernet header contains the Destination and Source Ethernet
addresses and the Ethernet type code, which must contain the value
86DD hexadecimal. The data field contains the IPv6 header followed
immediately by the payload, and possibly padding octets to meet the
minimum frame size for the Ethernet link.

0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination |
+- -+
| Ethernet |
+- -+
| Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Source |
+- -+
| Ethernet |
+- -+
| Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IPv6 |
+- -+
| header |
+- -+
| and |
+- -+
/ payload ... /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

(Each tic mark represents one bit.)

4. Stateless Autoconfiguration

The Interface Identifier [AARCH] for an Ethernet interface is based
on the EUI-64 identifier [EUI64] derived from the interface's built-
in 48-bit IEEE 802 address. The EUI-64 is formed as follows.
(Canonical bit order is assumed throughout.)

The OUI of the Ethernet address (the first three octets) becomes the
company_id of the EUI-64 (the first three octets). The fourth and
fifth octets of the EUI are set to the fixed value FFFE hexadecimal.
The last three octets of the Ethernet address become the last three
octets of the EUI-64.

The Interface Identifier is then formed from the EUI-64 by
complementing the "Universal/Local" (U/L) bit, which is the next-to-
lowest order bit of the first octet of the EUI-64. Complementing
this bit will generally change a 0 value to a 1, since an interface's
built-in address is expected to be from a universally administered
address space and hence have a globally unique value. A universally
administered IEEE 802 address or an EUI-64 is signified by a 0 in the
U/L bit position, while a globally unique IPv6 Interface Identifier
is signified by a 1 in the corresponding position. For further
discussion on this point, see [AARCH].

For example, the Interface Identifier for an Ethernet interface whose
built-in address is, in hexadecimal,

34-56-78-9A-BC-DE

would be

36-56-78-FF-FE-9A-BC-DE.

A different MAC address set manually or by software should not be
used to derive the Interface Identifier. If such a MAC address must
be used, its global uniqueness property should be reflected in the
value of the U/L bit.

An IPv6 address prefix used for stateless autoconfiguration [ACONF]
of an Ethernet interface must have a length of 64 bits.

5. Link-Local Addresses

The IPv6 link-local address [AARCH] for an Ethernet interface is
formed by appending the Interface Identifier, as defined above, to
the prefix FE80::/64.

10 bits 54 bits 64 bits
+----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| (zeros) | Interface Identifier |
+----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+

6. Address Mapping -- Unicast

The procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses into Ethernet link-
layer addresses is described in [DISC]. The Source/Target Link-layer
Address option has the following form when the link layer is
Ethernet.

0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+- Ethernet -+
| |
+- Address -+
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Option fields:

Type 1 for Source Link-layer address.
2 for Target Link-layer address.

Length 1 (in units of 8 octets).

Ethernet Address
The 48 bit Ethernet IEEE 802 address, in canonical bit
order. This is the address the interface currently
responds to, and may be different from the built-in
address used to derive the Interface Identifier.

7. Address Mapping -- Multicast

An IPv6 packet with a multicast destination address DST, consisting
of the sixteen octets DST[1] through DST[16], is transmitted to the
Ethernet multicast address whose first two octets are the value 3333
hexadecimal and whose last four octets are the last four octets of
DST.

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DST[13] | DST[14] |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DST[15] | DST[16] |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

8. Differences From RFC 1972

The following are the functional differences between this
specification and RFC 1972.

The Address Token, which was a node's 48-bit MAC address, is
replaced with the Interface Identifier, which is 64 bits in
length and based on the EUI-64 format [EUI64]. An IEEE-defined
mapping exists from 48-bit MAC addresses to EUI-64 form.

A prefix used for stateless autoconfiguration must now be 64 bits
long rather than 80. The link-local prefix is also shortened to
64 bits.

9. Security Considerations

The method of derivation of Interface Identifiers from MAC addresses
is intended to preserve global uniqueness when possible. However,
there is no protection from duplication through accident or forgery.

10. References

[AARCH] Hinden, R. and S. Deering "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

[ACONF] Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.

[DISC] Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery
for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998.

[EUI64] "Guidelines For 64-bit Global Identifier (EUI-64)",
http://standards.ieee.org/db/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html

[IPV6] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

[RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

11. Author's Address

Matt Crawford
Fermilab MS 368
PO Box 500
Batavia, IL 60510
USA

Phone: +1 630 840-3461
EMail: crawdad@fnal.gov

12. Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.