Query

Graph Databases Ascend to the Cloud

By George Leopold

Bucking the trend toward open source databases, cloud vendors continue to promote proprietary graph databases that combine the ability to handle multiple data models with the distribution of data across different cloud regions.

While Amazon Web Services (NASDAQ: AMZN) has embraced an open-source approach with its new Neptune graph database, cloud database competitors Microsoft and Oracle (NYSE: ORCL) are betting there is plenty of life—and revenues—in cloud-based proprietary approaches. Oracle is promoting its upcoming “self-driving database” that leverages AI features to automate administrative tasks. Automation makes the database cheaper to run in the Oracle cloud, Oracle CTO Larry Ellison claimed last month.

Microsoft is meanwhile zeroing in on the vibrant graph market with a multi-modal graph database called Azure Cosmos DB.

Multi-modal graph databases are designed to support different model types such as a combination of document and key-value store along with a graph capability. Observers note that among the advantages of the approach are that graph and key value queries can be run against the same data. The downside is that performance cannot match a dedicated database management system, they add.

Along with Azure Cosmos DB, other multi-modal graph databases include ArangoDB and Sqrrl.

Microsoft (NASDAQ: MSFT) released Azure Cosmos DB details in December, including specs on APIs used to access and query data. Emphasizing the ability to distribute data across different Azure cloud regions, the company released a “multi-homing API” designed to reduce latency by identifying customers’ nearest cloud region, then sending data queries to the closest datacenter.

In support of its multi-model approach, Microsoft also released a batch of APIs that support SQL, MongoDB, Cassandra, Graph (Apache Gremlin) and a key-value database service called Table API. The company said in December that it plans to add support for other data models.

Microsoft is aiming Azure Cosmos DB at the emerging Internet of Things market along with web and mobile applications requiring “massive amounts of data, reads and writes at a global scale with near-real response times for a variety of data,” the company said.

The introduction Azure Cosmos drew mixed reviews in a lively, detailed discussion on the Azure Cosmos DB web site. After identifying several shortcomings, one long-time Azure storage table user concluded that the new database “is not production ready.”

Another user raised an issue that cloud vendors are likely to hear frequently in coming months: A globally distributed database may reduce latency, “but we need to give our users the choice of where their data is stored—particularly in regards to the [General Data Protection Regulation] that goes live in May 2018″ within the European Union.

Recent items:

A Look at the Graph Database Landscape

AWS, Others Seen Moving Oracle Databases

The post Graph Databases Ascend to the Cloud appeared first on Datanami.

Read more here:: www.datanami.com/feed/

RFC 1885 – Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for IPv6 (OBSOLETE)

 
Network Working Group             A. Conta, Digital Equipment Corporation
Request for Comments: 1885 S. Deering, Xerox PARC
Category: Standards Track December 1995

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)
for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification

Status of this Memo

This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

This document specifies a set of Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) messages for use with version 6 of the Internet Protocol
(IPv6). The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) messages
specified in STD 5, RFC 1112 have been merged into ICMP, for IPv6,
and are included in this document.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction........................................3

2. ICMPv6 (ICMP for IPv6)..............................3

2.1 Message General Format.......................3

2.2 Message Source Address Determination.........4

2.3 Message Checksum Calculation.................5

2.4 Message Processing Rules.....................5

3. ICMPv6 Error Messages...............................8

3.1 Destination Unreachable Message..............8

3.2 Packet Too Big Message......................10

3.3 Time Exceeded Message.......................11

3.4 Parameter Problem Message...................12

4. ICMPv6 Informational Messages......................14

4.1 Echo Request Message........................14

4.2 Echo Reply Message..........................15

4.3 Group Membership Messages...................17

5. References.........................................19

6. Acknowledgements...................................19

7. Security Considerations............................19

Authors' Addresses....................................20

1. Introduction

The Internet Protocol, version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of IP. IPv6
uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) as defined for IPv4
[RFC-792], with a number of changes. The Internet Group Membership
Protocol (IGMP) specified for IPv4 [RFC-1112] has also been revised
and has been absorbed into ICMP for IPv6. The resulting protocol is
called ICMPv6, and has an IPv6 Next Header value of 58.

This document describes the format of a set of control messages used
in ICMPv6. It does not describe the procedures for using these
messages to achieve functions like Path MTU discovery or multicast
group membership maintenance; such procedures are described in other
documents (e.g., [RFC-1112, RFC-1191]). Other documents may also
introduce additional ICMPv6 message types, such as Neighbor Discovery
messages [IPv6-DISC], subject to the general rules for ICMPv6
messages given in section 2 of this document.

Terminology defined in the IPv6 specification [IPv6] and the IPv6
Routing and Addressing specification [IPv6-ADDR] applies to this
document as well.

2. ICMPv6 (ICMP for IPv6)

ICMPv6 is used by IPv6 nodes to report errors encountered in
processing packets, and to perform other internet-layer functions,
such as diagnostics (ICMPv6 "ping") and multicast membership
reporting. ICMPv6 is an integral part of IPv6 and MUST be fully
implemented by every IPv6 node.

2.1 Message General Format

ICMPv6 messages are grouped into two classes: error messages and
informational messages. Error messages are identified as such by
having a zero in the high-order bit of their message Type field
values. Thus, error messages have message Types from 0 to 127;
informational messages have message Types from 128 to 255.

This document defines the message formats for the following ICMPv6
messages:

ICMPv6 error messages:

1 Destination Unreachable (see section 3.1)
2 Packet Too Big (see section 3.2)
3 Time Exceeded (see section 3.3)
4 Parameter Problem (see section 3.4)

ICMPv6 informational messages:

128 Echo Request (see section 4.1)
129 Echo Reply (see section 4.2)
130 Group Membership Query (see section 4.3)
131 Group Membership Report (see section 4.3)
132 Group Membership Reduction (see section 4.3)

Every ICMPv6 message is preceded by an IPv6 header and zero or more
IPv6 extension headers. The ICMPv6 header is identified by a Next
Header value of 58 in the immediately preceding header. (NOTE: this
is different than the value used to identify ICMP for IPv4.)

The ICMPv6 messages have the following general format:

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ Message Body +
| |

The type field indicates the type of the message. Its value
determines the format of the remaining data.

The code field depends on the message type. It is used to create an
additional level of message granularity.

The checksum field is used to detect data corruption in the ICMPv6
message and parts of the IPv6 header.

2.2 Message Source Address Determination

A node that sends an ICMPv6 message has to determine both the Source
and Destination IPv6 Addresses in the IPv6 header before calculating
the checksum. If the node has more than one unicast address, it must
choose the Source Address of the message as follows:

(a) If the message is a response to a message sent to one of the
node's unicast addresses, the Source Address of the reply must
be that same address.

(b) If the message is a response to a message sent to a multicast or
anycast group in which the node is a member, the Source Address
of the reply must be a unicast address belonging to the
interface on which the multicast or anycast packet was received.

(c) If the message is a response to a message sent to an address
that does not belong to the node, the Source Address should be
that unicast address belonging to the node that will be most
helpful in diagnosing the error. For example, if the message is
a response to a packet forwarding action that cannot complete
successfully, the Source Address should be a unicast address
belonging to the interface on which the packet forwarding
failed.

(d) Otherwise, the node's routing table must be examined to
determine which interface will be used to transmit the message
to its destination, and a unicast address belonging to that
interface must be used as the Source Address of the message.

2.3 Message Checksum Calculation

The checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement
sum of the entire ICMPv6 message starting with the ICMPv6 message
type field, prepended with a "pseudo-header" of IPv6 header fields,
as specified in [IPv6, section 8.1]. The Next Header value used in
the pseudo-header is 58. (NOTE: the inclusion of a pseudo-header in
the ICMPv6 checksum is a change from IPv4; see [IPv6] for the
rationale for this change.)

For computing the checksum, the checksum field is set to zero.

2.4 Message Processing Rules

Implementations MUST observe the following rules when processing
ICMPv6 messages (from [RFC-1122]):

(a) If an ICMPv6 error message of unknown type is received, it MUST
be passed to the upper layer.

(b) If an ICMPv6 informational message of unknown type is received,
it MUST be silently discarded.

(c) Every ICMPv6 error message (type < 128) includes as much of the
IPv6 offending (invoking) packet (the packet that caused the
error) as will fit without making the error message packet
exceed 576 octets.

(d) In those cases where the internet-layer protocol is required to
pass an ICMPv6 error message to the upper-layer protocol, the
upper-layer protocol type is extracted from the original packet
(contained in the body of the ICMPv6 error message) and used to
select the appropriate upper-layer protocol entity to handle the
error.

If the original packet had an unusually large amount of
extension headers, it is possible that the upper-layer protocol
type may not be present in the ICMPv6 message, due to truncation
of the original packet to meet the 576-octet limit. In that
case, the error message is silently dropped after any IPv6-layer
processing.

(e) An ICMPv6 error message MUST NOT be sent as a result of
receiving:

(e.1) an ICMPv6 error message, or

(e.2) a packet destined to an IPv6 multicast address (there are
two exceptions to this rule: (1) the Packet Too Big
Message - Section 3.2 - to allow Path MTU discovery to
work for IPv6 multicast, and (2) the Parameter Problem
Message, Code 2 - Section 3.4 - reporting an unrecognized
IPv6 option that has the Option Type highest-order two
bits set to 10), or

(e.3) a packet sent as a link-layer multicast, (the exception
from e.2 applies to this case too), or

(e.4) a packet sent as a link-layer broadcast, (the exception
from e.2 applies to this case too), or

(e.5) a packet whose source address does not uniquely identify
a single node -- e.g., the IPv6 Unspecified Address, an
IPv6 multicast address, or an address known by the ICMP
message sender to be an IPv6 anycast address.

(f) Finally, to each sender of an erroneous data packet, an IPv6
node MUST limit the rate of ICMPv6 error messages sent, in order
to limit the bandwidth and forwarding costs incurred by the
error messages when a generator of erroneous packets does not
respond to those error messages by ceasing its transmissions.

There are a variety of ways of implementing the rate-limiting
function, for example:

(f.1) Timer-based - for example, limiting the rate of
transmission of error messages to a given source, or to
any source, to at most once every T milliseconds.

(f.2) Bandwidth-based - for example, limiting the rate at
which error messages are sent from a particular interface
to some fraction F of the attached link's bandwidth.

The limit parameters (e.g., T or F in the above examples) MUST
be configurable for the node, with a conservative default value
(e.g., T = 1 second, NOT 0 seconds, or F = 2 percent, NOT 100
percent).

The following sections describe the message formats for the above
ICMPv6 messages.

3. ICMPv6 Error Messages

3.1 Destination Unreachable Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Unused |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| As much of invoking packet |
+ as will fit without the ICMPv6 packet +
| exceeding 576 octets |

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

Copied from the Source Address field of the invoking
packet.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 1

Code 0 - no route to destination
1 - communication with destination
administratively prohibited
2 - not a neighbor
3 - address unreachable
4 - port unreachable

Unused This field is unused for all code values.
It must be initialized to zero by the sender
and ignored by the receiver.
Description

A Destination Unreachable message SHOULD be generated by a router, or
by the IPv6 layer in the originating node, in response to a packet
that cannot be delivered to its destination address for reasons other
than congestion. (An ICMPv6 message MUST NOT be generated if a
packet is dropped due to congestion.)

If the reason for the failure to deliver is lack of a matching entry
in the forwarding node's routing table, the Code field is set to 0
(NOTE: this error can occur only in nodes that do not hold a "default
route" in their routing tables).

If the reason for the failure to deliver is administrative
prohibition, e.g., a "firewall filter", the Code field is set to 1.

If the reason for the failure to deliver is that the next destination
address in the Routing header is not a neighbor of the processing
node but the "strict" bit is set for that address, then the Code
field is set to 2.

If there is any other reason for the failure to deliver, e.g.,
inability to resolve the IPv6 destination address into a
corresponding link address, or a link-specific problem of some sort,
then the Code field is set to 3.

A destination node SHOULD send a Destination Unreachable message with
Code 4 in response to a packet for which the transport protocol
(e.g., UDP) has no listener, if that transport protocol has no
alternative means to inform the sender.

Upper layer notification

A node receiving the ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable message MUST
notify the upper-layer protocol.

3.2 Packet Too Big Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| MTU |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| As much of invoking packet |
+ as will fit without the ICMPv6 packet +
| exceeding 576 octets |

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

Copied from the Source Address field of the invoking
packet.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 2

Code 0

MTU The Maximum Transmission Unit of the next-hop link.

Description

A Packet Too Big MUST be sent by a router in response to a packet
that it cannot forward because the packet is larger than the MTU of
the outgoing link. The information in this message is used as part
of the Path MTU Discovery process [RFC-1191].

Sending a Packet Too Big Message makes an exception to one of the
rules of when to send an ICMPv6 error message, in that unlike other
messages, it is sent in response to a packet received with an IPv6
multicast destination address, or a link-layer multicast or link-
layer broadcast address.

Upper layer notification

An incoming Packet Too Big message MUST be passed to the upper-layer
protocol.

3.3 Time Exceeded Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Unused |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| As much of invoking packet |
+ as will fit without the ICMPv6 packet +
| exceeding 576 octets |

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address
Copied from the Source Address field of the invoking
packet.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 3

Code 0 - hop limit exceeded in transit

1 - fragment reassembly time exceeded

Unused This field is unused for all code values.
It must be initialized to zero by the sender
and ignored by the receiver.

Description

If a router receives a packet with a Hop Limit of zero, or a router
decrements a packet's Hop Limit to zero, it MUST discard the packet
and send an ICMPv6 Time Exceeded message with Code 0 to the source of
the packet. This indicates either a routing loop or too small an
initial Hop Limit value.

The router sending an ICMPv6 Time Exceeded message with Code 0 SHOULD
consider the receiving interface of the packet as the interface on
which the packet forwarding failed in following rule (d) for
selecting the Source Address of the message.

Upper layer notification

An incoming Time Exceeded message MUST be passed to the upper-layer
protocol.

3.4 Parameter Problem Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Pointer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| As much of invoking packet |
+ as will fit without the ICMPv6 packet +
| exceeding 576 octets |

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

Copied from the Source Address field of the invoking
packet.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 4

Code 0 - erroneous header field encountered

1 - unrecognized Next Header type encountered

2 - unrecognized IPv6 option encountered

Pointer Identifies the octet offset within the
invoking packet where the error was detected.

The pointer will point beyond the end of the ICMPv6
packet if the field in error is beyond what can fit
in the 576-byte limit of an ICMPv6 error message.

Description

If an IPv6 node processing a packet finds a problem with a field in
the IPv6 header or extension headers such that it cannot complete
processing the packet, it MUST discard the packet and SHOULD send an
ICMPv6 Parameter Problem message to the packet's source, indicating
the type and location of the problem.

The pointer identifies the octet of the original packet's header
where the error was detected. For example, an ICMPv6 message with
Type field = 4, Code field = 1, and Pointer field = 40 would indicate

that the IPv6 extension header following the IPv6 header of the
original packet holds an unrecognized Next Header field value.

Upper layer notification

A node receiving this ICMPv6 message MUST notify the upper-layer
protocol.

4. ICMPv6 Informational Messages

4.1 Echo Request Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Identifier | Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data ...
+-+-+-+-+-

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

Any legal IPv6 address.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 128

Code 0

Identifier An identifier to aid in matching Echo Replies
to this Echo Request. May be zero.

Sequence Number

A sequence number to aid in matching Echo Replies
to this Echo Request. May be zero.

Data Zero or more octets of arbitrary data.

Description

Every node MUST implement an ICMPv6 Echo responder function that
receives Echo Requests and sends corresponding Echo Replies. A node
SHOULD also implement an application-layer interface for sending Echo
Requests and receiving Echo Replies, for diagnostic purposes.

Upper layer notification

A node receiving this ICMPv6 message MAY notify the upper-layer
protocol.

4.2 Echo Reply Message

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Identifier | Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data ...
+-+-+-+-+-

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

Copied from the Source Address field of the invoking
Echo Request packet.

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 129

Code 0

Identifier The identifier from the invoking Echo Request message.

Sequence The sequence number from the invoking Echo Request
Number message.

Data The data from the invoking Echo Request message.

Description

Every node MUST implement an ICMPv6 Echo responder function that
receives Echo Requests and sends corresponding Echo Replies. A node
SHOULD also implement an application-layer interface for sending Echo
Requests and receiving Echo Replies, for diagnostic purposes.

The source address of an Echo Reply sent in response to a unicast
Echo Request message MUST be the same as the destination address of
that Echo Request message.

An Echo Reply SHOULD be sent in response to an Echo Request message
sent to an IPv6 multicast address. The source address of the reply
MUST be a unicast address belonging to the interface on which the
multicast Echo Request message was received.

The data received in the ICMPv6 Echo Request message MUST be returned
entirely and unmodified in the ICMPv6 Echo Reply message, unless the
Echo Reply would exceed the MTU of the path back to the Echo
requester, in which case the data is truncated to fit that path MTU.

Upper layer notification

Echo Reply messages MUST be passed to the ICMPv6 user interface,
unless the corresponding Echo Request originated in the IP layer.

4.3 Group Membership Messages

The ICMPv6 Group Membership Messages have the following format:

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Maximum Response Delay | Unused |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| Multicast |
+ +
| Address |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

IPv6 Fields:

Destination Address

In a Group Membership Query message, the multicast
address of the group being queried, or the Link-Local
All-Nodes multicast address.

In a Group Membership Report or a Group Membership
Reduction message, the multicast address of the
group being reported or terminated.

Hop Limit 1

ICMPv6 Fields:

Type 130 - Group Membership Query
131 - Group Membership Report
132 - Group Membership Reduction

Code 0

Maximum Response Delay

In Query messages, the maximum time that responding
Report messages may be delayed, in milliseconds.

In Report and Reduction messages, this field is
is initialized to zero by the sender and ignored by
receivers.

Unused Initialized to zero by the sender; ignored by receivers.

Multicast Address

The address of the multicast group about which the
message is being sent. In Query messages, the Multicast
Address field may be zero, implying a query for all
groups.

Description

The ICMPv6 Group Membership messages are used to convey information
about multicast group membership from nodes to their neighboring
routers. The details of their usage is given in [RFC-1112].

5. References

[IPv6] Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version
6, Specification", RFC 1883, Xerox PARC, Ipsilon
Networks, December 1995.

[IPv6-ADDR] Hinden, R., and S. Deering, Editors, "IP Version 6
Addressing Architecture", RFC 1884, Ipsilon Networks,
Xerox PARC, December 1995.

[IPv6-DISC] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", Work in Progress.

[RFC-792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
RFC 792, USC/Information Sciences Institute, September
1981.

[RFC-1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", STD
5, RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

[RFC-1122] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, October 1989.

[RFC-1191] Mogul, J., and S. Deering, "Path MTU Discovery", RFC
1191, DECWRL, Stanford University, November 1990.

6. Acknowledgements

The document is derived from previous ICMP drafts of the SIPP and
IPng working group.

The IPng working group and particularly Robert Elz, Jim Bound, Bill
Simpson, Thomas Narten, Charlie Lynn, Bill Fink, and Scott Bradner
(in chronological order) provided extensive review information and
feedback.

7. Security Considerations

Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

Authors' Addresses:

Alex Conta Stephen Deering
Digital Equipment Corporation Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
110 Spitbrook Rd 3333 Coyote Hill Road
Nashua, NH 03062 Palo Alto, CA 94304

Phone: +1-603-881-0744 Phone: +1-415-812-4839
EMail: conta@zk3.dec.com EMail: deering@parc.xerox.com


RFC 1700 – Assigned Numbers


Network Working Group                                        J. Reynolds
Request for Comments: 1700 J. Postel
STD: 2 ISI
Obsoletes RFCs: 1340, 1060, 1010, 990, 960, October 1994
943, 923, 900, 870, 820, 790, 776, 770,
762, 758,755, 750, 739, 604, 503, 433, 349
Obsoletes IENs: 127, 117, 93
Category: Standards Track

ASSIGNED NUMBERS

Status of this Memo

This memo is a status report on the parameters (i.e., numbers and
keywords) used in protocols in the Internet community. Distribution
of this memo is unlimited.

OVERVIEW

This RFC is a snapshot of the ongoing process of the assignment of
protocol parameters for the Internet protocol suite. To make the
current information readily available the assignments are kept up-to-
date in a set of online text files. This RFC has been assembled by
catinating these files together with a minimum of formatting "glue".
The authors appologize for the somewhat rougher formatting and style
than is typical of most RFCs.

We expect that various readers will notice specific items that should be
corrected. Please send any specific corrections via email to
<iana@isi.edu>.

INTRODUCTION

The files in this directory document the currently assigned values for
several series of numbers used in network protocol implementations.

ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central
coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet
protocols. The IANA is chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) and
the Federal Network Council (FNC) to act as the clearinghouse to
assign and coordinate the use of numerous Internet protocol
parameters.

The Internet protocol suite, as defined by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) and its steering group (the IESG), contains numerous
parameters, such as internet addresses, domain names, autonomous
system numbers (used in some routing protocols), protocol numbers,
port numbers, management information base object identifiers,
including private enterprise numbers, and many others.

The common use of the Internet protocols by the Internet community
requires that the particular values used in these parameter fields be
assigned uniquely. It is the task of the IANA to make those unique
assignments as requested and to maintain a registry of the currently
assigned values.

Requests for parameter assignments (protocols, ports, etc.) should be
sent to <iana@isi.edu>.

Requests for SNMP network management private enterprise number
assignments should be sent to <iana-mib@isi.edu>.

The IANA is located at and operated by the Information Sciences
Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California (USC).

If you are developing a protocol or application that will require the
use of a link, socket, port, protocol, etc., please contact the IANA
to receive a number assignment.

Joyce K. Reynolds
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
USC - Information Sciences Institute
4676 Admiralty Way
Marina del Rey, California 90292-6695

Electronic mail: IANA@ISI.EDU
Phone: +1 310-822-1511

Most of the protocols are documented in the RFC series of notes. Some
of the items listed are undocumented. Further information on
protocols can be found in the memo, "Internet Official Protocol
Standards" (STD 1).

Data Notations

The convention in the documentation of Internet Protocols is to
express numbers in decimal and to picture data in "big-endian" order
[COHEN]. That is, fields are described left to right, with the most
significant octet on the left and the least significant octet on the
right.

The order of transmission of the header and data described in this
document is resolved to the octet level. Whenever a diagram shows a
group of octets, the order of transmission of those octets is the
normal order in which they are read in English. For example, in the
following diagram the octets are transmitted in the order they are
numbered.

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Transmission Order of Bytes

Whenever an octet represents a numeric quantity the left most bit in the
diagram is the high order or most significant bit. That is, the bit
labeled 0 is the most significant bit. For example, the following
diagram represents the value 170 (decimal).

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Significance of Bits

Similarly, whenever a multi-octet field represents a numeric quantity
the left most bit of the whole field is the most significant bit. When

a multi-octet quantity is transmitted the most significant octet is
transmitted first.

Special Addresses

There are five classes of IP addresses: Class A through Class E. Of
these, Classes A, B, and C are used for unicast addresses, Class D is
used for multicast addresses, and Class E addresses are reserved for
future use.

With the advent of classless addressing [CIDR1, CIDR2], the
network-number part of an address may be of any length, and the whole
notion of address classes becomes less important.

There are certain special cases for IP addresses. These special cases
can be concisely summarized using the earlier notation for an IP
address:

IP-address ::= { <Network-number>, <Host-number> }

or

IP-address ::= { <Network-number>, <Subnet-number>,
<Host-number> }

if we also use the notation "-1" to mean the field contains all 1
bits. Some common special cases are as follows:

(a) {0, 0}

This host on this network. Can only be used as a source
address (see note later).

(b) {0, <Host-number>}

Specified host on this network. Can only be used as a
source address.

(c) { -1, -1}

Limited broadcast. Can only be used as a destination
address, and a datagram with this address must never be
forwarded outside the (sub-)net of the source.

(d) {<Network-number>, -1}

Directed broadcast to specified network. Can only be used
as a destination address.

(e) {<Network-number>, <Subnet-number>, -1}

Directed broadcast to specified subnet. Can only be used as
a destination address.

(f) {<Network-number>, -1, -1}

Directed broadcast to all subnets of specified subnetted
network. Can only be used as a destination address.

(g) {127, <any>}

Internal host loopback address. Should never appear outside
a host.

REFERENCES

[COHEN] Cohen, D., "On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace", IEEE Computer
Magazine, October 1981.

[CIDR1] Fuller, V., T. Li, J. Yu, and K. Varadhan, "Classless
Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and
Aggregation Strategy", RFC 1519, September 1993.

[CIDR2] Rekhter, Y., and T. Li, "An Architecture for IP Address
Allocation with CIDR", RFC 1518, September 1993.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/introduction

VERSION NUMBERS

In the Internet Protocol (IP) [RFC791] there is a field to identify
the version of the internetwork general protocol. This field is 4
bits in size.

Assigned Internet Version Numbers

Decimal Keyword Version References
------- ------- ------- ----------
0 Reserved [JBP]
1-3 Unassigned [JBP]
4 IP Internet Protocol [RFC791,JBP]
5 ST ST Datagram Mode [RFC1190,JWF]
6 SIP Simple Internet Protocol [RH6]
7 TP/IX TP/IX: The Next Internet [RXU]
8 PIP The P Internet Protocol [PXF]
9 TUBA TUBA [RXC]
10-14 Unassigned [JBP]
15 Reserved [JBP]

REFERENCES

[RFC791] Postel, J., ed., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 791, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC1190] Topolcic, C., Editor, "Experimental Internet Stream
Protocol, Version 2 (ST-II)", RFC 1190, CIP Working Group,
October 1990.

PEOPLE

[JPB] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JWF] Jim Forgie <FORGIE@XN.LL.MIT.ED>

[RH6] Robert Hinden <Hinden@ENG.SUN.COM>

[RXU] Robert Ullmann <ariel@world.std.com>

[PXF] Paul Francis <francis@cactus.ntt.jp>

[RXC] Ross Callon <callon@wellfleet.com>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/version-numbers

PROTOCOL NUMBERS

In the Internet Protocol (IP) [DDN], [RFC791] there is a field, called
Protocol, to identify the next level protocol. This is an 8 bit
field.

Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers

Decimal Keyword Protocol References
------- ------- -------- ----------
0 Reserved [JBP]
1 ICMP Internet Control Message [RFC792,JBP]
2 IGMP Internet Group Management [RFC1112,JBP]
3 GGP Gateway-to-Gateway [RFC823,MB]
4 IP IP in IP (encasulation) [JBP]
5 ST Stream [RFC1190,IEN119,JWF]
6 TCP Transmission Control [RFC793,JBP]
7 UCL UCL [PK]
8 EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol [RFC888,DLM1]
9 IGP any private interior gateway [JBP]
10 BBN-RCC-MON BBN RCC Monitoring [SGC]
11 NVP-II Network Voice Protocol [RFC741,SC3]
12 PUP PUP [PUP,XEROX]
13 ARGUS ARGUS [RWS4]
14 EMCON EMCON [BN7]
15 XNET Cross Net Debugger [IEN158,JFH2]
16 CHAOS Chaos [NC3]
17 UDP User Datagram [RFC768,JBP]
18 MUX Multiplexing [IEN90,JBP]
19 DCN-MEAS DCN Measurement Subsystems [DLM1]
20 HMP Host Monitoring [RFC869,RH6]
21 PRM Packet Radio Measurement [ZSU]
22 XNS-IDP XEROX NS IDP [ETHERNET,XEROX]
23 TRUNK-1 Trunk-1 [BWB6]
24 TRUNK-2 Trunk-2 [BWB6]
25 LEAF-1 Leaf-1 [BWB6]
26 LEAF-2 Leaf-2 [BWB6]
27 RDP Reliable Data Protocol [RFC908,RH6]
28 IRTP Internet Reliable Transaction [RFC938,TXM]
29 ISO-TP4 ISO Transport Protocol Class 4 [RFC905,RC77]
30 NETBLT Bulk Data Transfer Protocol [RFC969,DDC1]
31 MFE-NSP MFE Network Services Protocol [MFENET,BCH2]
32 MERIT-INP MERIT Internodal Protocol [HWB]
33 SEP Sequential Exchange Protocol [JC120]
34 3PC Third Party Connect Protocol [SAF3]
35 IDPR Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol [MXS1]

36 XTP XTP [GXC]
37 DDP Datagram Delivery Protocol [WXC]
38 IDPR-CMTP IDPR Control Message Transport Proto [MXS1]
39 TP++ TP++ Transport Protocol [DXF]
40 IL IL Transport Protocol [DXP2]
41 SIP Simple Internet Protocol [SXD]
42 SDRP Source Demand Routing Protocol [DXE1]
43 SIP-SR SIP Source Route [SXD]
44 SIP-FRAG SIP Fragment [SXD]
45 IDRP Inter-Domain Routing Protocol [Sue Hares]
46 RSVP Reservation Protocol [Bob Braden]
47 GRE General Routing Encapsulation [Tony Li]
48 MHRP Mobile Host Routing Protocol[David Johnson]
49 BNA BNA [Gary Salamon]
50 SIPP-ESP SIPP Encap Security Payload [Steve Deering]
51 SIPP-AH SIPP Authentication Header [Steve Deering]
52 I-NLSP Integrated Net Layer Security TUBA [GLENN]
53 SWIPE IP with Encryption [JI6]
54 NHRP NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol
55-60 Unassigned [JBP]
61 any host internal protocol [JBP]
62 CFTP CFTP [CFTP,HCF2]
63 any local network [JBP]
64 SAT-EXPAK SATNET and Backroom EXPAK [SHB]
65 KRYPTOLAN Kryptolan [PXL1]
66 RVD MIT Remote Virtual Disk Protocol [MBG]
67 IPPC Internet Pluribus Packet Core [SHB]
68 any distributed file system [JBP]
69 SAT-MON SATNET Monitoring [SHB]
70 VISA VISA Protocol [GXT1]
71 IPCV Internet Packet Core Utility [SHB]
72 CPNX Computer Protocol Network Executive [DXM2]
73 CPHB Computer Protocol Heart Beat [DXM2]
74 WSN Wang Span Network [VXD]
75 PVP Packet Video Protocol [SC3]
76 BR-SAT-MON Backroom SATNET Monitoring [SHB]
77 SUN-ND SUN ND PROTOCOL-Temporary [WM3]
78 WB-MON WIDEBAND Monitoring [SHB]
79 WB-EXPAK WIDEBAND EXPAK [SHB]
80 ISO-IP ISO Internet Protocol [MTR]
81 VMTP VMTP [DRC3]
82 SECURE-VMTP SECURE-VMTP [DRC3]
83 VINES VINES [BXH]
84 TTP TTP [JXS]
85 NSFNET-IGP NSFNET-IGP [HWB]
86 DGP Dissimilar Gateway Protocol [DGP,ML109]
87 TCF TCF [GAL5]
88 IGRP IGRP [CISCO,GXS]

89 OSPFIGP OSPFIGP [RFC1583,JTM4]
90 Sprite-RPC Sprite RPC Protocol [SPRITE,BXW]
91 LARP Locus Address Resolution Protocol [BXH]
92 MTP Multicast Transport Protocol [SXA]
93 AX.25 AX.25 Frames [BK29]
94 IPIP IP-within-IP Encapsulation Protocol [JI6]
95 MICP Mobile Internetworking Control Pro. [JI6]
96 SCC-SP Semaphore Communications Sec. Pro. [HXH]
97 ETHERIP Ethernet-within-IP Encapsulation [RXH1]
98 ENCAP Encapsulation Header [RFC1241,RXB3]
99 any private encryption scheme [JBP]
100 GMTP GMTP [RXB5]
101-254 Unassigned [JBP]
255 Reserved [JBP]

REFERENCES

[CFTP] Forsdick, H., "CFTP", Network Message, Bolt Beranek and
Newman, January 1982.

[CISCO] Cisco Systems, "Gateway Server Reference Manual", Manual
Revision B, January 10, 1988.

[DDN] Feinler, E., Editor, "DDN Protocol Handbook", Network
Information Center, SRI International, December 1985.

[DGP] M/A-COM Government Systems, "Dissimilar Gateway Protocol
Specification, Draft Version", Contract no. CS901145,
November 16, 1987.

[ETHERNET] "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and
Physical Layer Specification", AA-K759B-TK, Digital
Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA. Also as: "The
Ethernet - A Local Area Network", Version 1.0, Digital
Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, Xerox
Corporation, September 1980. And: "The Ethernet, A Local
Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Specifications", Digital, Intel and Xerox, November 1982.
And: XEROX, "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link
Layer and Physical Layer Specification", X3T51/80-50,
Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT., October 1980.

[IEN90] Cohen, D. and J. Postel, "Multiplexing Protocol", IEN 90,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1979.

[IEN119] Forgie, J., "ST - A Proposed Internet Stream Protocol",
IEN 119, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, September 1979.

[IEN158] Haverty, J., "XNET Formats for Internet Protocol Version 4",
IEN 158, October 1980.

[MFENET] Shuttleworth, B., "A Documentary of MFENet, a National
Computer Network", UCRL-52317, Lawrence Livermore Labs,
Livermore, California, June 1977.

[PUP] Boggs, D., J. Shoch, E. Taft, and R. Metcalfe, "PUP: An
Internetwork Architecture", XEROX Palo Alto Research Center,
CSL-79-10, July 1979; also in IEEE Transactions on
Communication, Volume COM-28, Number 4, April 1980.

[SPRITE] Welch, B., "The Sprite Remote Procedure Call System",
Technical Report, UCB/Computer Science Dept., 86/302,
University of California at Berkeley, June 1986.

[RFC741] Cohen, D., "Specifications for the Network Voice Protocol",
RFC 741, ISI/RR 7539, USC/Information Sciences Institute,
March 1976.

[RFC768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.

[RFC791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 791, DARPA, September
1981.

[RFC792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol - DARPA
Internet Program Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 792,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA
Internet Program Protocol Specification", STD 7, RFC 793,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC823] Hinden, R., and A. Sheltzer, "The DARPA Internet Gateway",
RFC 823, BBN, September 1982.

[RFC869] Hinden, R., "A Host Monitoring Protocol", RFC 869,
Bolt Beranek and Newman, December 1983.

[RFC888] Seamonson, L., and E. Rosen, "STUB" Exterior Gateway
Protocol", RFC 888, BBN Communications Corporation,
January 1984.

[RFC905] International Standards Organization, "ISO Transport Protocol
Specification - ISO DP 8073", RFC 905, April 1984.

[RFC908] Velten, D., R. Hinden, and J. Sax, "Reliable Data Protocol",
RFC 908, BBN Communications Corporation, July 1984.

[RFC938] Miller, T., "Internet Reliable Transaction Protocol", RFC 938,
ACC, February 1985.

[RFC969] Clark, D., M. Lambert, and L. Zhang, "NETBLT: A Bulk Data
Transfer Protocol", RFC 969, MIT Laboratory for Computer
Science, December 1985.

[RFC1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting",
STD 5, RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

[RFC1190] Topolcic, C., Editor, "Experimental Internet Stream
Protocol, Version 2 (ST-II)", RFC 1190, CIP Working Group,
October 1990.

[RFC1241] Woodburn, W., and D. Mills, " A Scheme for an Internet
Encapsulation Protocol: Version 1", RFC 1241, SAIC,
University of Delaware, July 1991.

[RFC1583] Moy, J., "The OSPF Specification", RFC 1583, Proteon,
March 1994.

PEOPLE

[BCH2] Barry Howard <Howard@NMFECC.LLNL.GOV>

[BK29] Brian Kantor <brian@UCSD.EDU>

[BN7] <mystery contact>

[BWB6] Barry Boehm <boehm@ARPA.MIL>

[BXH] Brian Horn <---none--->

[BXW] Bruce Willins <---none--->

[DDC1] David Clark <ddc@LCS.MIT.EDU>

[DLM1] David Mills <Mills@HUEY.UDEL.EDU>

[DRC3] Dave Cheriton <cheriton@PESCADERO.STANFORD.EDU>

[DXE1] Deborah Estrin <estrin@usc.edu>

[DXF] Dirk Fromhein <df@watershed.com>

[DXM2] David Mittnacht <---none--->

[DXP2] Dave Presotto <presotto@reseach.att.co

[David Johnson] <mystery contact>

[GAL5] Guillermo A. Loyola <LOYOLA@IBM.COM>

[GLENN] K. Robert Glenn <glenn@osi.ncsl.nist.gov>

[GXC] Greg Chesson <Greg@SGI.COM>

[GXS] Guenther Schreiner <snmp-admin@ira.uka.de>

[GXT1] Gene Tsudik <tsudik@USC.EDU>

[HCF2] Harry Forsdick <Forsdick@BBN.COM>

[HWB] Hans-Werner Braun <HWB@MCR.UMICH.EDU>

[HXH] Howard Hart <hch@hybrid.com>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JC120] <mystery contact>

[JFH2] Jack Haverty <jhaverty@ORACLE.COM>

[JI6] John Ioannidis <ji@CS.COLUMBIA.EDU>

[JTM4] John Moy <jmoy@PROTEON.COM>

[JWF] Jim Forgie <FORGIE@XN.LL.MIT.EDU>

[JXS] Jim Stevens <Stevens@ISI.EDU>

[KATZ] Dave Katz <dkatz@cisco.com>

[MB] Mike Brescia <Brescia@CCV.BBN.COM>

[MBG] Michael Greenwald <Greenwald@SCRC-STONY-BROOK.SYMBOLICS.COM>

[ML109] Mike Little <little@MACOM4.ARPA>

[MTR] Marshall T. Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>

[MXS1] Martha Steenstrup <MSteenst@BBN.COM>

[NC3] J. Noel Chiappa <JNC@XX.LCS.MIT.EDU>

[PK] Peter Kirstein <Kirstein@NSS.CS.UCL.AC.UK>

[PXL1] Paul Liu <---none--->

[RH6] Robert Hinden <Hinden@ENG.SUN.COM>

[RTB3] Bob Braden <braden@isi.edu>

[RC77] <mystery contact>

[RWS4] Robert W. Scheifler <RWS@XX.LCS.MIT.EDU>

[RXB3] Robert Woodburn <woody@cseic.saic.com>

[RXH1] Russ Housley <Russ_Housley.McLean_CSD@xerox.com>

[SAF3] Stuart A. Friedberg <stuart@CS.WISC.EDU>

[SC3] Steve Casner <casner@isi.edu

[SGC] Steve Chipman <Chipman@F.BBN.COM>

[SHB] Steven Blumenthal <BLUMENTHAL@VAX.BBN.COM>

[Sue Hares] Sue Hares <skh@merit.edu>

[SXA] Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX.COM>

[SXD] Steve Deering <deering@PARC.XEROX.COM>

[Tony Li] Tony Li <tli@cisco.com>

[TXM] Trudy Miller <Trudy@ACC.COM>

[VXD] Victor Dafoulas <---none--->

[WM3] William Melohn <Melohn@SUN.COM>

[WXC] Wesley Craig <Wesley.Craig@terminator.cc.umich.edu>

[ZSU] Zaw-Sing Su <ZSu@TSCA.ISTC.SRI.>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/protocol-numbers

WELL KNOWN PORT NUMBERS

The Well Known Ports are controlled and assigned by the IANA and on
most systems can only be used by system (or root) processes or by
programs executed by privileged users.

Ports are used in the TCP [RFC793] to name the ends of logical
connections which carry long term conversations. For the purpose of
providing services to unknown callers, a service contact port is
defined. This list specifies the port used by the server process as
its contact port. The contact port is sometimes called the
"well-known port".

To the extent possible, these same port assignments are used with the
UDP [RFC768].

The assigned ports use a small portion of the possible port numbers.
For many years the assigned ports were in the range 0-255. Recently,
the range for assigned ports managed by the IANA has been expanded to
the range 0-1023.

Port Assignments:

Keyword Decimal Description References
------- ------- ----------- ----------
0/tcp Reserved
0/udp Reserved
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
tcpmux 1/tcp TCP Port Service Multiplexer
tcpmux 1/udp TCP Port Service Multiplexer
# Mark Lottor <MKL@nisc.sri.com>
compressnet 2/tcp Management Utility
compressnet 2/udp Management Utility
compressnet 3/tcp Compression Process
compressnet 3/udp Compression Process
# Bernie Volz <VOLZ@PROCESS.COM>
# 4/tcp Unassigned
# 4/udp Unassigned
rje 5/tcp Remote Job Entry
rje 5/udp Remote Job Entry
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 6/tcp Unassigned
# 6/udp Unassigned
echo 7/tcp Echo
echo 7/udp Echo
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 8/tcp Unassigned

# 8/udp Unassigned
discard 9/tcp Discard
discard 9/udp Discard
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 10/tcp Unassigned
# 10/udp Unassigned
systat 11/tcp Active Users
systat 11/udp Active Users
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 12/tcp Unassigned
# 12/udp Unassigned
daytime 13/tcp Daytime
daytime 13/udp Daytime
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 14/tcp Unassigned
# 14/udp Unassigned
# 15/tcp Unassigned [was netstat]
# 15/udp Unassigned
# 16/tcp Unassigned
# 16/udp Unassigned
qotd 17/tcp Quote of the Day
qotd 17/udp Quote of the Day
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
msp 18/tcp Message Send Protocol
msp 18/udp Message Send Protocol
# Rina Nethaniel <---none--->
chargen 19/tcp Character Generator
chargen 19/udp Character Generator
ftp-data 20/tcp File Transfer [Default Data]
ftp-data 20/udp File Transfer [Default Data]
ftp 21/tcp File Transfer [Control]
ftp 21/udp File Transfer [Control]
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 22/tcp Unassigned
# 22/udp Unassigned
telnet 23/tcp Telnet
telnet 23/udp Telnet
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
24/tcp any private mail system
24/udp any private mail system
# Rick Adam <rick@UUNET.UU.NET>
smtp 25/tcp Simple Mail Transfer
smtp 25/udp Simple Mail Transfer
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 26/tcp Unassigned
# 26/udp Unassigned
nsw-fe 27/tcp NSW User System FE
nsw-fe 27/udp NSW User System FE

# Robert Thomas <BThomas@F.BBN.COM>
# 28/tcp Unassigned
# 28/udp Unassigned
msg-icp 29/tcp MSG ICP
msg-icp 29/udp MSG ICP
# Robert Thomas <BThomas@F.BBN.COM>
# 30/tcp Unassigned
# 30/udp Unassigned
msg-auth 31/tcp MSG Authentication
msg-auth 31/udp MSG Authentication
# Robert Thomas <BThomas@F.BBN.COM>
# 32/tcp Unassigned
# 32/udp Unassigned
dsp 33/tcp Display Support Protocol
dsp 33/udp Display Support Protocol
# Ed Cain <cain@edn-unix.dca.mil>
# 34/tcp Unassigned
# 34/udp Unassigned
35/tcp any private printer server
35/udp any private printer server
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 36/tcp Unassigned
# 36/udp Unassigned
time 37/tcp Time
time 37/udp Time
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
rap 38/tcp Route Access Protocol
rap 38/udp Route Access Protocol
# Robert Ullmann <ariel@world.std.com>
rlp 39/tcp Resource Location Protocol
rlp 39/udp Resource Location Protocol
# Mike Accetta <MIKE.ACCETTA@CMU-CS-A.EDU>
# 40/tcp Unassigned
# 40/udp Unassigned
graphics 41/tcp Graphics
graphics 41/udp Graphics
nameserver 42/tcp Host Name Server
nameserver 42/udp Host Name Server
nicname 43/tcp Who Is
nicname 43/udp Who Is
mpm-flags 44/tcp MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm-flags 44/udp MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm 45/tcp Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm 45/udp Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm-snd 46/tcp MPM [default send]
mpm-snd 46/udp MPM [default send]
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
ni-ftp 47/tcp NI FTP

ni-ftp 47/udp NI FTP
# Steve Kille <S.Kille@isode.com>
auditd 48/tcp Digital Audit Daemon
auditd 48/udp Digital Audit Daemon
# Larry Scott <scott@zk3.dec.com>
login 49/tcp Login Host Protocol
login 49/udp Login Host Protocol
# Pieter Ditmars <pditmars@BBN.COM>
re-mail-ck 50/tcp Remote Mail Checking Protocol
re-mail-ck 50/udp Remote Mail Checking Protocol
# Steve Dorner <s-dorner@UIUC.EDU>
la-maint 51/tcp IMP Logical Address Maintenance
la-maint 51/udp IMP Logical Address Maintenance
# Andy Malis <malis_a@timeplex.com>
xns-time 52/tcp XNS Time Protocol
xns-time 52/udp XNS Time Protocol
# Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX>
domain 53/tcp Domain Name Server
domain 53/udp Domain Name Server
# Paul Mockapetris <PVM@ISI.EDU>
xns-ch 54/tcp XNS Clearinghouse
xns-ch 54/udp XNS Clearinghouse
# Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX>
isi-gl 55/tcp ISI Graphics Language
isi-gl 55/udp ISI Graphics Language
xns-auth 56/tcp XNS Authentication
xns-auth 56/udp XNS Authentication
# Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX>
57/tcp any private terminal access
57/udp any private terminal access
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
xns-mail 58/tcp XNS Mail
xns-mail 58/udp XNS Mail
# Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX>
59/tcp any private file service
59/udp any private file service
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
60/tcp Unassigned
60/udp Unassigned
ni-mail 61/tcp NI MAIL
ni-mail 61/udp NI MAIL
# Steve Kille <S.Kille@isode.com>
acas 62/tcp ACA Services
acas 62/udp ACA Services
# E. Wald <ewald@via.enet.dec.com>
# 63/tcp Unassigned
# 63/udp Unassigned
covia 64/tcp Communications Integrator (CI)

covia 64/udp Communications Integrator (CI)
# "Tundra" Tim Daneliuk
# <tundraix!tundra@clout.chi.il.us>
tacacs-ds 65/tcp TACACS-Database Service
tacacs-ds 65/udp TACACS-Database Service
# Kathy Huber <khuber@bbn.com>
sql*net 66/tcp Oracle SQL*NET
sql*net 66/udp Oracle SQL*NET
# Jack Haverty <jhaverty@ORACLE.COM>
bootps 67/tcp Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootps 67/udp Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootpc 68/tcp Bootstrap Protocol Client
bootpc 68/udp Bootstrap Protocol Client
# Bill Croft <Croft@SUMEX-AIM.STANFORD.EDU>
tftp 69/tcp Trivial File Transfer
tftp 69/udp Trivial File Transfer
# David Clark <ddc@LCS.MIT.EDU>
gopher 70/tcp Gopher
gopher 70/udp Gopher
# Mark McCahill <mpm@boombox.micro.umn.edu>
netrjs-1 71/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-1 71/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-2 72/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-2 72/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-3 73/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-3 73/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-4 74/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-4 74/udp Remote Job Service
# Bob Braden <Braden@ISI.EDU>
75/tcp any private dial out service
75/udp any private dial out service
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
deos 76/tcp Distributed External Object Store
deos 76/udp Distributed External Object Store
# Robert Ullmann <ariel@world.std.com>
77/tcp any private RJE service
77/udp any private RJE service
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
vettcp 78/tcp vettcp
vettcp 78/udp vettcp
# Christopher Leong <leong@kolmod.mlo.dec.com>
finger 79/tcp Finger
finger 79/udp Finger
# David Zimmerman <dpz@RUTGERS.EDU>
www-http 80/tcp World Wide Web HTTP
www-http 80/udp World Wide Web HTTP
# Tim Berners-Lee <timbl@nxoc01.cern.ch>
hosts2-ns 81/tcp HOSTS2 Name Server

hosts2-ns 81/udp HOSTS2 Name Server
# Earl Killian <EAK@MORDOR.S1.GOV>
xfer 82/tcp XFER Utility
xfer 82/udp XFER Utility
# Thomas M. Smith <tmsmith@esc.syr.ge.com>
mit-ml-dev 83/tcp MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev 83/udp MIT ML Device
# David Reed <--none--->
ctf 84/tcp Common Trace Facility
ctf 84/udp Common Trace Facility
# Hugh Thomas <thomas@oils.enet.dec.com>
mit-ml-dev 85/tcp MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev 85/udp MIT ML Device
# David Reed <--none--->
mfcobol 86/tcp Micro Focus Cobol
mfcobol 86/udp Micro Focus Cobol
# Simon Edwards <--none--->
87/tcp any private terminal link
87/udp any private terminal link
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
kerberos 88/tcp Kerberos
kerberos 88/udp Kerberos
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
su-mit-tg 89/tcp SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
su-mit-tg 89/udp SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
# Mark Crispin <MRC@PANDA.COM>
dnsix 90/tcp DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
dnsix 90/udp DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
# Charles Watt <watt@sware.com>
mit-dov 91/tcp MIT Dover Spooler
mit-dov 91/udp MIT Dover Spooler
# Eliot Moss <EBM@XX.LCS.MIT.EDU>
npp 92/tcp Network Printing Protocol
npp 92/udp Network Printing Protocol
# Louis Mamakos <louie@sayshell.umd.edu>
dcp 93/tcp Device Control Protocol
dcp 93/udp Device Control Protocol
# Daniel Tappan <Tappan@BBN.COM>
objcall 94/tcp Tivoli Object Dispatcher
objcall 94/udp Tivoli Object Dispatcher
# Tom Bereiter <--none--->
supdup 95/tcp SUPDUP
supdup 95/udp SUPDUP
# Mark Crispin <MRC@PANDA.COM>
dixie 96/tcp DIXIE Protocol Specification
dixie 96/udp DIXIE Protocol Specification
# Tim Howes <Tim.Howes@terminator.cc.umich.edu>
swift-rvf 97/tcp Swift Remote Vitural File Protocol

swift-rvf 97/udp Swift Remote Vitural File Protocol
# Maurice R. Turcotte
# <mailrus!uflorida!rm1!dnmrt%rmatl@uunet.UU.NET>
tacnews 98/tcp TAC News
tacnews 98/udp TAC News
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
metagram 99/tcp Metagram Relay
metagram 99/udp Metagram Relay
# Geoff Goodfellow <Geoff@FERNWOOD.MPK.CA.U>
newacct 100/tcp [unauthorized use]
hostname 101/tcp NIC Host Name Server
hostname 101/udp NIC Host Name Server
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
iso-tsap 102/tcp ISO-TSAP
iso-tsap 102/udp ISO-TSAP
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>
gppitnp 103/tcp Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
gppitnp 103/udp Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
acr-nema 104/tcp ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
acr-nema 104/udp ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
# Patrick McNamee <--none--->
csnet-ns 105/tcp Mailbox Name Nameserver
csnet-ns 105/udp Mailbox Name Nameserver
# Marvin Solomon <solomon@CS.WISC.EDU>
3com-tsmux 106/tcp 3COM-TSMUX
3com-tsmux 106/udp 3COM-TSMUX
# Jeremy Siegel <jzs@NSD.3Com.COM>
rtelnet 107/tcp Remote Telnet Service
rtelnet 107/udp Remote Telnet Service
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
snagas 108/tcp SNA Gateway Access Server
snagas 108/udp SNA Gateway Access Server
# Kevin Murphy <murphy@sevens.lkg.dec.com>
pop2 109/tcp Post Office Protocol - Version 2
pop2 109/udp Post Office Protocol - Version 2
# Joyce K. Reynolds <jkrey@isi.edu>
pop3 110/tcp Post Office Protocol - Version 3
pop3 110/udp Post Office Protocol - Version 3
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>
sunrpc 111/tcp SUN Remote Procedure Call
sunrpc 111/udp SUN Remote Procedure Call
# Chuck McManis <cmcmanis@sun.com>
mcidas 112/tcp McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
mcidas 112/udp McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
# Glenn Davis <davis@unidata.ucar.edu>
auth 113/tcp Authentication Service
auth 113/udp Authentication Service
# Mike St. Johns <stjohns@arpa.mil>

audionews 114/tcp Audio News Multicast
audionews 114/udp Audio News Multicast
# Martin Forssen <maf@dtek.chalmers.se>
sftp 115/tcp Simple File Transfer Protocol
sftp 115/udp Simple File Transfer Protocol
# Mark Lottor <MKL@nisc.sri.com>
ansanotify 116/tcp ANSA REX Notify
ansanotify 116/udp ANSA REX Notify
# Nicola J. Howarth <njh@ansa.co.uk>
uucp-path 117/tcp UUCP Path Service
uucp-path 117/udp UUCP Path Service
sqlserv 118/tcp SQL Services
sqlserv 118/udp SQL Services
# Larry Barnes <barnes@broke.enet.dec.com>
nntp 119/tcp Network News Transfer Protocol
nntp 119/udp Network News Transfer Protocol
# Phil Lapsley <phil@UCBARPA.BERKELEY.EDU>
cfdptkt 120/tcp CFDPTKT
cfdptkt 120/udp CFDPTKT
# John Ioannidis <ji@close.cs.columbia.ed>
erpc 121/tcp Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
erpc 121/udp Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
# Jack O'Neil <---none--->
smakynet 122/tcp SMAKYNET
smakynet 122/udp SMAKYNET
# Mike O'Dowd <odowd@ltisun8.epfl.ch>
ntp 123/tcp Network Time Protocol
ntp 123/udp Network Time Protocol
# Dave Mills <Mills@HUEY.UDEL.EDU>
ansatrader 124/tcp ANSA REX Trader
ansatrader 124/udp ANSA REX Trader
# Nicola J. Howarth <njh@ansa.co.uk>
locus-map 125/tcp Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
locus-map 125/udp Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
# Eric Peterson <lcc.eric@SEAS.UCLA.EDU>
unitary 126/tcp Unisys Unitary Login
unitary 126/udp Unisys Unitary Login
# <feil@kronos.nisd.cam.unisys.com>
locus-con 127/tcp Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
locus-con 127/udp Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
# Eric Peterson <lcc.eric@SEAS.UCLA.EDU>
gss-xlicen 128/tcp GSS X License Verification
gss-xlicen 128/udp GSS X License Verification
# John Light <johnl@gssc.gss.com>
pwdgen 129/tcp Password Generator Protocol
pwdgen 129/udp Password Generator Protocol
# Frank J. Wacho <WANCHO@WSMR-SIMTEL20.ARMY.MIL>
cisco-fna 130/tcp cisco FNATIVE

cisco-fna 130/udp cisco FNATIVE
cisco-tna 131/tcp cisco TNATIVE
cisco-tna 131/udp cisco TNATIVE
cisco-sys 132/tcp cisco SYSMAINT
cisco-sys 132/udp cisco SYSMAINT
statsrv 133/tcp Statistics Service
statsrv 133/udp Statistics Service
# Dave Mills <Mills@HUEY.UDEL.EDU>
ingres-net 134/tcp INGRES-NET Service
ingres-net 134/udp INGRES-NET Service
# Mike Berrow <---none--->
loc-srv 135/tcp Location Service
loc-srv 135/udp Location Service
# Joe Pato <apollo!pato@EDDIE.MIT.EDU>
profile 136/tcp PROFILE Naming System
profile 136/udp PROFILE Naming System
# Larry Peterson <llp@ARIZONA.EDU>
netbios-ns 137/tcp NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-ns 137/udp NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-dgm 138/tcp NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-dgm 138/udp NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-ssn 139/tcp NETBIOS Session Service
netbios-ssn 139/udp NETBIOS Session Service
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
emfis-data 140/tcp EMFIS Data Service
emfis-data 140/udp EMFIS Data Service
emfis-cntl 141/tcp EMFIS Control Service
emfis-cntl 141/udp EMFIS Control Service
# Gerd Beling <GBELING@ISI.EDU>
bl-idm 142/tcp Britton-Lee IDM
bl-idm 142/udp Britton-Lee IDM
# Susie Snitzer <---none--->
imap2 143/tcp Interim Mail Access Protocol v2
imap2 143/udp Interim Mail Access Protocol v2
# Mark Crispin <MRC@PANDA.COM>
news 144/tcp NewS
news 144/udp NewS
# James Gosling <JAG@SUN.COM>
uaac 145/tcp UAAC Protocol
uaac 145/udp UAAC Protocol
# David A. Gomberg <gomberg@GATEWAY.MITRE.ORG>
iso-tp0 146/tcp ISO-IP0
iso-tp0 146/udp ISO-IP0
iso-ip 147/tcp ISO-IP
iso-ip 147/udp ISO-IP
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>
cronus 148/tcp CRONUS-SUPPORT
cronus 148/udp CRONUS-SUPPORT

# Jeffrey Buffun <jbuffum@APOLLO.COM>
aed-512 149/tcp AED 512 Emulation Service
aed-512 149/udp AED 512 Emulation Service
# Albert G. Broscius <broscius@DSL.CIS.UPENN.EDU>
sql-net 150/tcp SQL-NET
sql-net 150/udp SQL-NET
# Martin Picard <<---none--->
hems 151/tcp HEMS
hems 151/udp HEMS
# Christopher Tengi <tengi@Princeton.EDU>
bftp 152/tcp Background File Transfer Program
bftp 152/udp Background File Transfer Program
# Annette DeSchon <DESCHON@ISI.EDU>
sgmp 153/tcp SGMP
sgmp 153/udp SGMP
# Marty Schoffstahl <schoff@NISC.NYSER.NET>
netsc-prod 154/tcp NETSC
netsc-prod 154/udp NETSC
netsc-dev 155/tcp NETSC
netsc-dev 155/udp NETSC
# Sergio Heker <heker@JVNCC.CSC.ORG>
sqlsrv 156/tcp SQL Service
sqlsrv 156/udp SQL Service
# Craig Rogers <Rogers@ISI.EDU>
knet-cmp 157/tcp KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
knet-cmp 157/udp KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
# Gary S. Malkin <GMALKIN@XYLOGICS.COM>
pcmail-srv 158/tcp PCMail Server
pcmail-srv 158/udp PCMail Server
# Mark L. Lambert <markl@PTT.LCS.MIT.EDU>
nss-routing 159/tcp NSS-Routing
nss-routing 159/udp NSS-Routing
# Yakov Rekhter <Yakov@IBM.COM>
sgmp-traps 160/tcp SGMP-TRAPS
sgmp-traps 160/udp SGMP-TRAPS
# Marty Schoffstahl <schoff@NISC.NYSER.NET>
snmp 161/tcp SNMP
snmp 161/udp SNMP
snmptrap 162/tcp SNMPTRAP
snmptrap 162/udp SNMPTRAP
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>
cmip-man 163/tcp CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-man 163/udp CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-agent 164/tcp CMIP/TCP Agent
smip-agent 164/udp CMIP/TCP Agent
# Amatzia Ben-Artzi <---none--->
xns-courier 165/tcp Xerox
xns-courier 165/udp Xerox

# Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX.COM>
s-net 166/tcp Sirius Systems
s-net 166/udp Sirius Systems
# Brian Lloyd <---none--->
namp 167/tcp NAMP
namp 167/udp NAMP
# Marty Schoffstahl <schoff@NISC.NYSER.NET>
rsvd 168/tcp RSVD
rsvd 168/udp RSVD
# Neil Todd <mcvax!ist.co.uk!neil@UUNET.UU.NET>
send 169/tcp SEND
send 169/udp SEND
# William D. Wisner <wisner@HAYES.FAI.ALASKA.EDU>
print-srv 170/tcp Network PostScript
print-srv 170/udp Network PostScript
# Brian Reid <reid@DECWRL.DEC.COM>
multiplex 171/tcp Network Innovations Multiplex
multiplex 171/udp Network Innovations Multiplex
cl/1 172/tcp Network Innovations CL/1
cl/1 172/udp Network Innovations CL/1
# Kevin DeVault <<---none--->
xyplex-mux 173/tcp Xyplex
xyplex-mux 173/udp Xyplex
# Bob Stewart <STEWART@XYPLEX.COM>
mailq 174/tcp MAILQ
mailq 174/udp MAILQ
# Rayan Zachariassen <rayan@AI.TORONTO.EDU>
vmnet 175/tcp VMNET
vmnet 175/udp VMNET
# Christopher Tengi <tengi@Princeton.EDU>
genrad-mux 176/tcp GENRAD-MUX
genrad-mux 176/udp GENRAD-MUX
# Ron Thornton <thornton@qm7501.genrad.com>
xdmcp 177/tcp X Display Manager Control Protocol
xdmcp 177/udp X Display Manager Control Protocol
# Robert W. Scheifler <RWS@XX.LCS.MIT.EDU>
nextstep 178/tcp NextStep Window Server
NextStep 178/udp NextStep Window Server
# Leo Hourvitz <leo@NEXT.COM>
bgp 179/tcp Border Gateway Protocol
bgp 179/udp Border Gateway Protocol
# Kirk Lougheed <LOUGHEED@MATHOM.CISCO.COM>
ris 180/tcp Intergraph
ris 180/udp Intergraph
# Dave Buehmann <ingr!daveb@UUNET.UU.NET>
unify 181/tcp Unify
unify 181/udp Unify
# Vinod Singh <--none--->

audit 182/tcp Unisys Audit SITP
audit 182/udp Unisys Audit SITP
# Gil Greenbaum <gcole@nisd.cam.unisys.com>
ocbinder 183/tcp OCBinder
ocbinder 183/udp OCBinder
ocserver 184/tcp OCServer
ocserver 184/udp OCServer
# Jerrilynn Okamura <--none--->
remote-kis 185/tcp Remote-KIS
remote-kis 185/udp Remote-KIS
kis 186/tcp KIS Protocol
kis 186/udp KIS Protocol
# Ralph Droms <rdroms@NRI.RESTON.VA.US>
aci 187/tcp Application Communication Interface
aci 187/udp Application Communication Interface
# Rick Carlos <rick.ticipa.csc.ti.com>
mumps 188/tcp Plus Five's MUMPS
mumps 188/udp Plus Five's MUMPS
# Hokey Stenn <hokey@PLUS5.COM>
qft 189/tcp Queued File Transport
qft 189/udp Queued File Transport
# Wayne Schroeder <schroeder@SDS.SDSC.EDU>
gacp 190/tcp Gateway Access Control Protocol
cacp 190/udp Gateway Access Control Protocol
# C. Philip Wood <cpw@LANL.GOV>
prospero 191/tcp Prospero Directory Service
prospero 191/udp Prospero Directory Service
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
osu-nms 192/tcp OSU Network Monitoring System
osu-nms 192/udp OSU Network Monitoring System
# Doug Karl <KARL-D@OSU-20.IRCC.OHIO-STATE.EDU>
srmp 193/tcp Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
srmp 193/udp Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
# Ted J. Socolofsky <Teds@SPIDER.CO.UK>
irc 194/tcp Internet Relay Chat Protocol
irc 194/udp Internet Relay Chat Protocol
# Jarkko Oikarinen <jto@TOLSUN.OULU.FI>
dn6-nlm-aud 195/tcp DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-nlm-aud 195/udp DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-smm-red 196/tcp DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
dn6-smm-red 196/udp DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
# Lawrence Lebahn <DIA3@PAXRV-NES.NAVY.MIL>
dls 197/tcp Directory Location Service
dls 197/udp Directory Location Service
dls-mon 198/tcp Directory Location Service Monitor
dls-mon 198/udp Directory Location Service Monitor
# Scott Bellew <smb@cs.purdue.edu>
smux 199/tcp SMUX

smux 199/udp SMUX
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>
src 200/tcp IBM System Resource Controller
src 200/udp IBM System Resource Controller
# Gerald McBrearty <---none--->
at-rtmp 201/tcp AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-rtmp 201/udp AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-nbp 202/tcp AppleTalk Name Binding
at-nbp 202/udp AppleTalk Name Binding
at-3 203/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-3 203/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-echo 204/tcp AppleTalk Echo
at-echo 204/udp AppleTalk Echo
at-5 205/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-5 205/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-zis 206/tcp AppleTalk Zone Information
at-zis 206/udp AppleTalk Zone Information
at-7 207/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-7 207/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-8 208/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-8 208/udp AppleTalk Unused
# Rob Chandhok <chandhok@gnome.cs.cmu.edu>
tam 209/tcp Trivial Authenticated Mail Protocol
tam 209/udp Trivial Authenticated Mail Protocol
# Dan Bernstein <brnstnd@stealth.acf.nyu.edu>
z39.50 210/tcp ANSI Z39.50
z39.50 210/udp ANSI Z39.50
# Mark Needleman
# <mhnur%uccmvsa.bitnet@cornell.cit.cornell.edu>
914c/g 211/tcp Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
914c/g 211/udp Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
# Bill Harrell <---none--->
anet 212/tcp ATEXSSTR
anet 212/udp ATEXSSTR
# Jim Taylor <taylor@heart.epps.kodak.com>
ipx 213/tcp IPX
ipx 213/udp IPX
# Don Provan <donp@xlnvax.novell.com>
vmpwscs 214/tcp VM PWSCS
vmpwscs 214/udp VM PWSCS
# Dan Shia <dset!shia@uunet.UU.NET>
softpc 215/tcp Insignia Solutions
softpc 215/udp Insignia Solutions
# Martyn Thomas <---none--->
atls 216/tcp Access Technology License Server
atls 216/udp Access Technology License Server
# Larry DeLuca <henrik@EDDIE.MIT.EDU>
dbase 217/tcp dBASE Unix

dbase 217/udp dBASE Unix
# Don Gibson
# <sequent!aero!twinsun!ashtate.A-T.COM!dong@uunet.UU.NET>
mpp 218/tcp Netix Message Posting Protocol
mpp 218/udp Netix Message Posting Protocol
# Shannon Yeh <yeh@netix.com>
uarps 219/tcp Unisys ARPs
uarps 219/udp Unisys ARPs
# Ashok Marwaha <---none--->
imap3 220/tcp Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
imap3 220/udp Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
# James Rice <RICE@SUMEX-AIM.STANFORD.EDU>
fln-spx 221/tcp Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
fln-spx 221/udp Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
rsh-spx 222/tcp Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
rsh-spx 222/udp Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
cdc 223/tcp Certificate Distribution Center
cdc 223/udp Certificate Distribution Center
# Kannan Alagappan <kannan@sejour.enet.dec.com>
# 224-241 Reserved
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 242/tcp Unassigned
# 242/udp Unassigned
sur-meas 243/tcp Survey Measurement
sur-meas 243/udp Survey Measurement
# Dave Clark <ddc@LCS.MIT.EDU>
# 244/tcp Unassigned
# 244/udp Unassigned
link 245/tcp LINK
link 245/udp LINK
dsp3270 246/tcp Display Systems Protocol
dsp3270 246/udp Display Systems Protocol
# Weldon J. Showalter <Gamma@MINTAKA.DCA.MIL>
# 247-255 Reserved
# Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>
# 256-343 Unassigned
pdap 344/tcp Prospero Data Access Protocol
pdap 344/udp Prospero Data Access Protocol
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
pawserv 345/tcp Perf Analysis Workbench
pawserv 345/udp Perf Analysis Workbench
zserv 346/tcp Zebra server
zserv 346/udp Zebra server
fatserv 347/tcp Fatmen Server
fatserv 347/udp Fatmen Server
csi-sgwp 348/tcp Cabletron Management Protocol
csi-sgwp 348/udp Cabletron Management Protocol
# 349-370 Unassigned

clearcase 371/tcp Clearcase
clearcase 371/udp Clearcase
# Dave LeBlang <leglang@atria.com>
ulistserv 372/tcp Unix Listserv
ulistserv 372/udp Unix Listserv
# Anastasios Kotsikonas <tasos@cs.bu.edu>
legent-1 373/tcp Legent Corporation
legent-1 373/udp Legent Corporation
legent-2 374/tcp Legent Corporation
legent-2 374/udp Legent Corporation
# Keith Boyce <---none--->
hassle 375/tcp Hassle
hassle 375/udp Hassle
# Reinhard Doelz <doelz@comp.bioz.unibas.ch>
nip 376/tcp Amiga Envoy Network Inquiry Proto
nip 376/udp Amiga Envoy Network Inquiry Proto
# Kenneth Dyke <kcd@cbmvax.cbm.commodore.com>
tnETOS 377/tcp NEC Corporation
tnETOS 377/udp NEC Corporation
dsETOS 378/tcp NEC Corporation
dsETOS 378/udp NEC Corporation
# Tomoo Fujita <tf@arc.bs1.fc.nec.co.jp>
is99c 379/tcp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem client
is99c 379/udp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem client
is99s 380/tcp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem server
is99s 380/udp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem server
# Frank Quick <fquick@qualcomm.com>
hp-collector 381/tcp hp performance data collector
hp-collector 381/udp hp performance data collector
hp-managed-node 382/tcp hp performance data managed node
hp-managed-node 382/udp hp performance data managed node
hp-alarm-mgr 383/tcp hp performance data alarm manager
hp-alarm-mgr 383/udp hp performance data alarm manager
# Frank Blakely <frankb@hpptc16.rose.hp.com>
arns 384/tcp A Remote Network Server System
arns 384/udp A Remote Network Server System
# David Hornsby <djh@munnari.OZ.AU>
ibm-app 385/tcp IBM Application
ibm-app 385/tcp IBM Application
# Lisa Tomita <---none--->
asa 386/tcp ASA Message Router Object Def.
asa 386/udp ASA Message Router Object Def.
# Steve Laitinen <laitinen@brutus.aa.ab.com>
aurp 387/tcp Appletalk Update-Based Routing Pro.
aurp 387/udp Appletalk Update-Based Routing Pro.
# Chris Ranch <cranch@novell.com>
unidata-ldm 388/tcp Unidata LDM Version 4
unidata-ldm 388/udp Unidata LDM Version 4

# Glenn Davis <davis@unidata.ucar.edu>
ldap 389/tcp Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
ldap 389/udp Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
# Tim Howes <Tim.Howes@terminator.cc.umich.edu>
uis 390/tcp UIS
uis 390/udp UIS
# Ed Barron <---none--->
synotics-relay 391/tcp SynOptics SNMP Relay Port
synotics-relay 391/udp SynOptics SNMP Relay Port
synotics-broker 392/tcp SynOptics Port Broker Port
synotics-broker 392/udp SynOptics Port Broker Port
# Illan Raab <iraab@synoptics.com>
dis 393/tcp Data Interpretation System
dis 393/udp Data Interpretation System
# Paul Stevens <pstevens@chinacat.Metaphor.COM>
embl-ndt 394/tcp EMBL Nucleic Data Transfer
embl-ndt 394/udp EMBL Nucleic Data Transfer
# Peter Gad <peter@bmc.uu.se>
netcp 395/tcp NETscout Control Protocol
netcp 395/udp NETscout Control Protocol
# Anil Singhal <---none--->
netware-ip 396/tcp Novell Netware over IP
netware-ip 396/udp Novell Netware over IP
mptn 397/tcp Multi Protocol Trans. Net.
mptn 397/udp Multi Protocol Trans. Net.
# Soumitra Sarkar <sarkar@vnet.ibm.com>
kryptolan 398/tcp Kryptolan
kryptolan 398/udp Kryptolan
# Peter de Laval <pdl@sectra.se>
# 399/tcp Unassigned
# 399/udp Unassigned
work-sol 400/tcp Workstation Solutions
work-sol 400/udp Workstation Solutions
# Jim Ward <jimw@worksta.com>
ups 401/tcp Uninterruptible Power Supply
ups 401/udp Uninterruptible Power Supply
# Guenther Seybold <gs@hrz.th-darmstadt.de>
genie 402/tcp Genie Protocol
genie 402/udp Genie Protocol
# Mark Hankin <---none--->
decap 403/tcp decap
decap 403/udp decap
nced 404/tcp nced
nced 404/udp nced
ncld 405/tcp ncld
ncld 405/udp ncld
# Richard Jones <---none--->
imsp 406/tcp Interactive Mail Support Protocol

imsp 406/udp Interactive Mail Support Protocol
# John Myers <jgm+@cmu.edu>
timbuktu 407/tcp Timbuktu
timbuktu 407/udp Timbuktu
# Marc Epard <marc@waygate.farallon.com>
prm-sm 408/tcp Prospero Resource Manager Sys. Man.
prm-sm 408/udp Prospero Resource Manager Sys. Man.
prm-nm 409/tcp Prospero Resource Manager Node Man.
prm-nm 409/udp Prospero Resource Manager Node Man.
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
decladebug 410/tcp DECLadebug Remote Debug Protocol
decladebug 410/udp DECLadebug Remote Debug Protocol
# Anthony Berent <berent@rdgeng.enet.dec.com>
rmt 411/tcp Remote MT Protocol
rmt 411/udp Remote MT Protocol
# Peter Eriksson <pen@lysator.liu.se>
synoptics-trap 412/tcp Trap Convention Port
synoptics-trap 412/udp Trap Convention Port
# Illan Raab <iraab@synoptics.com>
smsp 413/tcp SMSP
smsp 413/udp SMSP
infoseek 414/tcp InfoSeek
infoseek 414/udp InfoSeek
# Steve Kirsch <stk@frame.com>
bnet 415/tcp BNet
bnet 415/udp BNet
# Jim Mertz <JMertz+RV09@rvdc.unisys.com>
silverplatter 416/tcp Silverplatter
silverplatter 416/udp Silverplatter
# Peter Ciuffetti <petec@silverplatter.com>
onmux 417/tcp Onmux
onmux 417/udp Onmux
# Stephen Hanna <hanna@world.std.com>
hyper-g 418/tcp Hyper-G
hyper-g 418/udp Hyper-G
# Frank Kappe <fkappe@iicm.tu-graz.ac.at>
ariel1 419/tcp Ariel
ariel1 419/udp Ariel
# Jonathan Lavigne <BL.JPL@RLG.Stanford.EDU>
smpte 420/tcp SMPTE
smpte 420/udp SMPTE
# Si Becker <71362.22@CompuServe.COM>
ariel2 421/tcp Ariel
ariel2 421/udp Ariel
ariel3 422/tcp Ariel
ariel3 422/udp Ariel
# Jonathan Lavigne <BL.JPL@RLG.Stanford.EDU>
opc-job-start 423/tcp IBM Operations Planning and Control Start

opc-job-start 423/udp IBM Operations Planning and Control Start
opc-job-track 424/tcp IBM Operations Planning and Control Track
opc-job-track 424/udp IBM Operations Planning and Control Track
# Conny Larsson <cocke@VNET.IBM.COM>
icad-el 425/tcp ICAD
icad-el 425/udp ICAD
# Larry Stone <lcs@icad.com>
smartsdp 426/tcp smartsdp
smartsdp 426/udp smartsdp
# Alexander Dupuy <dupuy@smarts.com>
svrloc 427/tcp Server Location
svrloc 427/udp Server Location
# <veizades@ftp.com>
ocs_cmu 428/tcp OCS_CMU
ocs_cmu 428/udp OCS_CMU
ocs_amu 429/tcp OCS_AMU
ocs_amu 429/udp OCS_AMU
# Florence Wyman <wyman@peabody.plk.af.mil>
utmpsd 430/tcp UTMPSD
utmpsd 430/udp UTMPSD
utmpcd 431/tcp UTMPCD
utmpcd 431/udp UTMPCD
iasd 432/tcp IASD
iasd 432/udp IASD
# Nir Baroz <nbaroz@encore.com>
nnsp 433/tcp NNSP
nnsp 433/udp NNSP
# Rob Robertson <rob@gangrene.berkeley.edu>
mobileip-agent 434/tcp MobileIP-Agent
mobileip-agent 434/udp MobileIP-Agent
mobilip-mn 435/tcp MobilIP-MN
mobilip-mn 435/udp MobilIP-MN
# Kannan Alagappan <kannan@sejour.lkg.dec.com>
dna-cml 436/tcp DNA-CML
dna-cml 436/udp DNA-CML
# Dan Flowers <flowers@smaug.lkg.dec.com>
comscm 437/tcp comscm
comscm 437/udp comscm
# Jim Teague <teague@zso.dec.com>
dsfgw 438/tcp dsfgw
dsfgw 438/udp dsfgw
# Andy McKeen <mckeen@osf.org>
dasp 439/tcp dasp Thomas Obermair
dasp 439/udp dasp tommy@inlab.m.eunet.de
# Thomas Obermair <tommy@inlab.m.eunet.de>
sgcp 440/tcp sgcp
sgcp 440/udp sgcp
# Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>

decvms-sysmgt 441/tcp decvms-sysmgt
decvms-sysmgt 441/udp decvms-sysmgt
# Lee Barton <barton@star.enet.dec.com>
cvc_hostd 442/tcp cvc_hostd
cvc_hostd 442/udp cvc_hostd
# Bill Davidson <billd@equalizer.cray.com>
https 443/tcp https MCom
https 443/udp https MCom
# Kipp E.B. Hickman <kipp@mcom.com>
snpp 444/tcp Simple Network Paging Protocol
snpp 444/udp Simple Network Paging Protocol
# [RFC1568]
microsoft-ds 445/tcp Microsoft-DS
microsoft-ds 445/udp Microsoft-DS
# Arnold Miller <arnoldm@microsoft.com>
ddm-rdb 446/tcp DDM-RDB
ddm-rdb 446/udp DDM-RDB
ddm-dfm 447/tcp DDM-RFM
ddm-dfm 447/udp DDM-RFM
ddm-byte 448/tcp DDM-BYTE
ddm-byte 448/udp DDM-BYTE
# Jan David Fisher <jdfisher@VNET.IBM.COM>
as-servermap 449/tcp AS Server Mapper
as-servermap 449/udp AS Server Mapper
# Barbara Foss <BGFOSS@rchvmv.vnet.ibm.com>
tserver 450/tcp TServer
tserver 450/udp TServer
# Harvey S. Schultz <hss@mtgzfs3.mt.att.com>
# 451-511 Unassigned
exec 512/tcp remote process execution;
# authentication performed using
# passwords and UNIX loppgin names
biff 512/udp used by mail system to notify users
# of new mail received; currently
# receives messages only from
# processes on the same machine
login 513/tcp remote login a la telnet;
# automatic authentication performed
# based on priviledged port numbers
# and distributed data bases which
# identify "authentication domains"
who 513/udp maintains data bases showing who's
# logged in to machines on a local
# net and the load average of the
# machine
cmd 514/tcp like exec, but automatic
# authentication is performed as for
# login server

syslog 514/udp
printer 515/tcp spooler
printer 515/udp spooler
# 516/tcp Unassigned
# 516/udp Unassigned
talk 517/tcp like tenex link, but across
# machine - unfortunately, doesn't
# use link protocol (this is actually
# just a rendezvous port from which a
# tcp connection is established)
talk 517/udp like tenex link, but across
# machine - unfortunately, doesn't
# use link protocol (this is actually
# just a rendezvous port from which a
tcp connection is established)
ntalk 518/tcp
ntalk 518/udp
utime 519/tcp unixtime
utime 519/udp unixtime
efs 520/tcp extended file name server
router 520/udp local routing process (on site);
# uses variant of Xerox NS routing
# information protocol
# 521-524 Unassigned
timed 525/tcp timeserver
timed 525/udp timeserver
tempo 526/tcp newdate
tempo 526/udp newdate
# 527-529 Unassigned
courier 530/tcp rpc
courier 530/udp rpc
conference 531/tcp chat
conference 531/udp chat
netnews 532/tcp readnews
netnews 532/udp readnews
netwall 533/tcp for emergency broadcasts
netwall 533/udp for emergency broadcasts
# 534-538 Unassigned
apertus-ldp 539/tcp Apertus Technologies Load Determination
apertus-ldp 539/udp Apertus Technologies Load Determination
uucp 540/tcp uucpd
uucp 540/udp uucpd
uucp-rlogin 541/tcp uucp-rlogin Stuart Lynne
uucp-rlogin 541/udp uucp-rlogin sl@wimsey.com
# 542/tcp Unassigned
# 542/udp Unassigned
klogin 543/tcp
klogin 543/udp

kshell 544/tcp krcmd
kshell 544/udp krcmd
# 545-549 Unassigned
new-rwho 550/tcp new-who
new-rwho 550/udp new-who
# 551-555 Unassigned
dsf 555/tcp
dsf 555/udp
remotefs 556/tcp rfs server
remotefs 556/udp rfs server
# 557-559 Unassigned
rmonitor 560/tcp rmonitord
rmonitor 560/udp rmonitord
monitor 561/tcp
monitor 561/udp
chshell 562/tcp chcmd
chshell 562/udp chcmd
# 563/tcp Unassigned
# 563/udp Unassigned
9pfs 564/tcp plan 9 file service
9pfs 564/udp plan 9 file service
whoami 565/tcp whoami
whoami 565/udp whoami
# 566-569 Unassigned
meter 570/tcp demon
meter 570/udp demon
meter 571/tcp udemon
meter 571/udp udemon
# 572-599 Unassigned
ipcserver 600/tcp Sun IPC server
ipcserver 600/udp Sun IPC server
nqs 607/tcp nqs
nqs 607/udp nqs
urm 606/tcp Cray Unified Resource Manager
urm 606/udp Cray Unified Resource Manager
# Bill Schiefelbein <schief@aspen.cray.com>
sift-uft 608/tcp Sender-Initiated/Unsolicited File Transfer
sift-uft 608/udp Sender-Initiated/Unsolicited File Transfer
# Rick Troth <troth@rice.edu>
npmp-trap 609/tcp npmp-trap
npmp-trap 609/udp npmp-trap
npmp-local 610/tcp npmp-local
npmp-local 610/udp npmp-local
npmp-gui 611/tcp npmp-gui
npmp-gui 611/udp npmp-gui
# John Barnes <jbarnes@crl.com>
ginad 634/tcp ginad
ginad 634/udp ginad

# Mark Crother <mark@eis.calstate.edu>
mdqs 666/tcp
mdqs 666/udp
doom 666/tcp doom Id Software
doom 666/tcp doom Id Software
# <ddt@idcube.idsoftware.com>
elcsd 704/tcp errlog copy/server daemon
elcsd 704/udp errlog copy/server daemon

entrustmanager 709/tcp EntrustManager
entrustmanager 709/udp EntrustManager
# Peter Whittaker <pww@bnr.ca>
netviewdm1 729/tcp IBM NetView DM/6000 Server/Client
netviewdm1 729/udp IBM NetView DM/6000 Server/Client
netviewdm2 730/tcp IBM NetView DM/6000 send/tcp
netviewdm2 730/udp IBM NetView DM/6000 send/tcp
netviewdm3 731/tcp IBM NetView DM/6000 receive/tcp
netviewdm3 731/udp IBM NetView DM/6000 receive/tcp
# Philippe Binet (phbinet@vnet.IBM.COM)
netgw 741/tcp netGW
netgw 741/udp netGW
netrcs 742/tcp Network based Rev. Cont. Sys.
netrcs 742/udp Network based Rev. Cont. Sys.
# Gordon C. Galligher <gorpong@ping.chi.il.us>
flexlm 744/tcp Flexible License Manager
flexlm 744/udp Flexible License Manager
# Matt Christiano
# <globes@matt@oliveb.atc.olivetti.com>
fujitsu-dev 747/tcp Fujitsu Device Control
fujitsu-dev 747/udp Fujitsu Device Control
ris-cm 748/tcp Russell Info Sci Calendar Manager
ris-cm 748/udp Russell Info Sci Calendar Manager
kerberos-adm 749/tcp kerberos administration
kerberos-adm 749/udp kerberos administration
rfile 750/tcp
loadav 750/udp
pump 751/tcp
pump 751/udp
qrh 752/tcp
qrh 752/udp
rrh 753/tcp
rrh 753/udp
tell 754/tcp send
tell 754/udp send
nlogin 758/tcp
nlogin 758/udp
con 759/tcp
con 759/udp

ns 760/tcp
ns 760/udp
rxe 761/tcp
rxe 761/udp
quotad 762/tcp
quotad 762/udp
cycleserv 763/tcp
cycleserv 763/udp
omserv 764/tcp
omserv 764/udp
webster 765/tcp
webster 765/udp
phonebook 767/tcp phone
phonebook 767/udp phone
vid 769/tcp
vid 769/udp
cadlock 770/tcp
cadlock 770/udp
rtip 771/tcp
rtip 771/udp
cycleserv2 772/tcp
cycleserv2 772/udp
submit 773/tcp
notify 773/udp
rpasswd 774/tcp
acmaint_dbd 774/udp
entomb 775/tcp
acmaint_transd 775/udp
wpages 776/tcp
wpages 776/udp
wpgs 780/tcp
wpgs 780/udp
concert 786/tcp Concert
concert 786/udp Concert
# Josyula R. Rao <jrrao@watson.ibm.com>
mdbs_daemon 800/tcp
mdbs_daemon 800/udp
device 801/tcp
device 801/udp
xtreelic 996/tcp Central Point Software
xtreelic 996/udp Central Point Software
# Dale Cabell <dacabell@smtp.xtree.com>
maitrd 997/tcp
maitrd 997/udp
busboy 998/tcp
puparp 998/udp
garcon 999/tcp
applix 999/udp Applix ac

puprouter 999/tcp
puprouter 999/udp
cadlock 1000/tcp
ock 1000/udp
1023/tcp Reserved
1024/udp Reserved
# IANA <iana@isi.edu>

REGISTERED PORT NUMBERS

The Registered Ports are not controlled by the IANA and on most
systems can be used by ordinary user processes or programs executed by
ordinary users.

Ports are used in the TCP [RFC793] to name the ends of logical
connections which carry long term conversations. For the purpose of
providing services to unknown callers, a service contact port is
defined. This list specifies the port used by the server process as
its contact port. While the IANA can not control uses of these ports
it does register or list uses of these ports as a convienence to the
community.

To the extent possible, these same port assignments are used with the
UDP [RFC768].

The Registered Ports are in the range 1024-65535.

Port Assignments:

Keyword Decimal Description References
------- ------- ----------- ----------
1024/tcp Reserved
1024/udp Reserved
# IANA <iana@isi.edu>
blackjack 1025/tcp network blackjack
blackjack 1025/udp network blackjack
iad1 1030/tcp BBN IAD
iad1 1030/udp BBN IAD
iad2 1031/tcp BBN IAD
iad2 1031/udp BBN IAD
iad3 1032/tcp BBN IAD
iad3 1032/udp BBN IAD
# Andy Malis <malis_a@timeplex.com>
instl_boots 1067/tcp Installation Bootstrap Proto. Serv.
instl_boots 1067/udp Installation Bootstrap Proto. Serv.
instl_bootc 1068/tcp Installation Bootstrap Proto. Cli.

instl_bootc 1068/udp Installation Bootstrap Proto. Cli.
# David Arko <<darko@hpfcrn.fc.hp.com>
socks 1080/tcp Socks
socks 1080/udp Socks
# Ying-Da Lee <ylee@syl.dl.nec.com
ansoft-lm-1 1083/tcp Anasoft License Manager
ansoft-lm-1 1083/udp Anasoft License Manager
ansoft-lm-2 1084/tcp Anasoft License Manager
ansoft-lm-2 1084/udp Anasoft License Manager
nfa 1155/tcp Network File Access
nfa 1155/udp Network File Access
# James Powell <james@mailhost.unidata.com>
nerv 1222/tcp SNI R&D network
nerv 1222/udp SNI R&D network
# Martin Freiss <freiss.pad@sni.de>
hermes 1248/tcp
hermes 1248/udp
alta-ana-lm 1346/tcp Alta Analytics License Manager
alta-ana-lm 1346/udp Alta Analytics License Manager
bbn-mmc 1347/tcp multi media conferencing
bbn-mmc 1347/udp multi media conferencing
bbn-mmx 1348/tcp multi media conferencing
bbn-mmx 1348/udp multi media conferencing
sbook 1349/tcp Registration Network Protocol
sbook 1349/udp Registration Network Protocol
editbench 1350/tcp Registration Network Protocol
editbench 1350/udp Registration Network Protocol
# Simson L. Garfinkel <simsong@next.cambridge.ma.us>
equationbuilder 1351/tcp Digital Tool Works (MIT)
equationbuilder 1351/udp Digital Tool Works (MIT)
# Terrence J. Talbot <lexcube!tjt@bu.edu>
lotusnote 1352/tcp Lotus Note
lotusnote 1352/udp Lotus Note
# Greg Pflaum <iris.com!Greg_Pflaum@uunet.uu.net>
relief 1353/tcp Relief Consulting
relief 1353/udp Relief Consulting
# John Feiler <relief!jjfeiler@uu2.psi.com>
rightbrain 1354/tcp RightBrain Software
rightbrain 1354/udp RightBrain Software
# Glenn Reid <glann@rightbrain.com>
intuitive edge 1355/tcp Intuitive Edge
intuitive edge 1355/udp Intuitive Edge
# Montgomery Zukowski
# <monty@nextnorth.acs.ohio-state.edu>
cuillamartin 1356/tcp CuillaMartin Company
cuillamartin 1356/udp CuillaMartin Company
pegboard 1357/tcp Electronic PegBoard
pegboard 1357/udp Electronic PegBoard

# Chris Cuilla
# <balr!vpnet!cuilla!chris@clout.chi.il.us>
connlcli 1358/tcp CONNLCLI
connlcli 1358/udp CONNLCLI
ftsrv 1359/tcp FTSRV
ftsrv 1359/udp FTSRV
# Ines Homem de Melo <sidinf@brfapesp.bitnet>
mimer 1360/tcp MIMER
mimer 1360/udp MIMER
# Per Schroeder <Per.Schroder@mimer.se>
linx 1361/tcp LinX
linx 1361/udp LinX
# Steffen Schilke <---none--->
timeflies 1362/tcp TimeFlies
timeflies 1362/udp TimeFlies
# Doug Kent <mouthers@slugg@nwnexus.wa.com>
ndm-requester 1363/tcp Network DataMover Requester
ndm-requester 1363/udp Network DataMover Requester
ndm-server 1364/tcp Network DataMover Server
ndm-server 1364/udp Network DataMover Server
# Toshio Watanabe
# <watanabe@godzilla.rsc.spdd.ricoh.co.j>
adapt-sna 1365/tcp Network Software Associates
adapt-sna 1365/udp Network Software Associates
# Jeffery Chiao <714-768-401>
netware-csp 1366/tcp Novell NetWare Comm Service Platform
netware-csp 1366/udp Novell NetWare Comm Service Platform
# Laurie Lindsey <llindsey@novell.com>
dcs 1367/tcp DCS
dcs 1367/udp DCS
# Stefan Siebert <ssiebert@dcs.de>
screencast 1368/tcp ScreenCast
screencast 1368/udp ScreenCast
# Bill Tschumy <other!bill@uunet.UU.NET>
gv-us 1369/tcp GlobalView to Unix Shell
gv-us 1369/udp GlobalView to Unix Shell
us-gv 1370/tcp Unix Shell to GlobalView
us-gv 1370/udp Unix Shell to GlobalView
# Makoto Mita <mita@ssdev.ksp.fujixerox.co.jp>
fc-cli 1371/tcp Fujitsu Config Protocol
fc-cli 1371/udp Fujitsu Config Protocol
fc-ser 1372/tcp Fujitsu Config Protocol
fc-ser 1372/udp Fujitsu Config Protocol
# Ryuichi Horie <horie@spad.sysrap.cs.fujitsu.co.jp>
chromagrafx 1373/tcp Chromagrafx
chromagrafx 1373/udp Chromagrafx
# Mike Barthelemy <msb@chromagrafx.com>
molly 1374/tcp EPI Software Systems

molly 1374/udp EPI Software Systems
# Jim Vlcek <vlcek@epimbe.com>
bytex 1375/tcp Bytex
bytex 1375/udp Bytex
# Mary Ann Burt <bytex!ws054!maryann@uunet.UU.NET>
ibm-pps 1376/tcp IBM Person to Person Software
ibm-pps 1376/udp IBM Person to Person Software
# Simon Phipps <sphipps@vnet.ibm.com>
cichlid 1377/tcp Cichlid License Manager
cichlid 1377/udp Cichlid License Manager
# Andy Burgess <aab@cichlid.com>
elan 1378/tcp Elan License Manager
elan 1378/udp Elan License Manager
# Ken Greer <kg@elan.com>
dbreporter 1379/tcp Integrity Solutions
dbreporter 1379/udp Integrity Solutions
# Tim Dawson <tdawson%mspboss@uunet.UU.NET>
telesis-licman 1380/tcp Telesis Network License Manager
telesis-licman 1380/udp Telesis Network License Manager
# Karl Schendel, Jr. <wiz@telesis.com>
apple-licman 1381/tcp Apple Network License Manager
apple-licman 1381/udp Apple Network License Manager
# Earl Wallace <earlw@apple.com>
udt_os 1382/tcp
udt_os 1382/udp
gwha 1383/tcp GW Hannaway Network License Manager
gwha 1383/udp GW Hannaway Network License Manager
# J. Gabriel Foster <fop@gwha.com>
os-licman 1384/tcp Objective Solutions License Manager
os-licman 1384/udp Objective Solutions License Manager
# Donald Cornwell <don.cornwell@objective.com>
atex_elmd 1385/tcp Atex Publishing License Manager
atex_elmd 1385/udp Atex Publishing License Manager
# Brett Sorenson <bcs@atex.com>
checksum 1386/tcp CheckSum License Manager
checksum 1386/udp CheckSum License Manager
# Andreas Glocker <glocker@sirius.com>
cadsi-lm 1387/tcp Computer Aided Design Software Inc LM
cadsi-lm 1387/udp Computer Aided Design Software Inc LM
# Sulistio Muljadi
objective-dbc 1388/tcp Objective Solutions DataBase Cache
objective-dbc 1388/udp Objective Solutions DataBase Cache
# Donald Cornwell
iclpv-dm 1389/tcp Document Manager
iclpv-dm 1389/udp Document Manager
iclpv-sc 1390/tcp Storage Controller
iclpv-sc 1390/udp Storage Controller
iclpv-sas 1391/tcp Storage Access Server

iclpv-sas 1391/udp Storage Access Server
iclpv-pm 1392/tcp Print Manager
iclpv-pm 1392/udp Print Manager
iclpv-nls 1393/tcp Network Log Server
iclpv-nls 1393/udp Network Log Server
iclpv-nlc 1394/tcp Network Log Client
iclpv-nlc 1394/udp Network Log Client
iclpv-wsm 1395/tcp PC Workstation Manager software
iclpv-wsm 1395/udp PC Workstation Manager software
# A.P. Hobson <A.P.Hobson@bra0112.wins.icl.co.uk>
dvl-activemail 1396/tcp DVL Active Mail
dvl-activemail 1396/udp DVL Active Mail
audio-activmail 1397/tcp Audio Active Mail
audio-activmail 1397/udp Audio Active Mail
video-activmail 1398/tcp Video Active Mail
video-activmail 1398/udp Video Active Mail
# Ehud Shapiro <udi@wisdon.weizmann.ac.il>
cadkey-licman 1399/tcp Cadkey License Manager
cadkey-licman 1399/udp Cadkey License Manager
cadkey-tablet 1400/tcp Cadkey Tablet Daemon
cadkey-tablet 1400/udp Cadkey Tablet Daemon
# Joe McCollough <joe@cadkey.com>
goldleaf-licman 1401/tcp Goldleaf License Manager
goldleaf-licman 1401/udp Goldleaf License Manager
# John Fox <---none--->
prm-sm-np 1402/tcp Prospero Resource Manager
prm-sm-np 1402/udp Prospero Resource Manager
prm-nm-np 1403/tcp Prospero Resource Manager
prm-nm-np 1403/udp Prospero Resource Manager
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
igi-lm 1404/tcp Infinite Graphics License Manager
igi-lm 1404/udp Infinite Graphics License Manager
ibm-res 1405/tcp IBM Remote Execution Starter
ibm-res 1405/udp IBM Remote Execution Starter
netlabs-lm 1406/tcp NetLabs License Manager
netlabs-lm 1406/udp NetLabs License Manager
dbsa-lm 1407/tcp DBSA License Manager
dbsa-lm 1407/udp DBSA License Manager
# Scott Shattuck <ss@dbsa.com>
sophia-lm 1408/tcp Sophia License Manager
sophia-lm 1408/udp Sophia License Manager
# Eric Brown <sst!emerald!eric@uunet.UU.net>
here-lm 1409/tcp Here License Manager
here-lm 1409/udp Here License Manager
# David Ison <here@dialup.oar.net>
hiq 1410/tcp HiQ License Manager
hiq 1410/udp HiQ License Manager
# Rick Pugh <rick@bilmillennium.com>

af 1411/tcp AudioFile
af 1411/udp AudioFile
# Jim Gettys <jg@crl.dec.com>
innosys 1412/tcp InnoSys
innosys 1412/udp InnoSys
innosys-acl 1413/tcp Innosys-ACL
innosys-acl 1413/udp Innosys-ACL
# Eric Welch <--none--->
ibm-mqseries 1414/tcp IBM MQSeries
ibm-mqseries 1414/udp IBM MQSeries
# Roger Meli <rmmeli%winvmd@vnet.ibm.com>
dbstar 1415/tcp DBStar
dbstar 1415/udp DBStar
# Jeffrey Millman <jcm@dbstar.com>
novell-lu6.2 1416/tcp Novell LU6.2
novell-lu6.2 1416/udp Novell LU6.2
# Peter Liu <--none--->
timbuktu-srv1 1417/tcp Timbuktu Service 1 Port
timbuktu-srv1 1417/tcp Timbuktu Service 1 Port
timbuktu-srv2 1418/tcp Timbuktu Service 2 Port
timbuktu-srv2 1418/udp Timbuktu Service 2 Port
timbuktu-srv3 1419/tcp Timbuktu Service 3 Port
timbuktu-srv3 1419/udp Timbuktu Service 3 Port
timbuktu-srv4 1420/tcp Timbuktu Service 4 Port
timbuktu-srv4 1420/udp Timbuktu Service 4 Port
# Marc Epard <marc@waygate.farallon.com>
gandalf-lm 1421/tcp Gandalf License Manager
gandalf-lm 1421/udp Gandalf License Manager
# gilmer@gandalf.ca
autodesk-lm 1422/tcp Autodesk License Manager
autodesk-lm 1422/udp Autodesk License Manager
# David Ko <dko@autodesk.com>
essbase 1423/tcp Essbase Arbor Software
essbase 1423/udp Essbase Arbor Software
hybrid 1424/tcp Hybrid Encryption Protocol
hybrid 1424/udp Hybrid Encryption Protocol
# Howard Hart <hch@hybrid.com>
zion-lm 1425/tcp Zion Software License Manager
zion-lm 1425/udp Zion Software License Manager
# David Ferrero <david@zion.com>
sas-1 1426/tcp Satellite-data Acquisition System 1
sas-1 1426/udp Satellite-data Acquisition System 1
# Bill Taylor <sais@ssec.wisc.edu>
mloadd 1427/tcp mloadd monitoring tool
mloadd 1427/udp mloadd monitoring tool
# Bob Braden <braden@isi.edu>
informatik-lm 1428/tcp Informatik License Manager
informatik-lm 1428/udp Informatik License Manager

# Harald Schlangmann
# <schlangm@informatik.uni-muenchen.de>
nms 1429/tcp Hypercom NMS
nms 1429/udp Hypercom NMS
tpdu 1430/tcp Hypercom TPDU
tpdu 1430/udp Hypercom TPDU
# Noor Chowdhury <noor@hypercom.com>
rgtp 1431/tcp Reverse Gosip Transport
rgtp 1431/udp Reverse Gosip Transport
# <iwj10@cl.cam-orl.co.uk>
blueberry-lm 1432/tcp Blueberry Software License Manager
blueberry-lm 1432/udp Blueberry Software License Manager
# Steve Beigel <ublueb!steve@uunet.uu.net>
ms-sql-s 1433/tcp Microsoft-SQL-Server
ms-sql-s 1433/udp Microsoft-SQL-Server
ms-sql-m 1434/tcp Microsoft-SQL-Monitor
ms-sql-m 1434/udp Microsoft-SQL-Monitor
# Peter Hussey <peterhus@microsoft.com>
ibm-cics 1435/tcp IBM CISC
ibm-cics 1435/udp IBM CISC
# Geoff Meacock <gbibmswl@ibmmail.COM>
sas-2 1436/tcp Satellite-data Acquisition System 2
sas-2 1436/udp Satellite-data Acquisition System 2
# Bill Taylor <sais@ssec.wisc.edu>
tabula 1437/tcp Tabula
tabula 1437/udp Tabula
# Marcelo Einhorn
# <KGUNE%HUJIVM1.bitnet@taunivm.tau.ac.il>
eicon-server 1438/tcp Eicon Security Agent/Server
eicon-server 1438/udp Eicon Security Agent/Server
eicon-x25 1439/tcp Eicon X25/SNA Gateway
eicon-x25 1439/udp Eicon X25/SNA Gateway
eicon-slp 1440/tcp Eicon Service Location Protocol
eicon-slp 1440/udp Eicon Service Location Protocol
# Pat Calhoun <CALHOUN@admin.eicon.qc.ca>
cadis-1 1441/tcp Cadis License Management
cadis-1 1441/udp Cadis License Management
cadis-2 1442/tcp Cadis License Management
cadis-2 1442/udp Cadis License Management
# Todd Wichers <twichers@csn.org>
ies-lm 1443/tcp Integrated Engineering Software
ies-lm 1443/udp Integrated Engineering Software
# David Tong <David_Tong@integrated.mb.ca>
marcam-lm 1444/tcp Marcam License Management
marcam-lm 1444/udp Marcam License Management
# Therese Hunt <hunt@marcam.com>
proxima-lm 1445/tcp Proxima License Manager
proxima-lm 1445/udp Proxima License Manager

ora-lm 1446/tcp Optical Research Associates License Manager
ora-lm 1446/udp Optical Research Associates License Manager
apri-lm 1447/tcp Applied Parallel Research LM
apri-lm 1447/udp Applied Parallel Research LM
# Jim Dillon <jed@apri.com>
oc-lm 1448/tcp OpenConnect License Manager
oc-lm 1448/udp OpenConnect License Manager
# Sue Barnhill <snb@oc.com>
peport 1449/tcp PEport
peport 1449/udp PEport
# Qentin Neill <quentin@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM>
dwf 1450/tcp Tandem Distributed Workbench Facility
dwf 1450/udp Tandem Distributed Workbench Facility
# Mike Bert <BERG_MIKE@tandem.com>
infoman 1451/tcp IBM Information Management
infoman 1451/udp IBM Information Management
# Karen Burns <---none--->
gtegsc-lm 1452/tcp GTE Government Systems License Man
gtegsc-lm 1452/udp GTE Government Systems License Man
# Mike Gregory <Gregory_Mike@msmail.iipo.gtegsc.com>
genie-lm 1453/tcp Genie License Manager
genie-lm 1453/udp Genie License Manager
# Paul Applegate <p.applegate2@genie.geis.com>
interhdl_elmd 1454/tcp interHDL License Manager
interhdl_elmd 1454/tcp interHDL License Manager
# Eli Sternheim eli@interhdl.com
esl-lm 1455/tcp ESL License Manager
esl-lm 1455/udp ESL License Manager
# Abel Chou <abel@willy.esl.com>
dca 1456/tcp DCA
dca 1456/udp DCA
# Jeff Garbers <jgarbers@netcom.com>
valisys-lm 1457/tcp Valisys License Manager
valisys-lm 1457/udp Valisys License Manager
# Leslie Lincoln <leslie_lincoln@valisys.com>
nrcabq-lm 1458/tcp Nichols Research Corp.
nrcabq-lm 1458/udp Nichols Research Corp.
# Howard Cole <hcole@tumbleweed.nrcabq.com>
proshare1 1459/tcp Proshare Notebook Application
proshare1 1459/udp Proshare Notebook Application
proshare2 1460/tcp Proshare Notebook Application
proshare2 1460/udp Proshare Notebook Application
# Robin Kar <Robin_Kar@ccm.hf.intel.com>
ibm_wrless_lan 1461/tcp IBM Wireless LAN
ibm_wrless_lan 1461/udp IBM Wireless LAN
# <flanne@vnet.IBM.COM>
world-lm 1462/tcp World License Manager
world-lm 1462/udp World License Manager

# Michael S Amirault <ambi@world.std.com>
nucleus 1463/tcp Nucleus
nucleus 1463/udp Nucleus
# Venky Nagar <venky@fafner.Stanford.EDU>
msl_lmd 1464/tcp MSL License Manager
msl_lmd 1464/udp MSL License Manager
# Matt Timmermans
pipes 1465/tcp Pipes Platform
pipes 1465/udp Pipes Platform mfarlin@peerlogic.com
# Mark Farlin <mfarlin@peerlogic.com>
oceansoft-lm 1466/tcp Ocean Software License Manager
oceansoft-lm 1466/udp Ocean Software License Manager
# Randy Leonard <randy@oceansoft.com>
csdmbase 1467/tcp CSDMBASE
csdmbase 1467/udp CSDMBASE
csdm 1468/tcp CSDM
csdm 1468/udp CSDM
# Robert Stabl <stabl@informatik.uni-muenchen.de>
aal-lm 1469/tcp Active Analysis Limited License Manager
aal-lm 1469/udp Active Analysis Limited License Manager
# David Snocken +44 (71)437-7009
uaiact 1470/tcp Universal Analytics
uaiact 1470/udp Universal Analytics
# Mark R. Ludwig <Mark-Ludwig@uai.com>
csdmbase 1471/tcp csdmbase
csdmbase 1471/udp csdmbase
csdm 1472/tcp csdm
csdm 1472/udp csdm
# Robert Stabl <stabl@informatik.uni-muenchen.de>
openmath 1473/tcp OpenMath
openmath 1473/udp OpenMath
# Garth Mayville <mayville@maplesoft.on.ca>
telefinder 1474/tcp Telefinder
telefinder 1474/udp Telefinder
# Jim White <Jim_White@spiderisland.com>
taligent-lm 1475/tcp Taligent License Manager
taligent-lm 1475/udp Taligent License Manager
# Mark Sapsford <Mark_Sapsford@@taligent.com>
clvm-cfg 1476/tcp clvm-cfg
clvm-cfg 1476/udp clvm-cfg
# Eric Soderberg <seric@cup.hp.com>
ms-sna-server 1477/tcp ms-sna-server
ms-sna-server 1477/udp ms-sna-server
ms-sna-base 1478/tcp ms-sna-base
ms-sna-base 1478/udp ms-sna-base
# Gordon Mangione <gordm@microsoft.com>
dberegister 1479/tcp dberegister
dberegister 1479/udp dberegister

# Brian Griswold <brian@dancingbear.com>
pacerforum 1480/tcp PacerForum
pacerforum 1480/udp PacerForum
# Peter Caswell <pfc@pacvax.pacersoft.com>
airs 1481/tcp AIRS
airs 1481/udp AIRS
# Bruce Wilson, 905-771-6161
miteksys-lm 1482/tcp Miteksys License Manager
miteksys-lm 1482/udp Miteksys License Manager
# Shane McRoberts <mcroberts@miteksys.com>
afs 1483/tcp AFS License Manager
afs 1483/udp AFS License Manager
# Michael R. Pizolato <michael@afs.com>
confluent 1484/tcp Confluent License Manager
confluent 1484/udp Confluent License Manager
# James Greenfiel <jim@pa.confluent.com>
lansource 1485/tcp LANSource
lansource 1485/udp LANSource
# Doug Scott <lansourc@hookup.net>
nms_topo_serv 1486/tcp nms_topo_serv
nms_topo_serv 1486/udp nms_topo_serv
# Sylvia Siu <Sylvia_Siu@Novell.CO>
localinfosrvr 1487/tcp LocalInfoSrvr
localinfosrvr 1487/udp LocalInfoSrvr
# Brian Matthews <brian_matthews@ibist.ibis.com>
docstor 1488/tcp DocStor
docstor 1488/udp DocStor
# Brian Spears <bspears@salix.com>
dmdocbroker 1489/tcp dmdocbroker
dmdocbroker 1489/udp dmdocbroker
# Razmik Abnous <abnous@documentum.com>
insitu-conf 1490/tcp insitu-conf
insitu-conf 1490/udp insitu-conf
# Paul Blacknell <paul@insitu.com>
anynetgateway 1491/tcp anynetgateway
anynetgateway 1491/udp anynetgateway
# Dan Poirier <poirier@VNET.IBM.COM>
stone-design-1 1492/tcp stone-design-1
stone-design-1 1492/udp stone-design-1
# Andrew Stone <andrew@stone.com>
netmap_lm 1493/tcp netmap_lm
netmap_lm 1493/udp netmap_lm
# Phillip Magson <philm@extro.ucc.su.OZ.AU>
ica 1494/tcp ica
ica 1494/udp ica
# John Richardson, Citrix Systems
cvc 1495/tcp cvc
cvc 1495/udp cvc

# Bill Davidson <billd@equalizer.cray.com>
liberty-lm 1496/tcp liberty-lm
liberty-lm 1496/udp liberty-lm
# Jim Rogers <trane!jimbo@pacbell.com>
rfx-lm 1497/tcp rfx-lm
rfx-lm 1497/udp rfx-lm
# Bill Bishop <bil@rfx.rfx.com>
watcom-sql 1498/tcp Watcom-SQL
watcom-sql 1498/udp Watcom-SQL
# Rog Skubowius <rwskubow@ccnga.uwaterloo.ca>
fhc 1499/tcp Federico Heinz Consultora
fhc 1499/udp Federico Heinz Consultora
# Federico Heinz <federico@heinz.com>
vlsi-lm 1500/tcp VLSI License Manager
vlsi-lm 1500/udp VLSI License Manager
# Shue-Lin Kuo <shuelin@mdk.sanjose.vlsi.com>
sas-3 1501/tcp Satellite-data Acquisition System 3
sas-3 1501/udp Satellite-data Acquisition System 3
# Bill Taylor <sais@ssec.wisc.edu>
shivadiscovery 1502/tcp Shiva
shivadiscovery 1502/udp Shiva
# Jonathan Wenocur <jhw@Shiva.COM>
imtc-mcs 1503/tcp Databeam
imtc-mcs 1503/udp Databeam
# Jim Johnstone <jjohnstone@databeam.com>
evb-elm 1504/tcp EVB Software Engineering License Manager
evb-elm 1504/udp EVB Software Engineering License Manager
# B.G. Mahesh < mahesh@sett.com>
funkproxy 1505/tcp Funk Software, Inc.
funkproxy 1505/udp Funk Software, Inc.
# Robert D. Vincent <bert@willowpond.com>
# 1506-1523 Unassigned
ingreslock 1524/tcp ingres
ingreslock 1524/udp ingres
orasrv 1525/tcp oracle
orasrv 1525/udp oracle
prospero-np 1525/tcp Prospero Directory Service non-priv
prospero-np 1525/udp Prospero Directory Service non-priv
pdap-np 1526/tcp Prospero Data Access Prot non-priv
pdap-np 1526/udp Prospero Data Access Prot non-priv
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
tlisrv 1527/tcp oracle
tlisrv 1527/udp oracle
coauthor 1529/tcp oracle
coauthor 1529/udp oracle
issd 1600/tcp
issd 1600/udp
nkd 1650/tcp

nkd 1650/udp
proshareaudio 1651/tcp proshare conf audio
proshareaudio 1651/udp proshare conf audio
prosharevideo 1652/tcp proshare conf video
prosharevideo 1652/udp proshare conf video
prosharedata 1653/tcp proshare conf data
prosharedata 1653/udp proshare conf data
prosharerequest 1654/tcp proshare conf request
prosharerequest 1654/udp proshare conf request
prosharenotify 1655/tcp proshare conf notify
prosharenotify 1655/udp proshare conf notify
# <gunner@ibeam.intel.com>
netview-aix-1 1661/tcp netview-aix-1
netview-aix-1 1661/udp netview-aix-1
netview-aix-2 1662/tcp netview-aix-2
netview-aix-2 1662/udp netview-aix-2
netview-aix-3 1663/tcp netview-aix-3
netview-aix-3 1663/udp netview-aix-3
netview-aix-4 1664/tcp netview-aix-4
netview-aix-4 1664/udp netview-aix-4
netview-aix-5 1665/tcp netview-aix-5
netview-aix-5 1665/udp netview-aix-5
netview-aix-6 1666/tcp netview-aix-6
netview-aix-6 1666/udp netview-aix-6
# Martha Crisson <CRISSON@ralvm12.vnet.ibm.com>
licensedaemon 1986/tcp cisco license management
licensedaemon 1986/udp cisco license management
tr-rsrb-p1 1987/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 1 port
tr-rsrb-p1 1987/udp cisco RSRB Priority 1 port
tr-rsrb-p2 1988/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 2 port
tr-rsrb-p2 1988/udp cisco RSRB Priority 2 port
tr-rsrb-p3 1989/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 3 port
tr-rsrb-p3 1989/udp cisco RSRB Priority 3 port
#PROBLEMS!===================================================
mshnet 1989/tcp MHSnet system
mshnet 1989/udp MHSnet system
# Bob Kummerfeld <bob@sarad.cs.su.oz.au>
#PROBLEMS!===================================================
stun-p1 1990/tcp cisco STUN Priority 1 port
stun-p1 1990/udp cisco STUN Priority 1 port
stun-p2 1991/tcp cisco STUN Priority 2 port
stun-p2 1991/udp cisco STUN Priority 2 port
stun-p3 1992/tcp cisco STUN Priority 3 port
stun-p3 1992/udp cisco STUN Priority 3 port
#PROBLEMS!===================================================
ipsendmsg 1992/tcp IPsendmsg
ipsendmsg 1992/udp IPsendmsg
# Bob Kummerfeld <bob@sarad.cs.su.oz.au>

#PROBLEMS!===================================================
snmp-tcp-port 1993/tcp cisco SNMP TCP port
snmp-tcp-port 1993/udp cisco SNMP TCP port
stun-port 1994/tcp cisco serial tunnel port
stun-port 1994/udp cisco serial tunnel port
perf-port 1995/tcp cisco perf port
perf-port 1995/udp cisco perf port
tr-rsrb-port 1996/tcp cisco Remote SRB port
tr-rsrb-port 1996/udp cisco Remote SRB port
gdp-port 1997/tcp cisco Gateway Discovery Protocol
gdp-port 1997/udp cisco Gateway Discovery Protocol
x25-svc-port 1998/tcp cisco X.25 service (XOT)
x25-svc-port 1998/udp cisco X.25 service (XOT)
tcp-id-port 1999/tcp cisco identification port
tcp-id-port 1999/udp cisco identification port
callbook 2000/tcp
callbook 2000/udp
dc 2001/tcp
wizard 2001/udp curry
globe 2002/tcp
globe 2002/udp
mailbox 2004/tcp
emce 2004/udp CCWS mm conf
berknet 2005/tcp
oracle 2005/udp
invokator 2006/tcp
raid-cc 2006/udp raid
dectalk 2007/tcp
raid-am 2007/udp
conf 2008/tcp
terminaldb 2008/udp
news 2009/tcp
whosockami 2009/udp
search 2010/tcp
pipe_server 2010/udp
raid-cc 2011/tcp raid
servserv 2011/udp
ttyinfo 2012/tcp
raid-ac 2012/udp
raid-am 2013/tcp
raid-cd 2013/udp
troff 2014/tcp
raid-sf 2014/udp
cypress 2015/tcp
raid-cs 2015/udp
bootserver 2016/tcp
bootserver 2016/udp
cypress-stat 2017/tcp

bootclient 2017/udp
terminaldb 2018/tcp
rellpack 2018/udp
whosockami 2019/tcp
about 2019/udp
xinupageserver 2020/tcp
xinupageserver 2020/udp
servexec 2021/tcp
xinuexpansion1 2021/udp
down 2022/tcp
xinuexpansion2 2022/udp
xinuexpansion3 2023/tcp
xinuexpansion3 2023/udp
xinuexpansion4 2024/tcp
xinuexpansion4 2024/udp
ellpack 2025/tcp
xribs 2025/udp
scrabble 2026/tcp
scrabble 2026/udp
shadowserver 2027/tcp
shadowserver 2027/udp
submitserver 2028/tcp
submitserver 2028/udp
device2 2030/tcp
device2 2030/udp
blackboard 2032/tcp
blackboard 2032/udp
glogger 2033/tcp
glogger 2033/udp
scoremgr 2034/tcp
scoremgr 2034/udp
imsldoc 2035/tcp
imsldoc 2035/udp
objectmanager 2038/tcp
objectmanager 2038/udp
lam 2040/tcp
lam 2040/udp
interbase 2041/tcp
interbase 2041/udp
isis 2042/tcp
isis 2042/udp
isis-bcast 2043/tcp
isis-bcast 2043/udp
rimsl 2044/tcp
rimsl 2044/udp
cdfunc 2045/tcp
cdfunc 2045/udp
sdfunc 2046/tcp

sdfunc 2046/udp
dls 2047/tcp
dls 2047/udp
dls-monitor 2048/tcp
dls-monitor 2048/udp
shilp 2049/tcp
shilp 2049/udp
dlsrpn 2065/tcp Data Link Switch Read Port Number
dlsrpn 2065/udp Data Link Switch Read Port Number
dlswpn 2067/tcp Data Link Switch Write Port Number
dlswpn 2067/udp Data Link Switch Write Port Number
ats 2201/tcp Advanced Training System Program
ats 2201/udp Advanced Training System Program
rtsserv 2500/tcp Resource Tracking system server
rtsserv 2500/udp Resource Tracking system server
rtsclient 2501/tcp Resource Tracking system client
rtsclient 2501/udp Resource Tracking system client
# Aubrey Turner
# <S95525ta%etsuacad.bitnet@ETSUADMN.ETSU.EDU>
hp-3000-telnet 2564/tcp HP 3000 NS/VT block mode telnet
www-dev 2784/tcp world wide web - development
www-dev 2784/udp world wide web - development
NSWS 3049/tcp
NSWS 3049/udp
ccmail 3264/tcp cc:mail/lotus
ccmail 3264/udp cc:mail/lotus
dec-notes 3333/tcp DEC Notes
dec-notes 3333/udp DEC Notes
# Kim Moraros <moraros@via.enet.dec.com>
mapper-nodemgr 3984/tcp MAPPER network node manager
mapper-nodemgr 3984/udp MAPPER network node manager
mapper-mapethd 3985/tcp MAPPER TCP/IP server
mapper-mapethd 3985/udp MAPPER TCP/IP server
mapper-ws_ethd 3986/tcp MAPPER workstation server
mapper-ws_ethd 3986/udp MAPPER workstation server
# John C. Horton <jch@unirsvl.rsvl.unisys.com>
bmap 3421/tcp Bull Apprise portmapper
bmap 3421/udp Bull Apprise portmapper
# Jeremy Gilbert <J.Gilbert@ma30.bull.com>
udt_os 3900/tcp Unidata UDT OS
udt_os 3900/udp Unidata UDT OS
# James Powell <james@mailhost.unidata.com>
nuts_dem 4132/tcp NUTS Daemon
nuts_dem 4132/udp NUTS Daemon
nuts_bootp 4133/tcp NUTS Bootp Server
nuts_bootp 4133/udp NUTS Bootp Server
# Martin Freiss <freiss.pad@sni.>
unicall 4343/tcp UNICALL

unicall 4343/udp UNICALL
# James Powell <james@enghp.unidata.comp>
krb524 4444/tcp KRB524
krb524 4444/udp KRB524
# B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>
rfa 4672/tcp remote file access server
rfa 4672/udp remote file access server
commplex-main 5000/tcp
commplex-main 5000/udp
commplex-link 5001/tcp
commplex-link 5001/udp
rfe 5002/tcp radio free ethernet
rfe 5002/udp radio free ethernet
telelpathstart 5010/tcp TelepathStart
telelpathstart 5010/udp TelepathStart
telelpathattack 5011/tcp TelepathAttack
telelpathattack 5011/udp TelepathAttack
# Helmuth Breitenfellner <hbreitenf@vnet.imb.com>
mmcc 5050/tcp multimedia conference control tool
mmcc 5050/udp multimedia conference control tool
rmonitor_secure 5145/tcp
rmonitor_secure 5145/udp
aol 5190/tcp America-Online
aol 5190/udp America-Online
# Marty Lyons <marty@aol.com>
padl2sim 5236/tcp
padl2sim 5236/udp
hacl-hb 5300/tcp # HA cluster heartbeat
hacl-hb 5300/udp # HA cluster heartbeat
hacl-gs 5301/tcp # HA cluster general services
hacl-gs 5301/udp # HA cluster general services
hacl-cfg 5302/tcp # HA cluster configuration
hacl-cfg 5302/udp # HA cluster configuration
hacl-probe 5303/tcp # HA cluster probing
hacl-probe 5303/udp # HA cluster probing
hacl-local 5304/tcp
hacl-local 5304/udp
hacl-test 5305/tcp
hacl-test 5305/udp
# Eric Soderberg <seric@hposl102.cup.hp>
x11 6000-6063/tcp X Window System
x11 6000-6063/udp X Window System
# Stephen Gildea <gildea@expo.lcs.mit.edu>
sub-process 6111/tcp HP SoftBench Sub-Process Control
sub-process 6111/udp HP SoftBench Sub-Process Control
meta-corp 6141/tcp Meta Corporation License Manager
meta-corp 6141/udp Meta Corporation License Manager
# Osamu Masuda <--none--->

aspentec-lm 6142/tcp Aspen Technology License Manager
aspentec-lm 6142/udp Aspen Technology License Manager
# Kevin Massey <massey@aspentec.com>
watershed-lm 6143/tcp Watershed License Manager
watershed-lm 6143/udp Watershed License Manager
# David Ferrero <david@zion.com>
statsci1-lm 6144/tcp StatSci License Manager - 1
statsci1-lm 6144/udp StatSci License Manager - 1
statsci2-lm 6145/tcp StatSci License Manager - 2
statsci2-lm 6145/udp StatSci License Manager - 2
# Scott Blachowicz <scott@statsci.com>
lonewolf-lm 6146/tcp Lone Wolf Systems License Manager
lonewolf-lm 6146/udp Lone Wolf Systems License Manager
# Dan Klein <dvk@lonewolf.com>
montage-lm 6147/tcp Montage License Manager
montage-lm 6147/udp Montage License Manager
# Michael Ubell <michael@montage.com>
xdsxdm 6558/udp
xdsxdm 6558/tcp
afs3-fileserver 7000/tcp file server itself
afs3-fileserver 7000/udp file server itself
afs3-callback 7001/tcp callbacks to cache managers
afs3-callback 7001/udp callbacks to cache managers
afs3-prserver 7002/tcp users & groups database
afs3-prserver 7002/udp users & groups database
afs3-vlserver 7003/tcp volume location database
afs3-vlserver 7003/udp volume location database
afs3-kaserver 7004/tcp AFS/Kerberos authentication service
afs3-kaserver 7004/udp AFS/Kerberos authentication service
afs3-volser 7005/tcp volume managment server
afs3-volser 7005/udp volume managment server
afs3-errors 7006/tcp error interpretation service
afs3-errors 7006/udp error interpretation service
afs3-bos 7007/tcp basic overseer process
afs3-bos 7007/udp basic overseer process
afs3-update 7008/tcp server-to-server updater
afs3-update 7008/udp server-to-server updater
afs3-rmtsys 7009/tcp remote cache manager service
afs3-rmtsys 7009/udp remote cache manager service
ups-onlinet 7010/tcp onlinet uninterruptable power supplies
ups-onlinet 7010/udp onlinet uninterruptable power supplies
# Brian Hammill <hamill@dolphin.exide.com>
font-service 7100/tcp X Font Service
font-service 7100/udp X Font Service
# Stephen Gildea <gildea@expo.lcs.mit.edu>
fodms 7200/tcp FODMS FLIP
fodms 7200/udp FODMS FLIP
# David Anthony <anthony@power.amasd.anatcp.rockwell.com>

man 9535/tcp
man 9535/udp
isode-dua 17007/tcp
isode-dua 17007/udp

REFERENCES

[RFC768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.

[RFC793] Postel, J., ed., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA
Internet Program Protocol Specification", STD 7, RFC 793,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers

INTERNET MULTICAST ADDRESSES

Host Extensions for IP Multicasting [RFC1112] specifies the
extensions required of a host implementation of the Internet Protocol
(IP) to support multicasting. Current addresses are listed below.

224.0.0.0 Base Address (Reserved) [RFC1112,JBP]
224.0.0.1 All Systems on this Subnet [RFC1112,JBP]
224.0.0.2 All Routers on this Subnet [JBP]
224.0.0.3 Unassigned [JBP]
224.0.0.4 DVMRP Routers [RFC1075,JBP]
224.0.0.5 OSPFIGP OSPFIGP All Routers [RFC1583,JXM1]
224.0.0.6 OSPFIGP OSPFIGP Designated Routers [RFC1583,JXM1]
224.0.0.7 ST Routers [RFC1190,KS14]
224.0.0.8 ST Hosts [RFC1190,KS14]
224.0.0.9 RIP2 Routers [GSM11]
224.0.0.10 IGRP Routers [Dino Farinacci]
224.0.0.11 Mobile-Agents [Bill Simpson]
224.0.0.12-224.0.0.255 Unassigned [JBP]

224.0.1.0 VMTP Managers Group [RFC1045,DRC3]
224.0.1.1 NTP Network Time Protocol [RFC1119,DLM1]
224.0.1.2 SGI-Dogfight [AXC]
224.0.1.3 Rwhod [SXD]
224.0.1.4 VNP [DRC3]
224.0.1.5 Artificial Horizons - Aviator [BXF]
224.0.1.6 NSS - Name Service Server [BXS2]
224.0.1.7 AUDIONEWS - Audio News Multicast [MXF2]
224.0.1.8 SUN NIS+ Information Service [CXM3]
224.0.1.9 MTP Multicast Transport Protocol [SXA]
224.0.1.10 IETF-1-LOW-AUDIO [SC3]
224.0.1.11 IETF-1-AUDIO [SC3]
224.0.1.12 IETF-1-VIDEO [SC3]
224.0.1.13 IETF-2-LOW-AUDIO [SC3]
224.0.1.14 IETF-2-AUDIO [SC3]
224.0.1.15 IETF-2-VIDEO [SC3]
224.0.1.16 MUSIC-SERVICE [Guido van Rossum]
224.0.1.17 SEANET-TELEMETRY [Andrew Maffei]
224.0.1.18 SEANET-IMAGE [Andrew Maffei]
224.0.1.19 MLOADD [Braden]
224.0.1.20 any private experiment [JBP]
224.0.1.21 DVMRP on MOSPF [John Moy]
224.0.1.22 SVRLOC <veizades@ftp.com>
224.0.1.23 XINGTV <hgxing@aol.com>
224.0.1.24 microsoft-ds <arnoldm@microsoft.com>
224.0.1.25 nbc-pro <bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>
224.0.1.26 nbc-pfn <bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>
224.0.1.27-224.0.1.255 Unassigned [JBP]

224.0.2.1 "rwho" Group (BSD) (unofficial) [JBP]
224.0.2.2 SUN RPC PMAPPROC_CALLIT [BXE1]

224.0.3.000-224.0.3.255 RFE Generic Service [DXS3]
224.0.4.000-224.0.4.255 RFE Individual Conferences [DXS3]
224.0.5.000-224.0.5.127 CDPD Groups [Bob Brenner]
224.0.5.128-224.0.5.255 Unassigned [IANA]
224.0.6.000-224.0.6.127 Cornell ISIS Project [Tim Clark]
224.0.6.128-224.0.6.255 Unassigned [IANA]

224.1.0.0-224.1.255.255 ST Multicast Groups [RFC1190,KS14]
224.2.0.0-224.2.255.255 Multimedia Conference Calls [SC3]

224.252.0.0-224.255.255.255 DIS transient groups [Joel Snyder]

232.0.0.0-232.255.255.255 VMTP transient groups [RFC1045,DRC3]

These addresses are listed in the Domain Name Service under MCAST.NET
and 224.IN-ADDR.ARPA.

Note that when used on an Ethernet or IEEE 802 network, the 23
low-order bits of the IP Multicast address are placed in the low-order
23 bits of the Ethernet or IEEE 802 net multicast address
1.0.94.0.0.0. See the next section on "IANA ETHERNET ADDRESS BLOCK".

REFERENCES

[RFC1045] Cheriton, D., "VMTP: Versatile Message Transaction
Protocol Specification", RFC 1045, Stanford University,
February 1988.

[RFC1075] Waitzman, D., C. Partridge, and S. Deering "Distance Vector
Multicast Routing Protocol", RFC-1075, BBN STC, Stanford
University, November 1988.

[RFC1112] Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting",
STD 5, RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

[RFC1119] Mills, D., "Network Time Protocol (Version 1), Specification
and Implementation", STD 12, RFC 1119, University of
Delaware, July 1988.

[RFC1190] Topolcic, C., Editor, "Experimental Internet Stream
Protocol, Version 2 (ST-II)", RFC 1190, CIP Working Group,
October 1990.

[RFC1583] Moy, J., "The OSPF Specification", RFC 1583, Proteon,
March 1994.

PEOPLE

<arnoldm@microsoft.com>

[AXC] Andrew Cherenson <arc@SGI.COM>

[Bob Brenner]

<bloomer@birch.crd.ge.com>

[Braden] Bob Braden <braden@isi.edu

[BXE1] Brendan Eic <brendan@illyria.wpd.sgi.com>

[BXF] Bruce Factor <ahi!bigapple!bruce@uunet.UU.NET>

[BXS2] Bill Schilit <schilit@parc.xerox.com>

[CXM3] Chuck McManis <cmcmanis@sun.com>

[Tim Clark]

[DLM1] David Mills <Mills@HUEY.UDEL.EDU>

[DRC3] Dave Cheriton <cheriton@PESCADERO.STANFORD.EDU>

[DXS3] Daniel Steinber <Daniel.Steinberg@Eng.Sun.COM>

[Dino Farinacci]

[GSM11] Gary S. Malkin <GMALKIN@XYLOGICS.COM>

<hgxing@aol.com>

[IANA] IANA <iana@isi.edu>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JXM1] Jim Miner <miner@star.com>

[KS14] <mystery contact>

[Andrew Maffei]

[John Moy] John Moy <jmoy@PROTEON.COM>

[MXF2] Martin Forssen <maf@dtek.chalmers.se>

[Guido van Rossum]

[SC3] Steve Casner <casner@isi.edu>

[Joel Snyder]

[SXA] Susie Armstrong <Armstrong.wbst128@XEROX.COM>

[SXD] Steve Deering <deering@PARC.XEROX.COM>

<veizades@ftp.com>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/multicast-addresses

SUN RPC NUMBERS

To obtain SUN Remote Procedure Call (RPC) numbers send an e-mail
request to "rpc@sun.com".

The RPC port management service ('portmap' in SunOS versions less than
5.0 and 'rpcbind' in SunOS versions greater than 5.0) "registers" the
IP port number that is allocated to a particular service when that
service is created. It does not allocate ports on behalf of those
services.

For an exact specification of the semantics refer to the source code
of svcudp_create() and svctcp_create() in the archives. In short
however is that these interfaces, and svc_tli_create their Transport
Independent RPC equivalent, take either a user specified port number
or RPC_ANY (-1) which effectively means "I don't care." In the "I
don't care" case the create code simply calls socket(2) or t_open(3n)
which allocates an IP port based on the rules:

if euid of the requesting process is 0 (i.e., root)
allocate the next available port number in the
reserved port range.
else
allocate the next available port in the non-reserved
range.

Port numbers count up sequentially.

Can a port that is "assigned" can be used when the assignee's service
is not present? Say port 501 is assigned to the "jeans" service. On
a machine that does not have the "jeans" service, nor has any clients
that might be expecting to use it, is port 501 available for other
uses? Any dynamic allocation process, like the portmapper, that
chooses the next unused port might allocate port 501 dynamically to a
process that asked for a "I don't care" port. So any dynamic
allocation scheme may pick an unused port that happened to correspond
to a port number that had been "assigned" but was currently unused.

While it might be desirable, it is impossible to guarantee that any
unused port, even though officially assigned to a service, is not
picked by a dynamic allocator since such an assignment might occur
long after the delivery of the system into a site that doesn't watch
for the latest list.

There is the restriction that only "superuser" on BSD derived systems
such as SunOS can bind to a port number that is less than 1024. So
programs have used this information in the past to identify whether or

not the service they were talking to was started by the superuser on
the remote system. Making this assumption is dangerous because not
all system enforce this restriction.

Sun RPC services use ports that are currently unused. If someone
noted that an RPC service was using port 781, it would be just as
happy using port 891, or 951. The service doesn't care what port it
gets, remote clients will query the portmapper to ask it what port
number was assigned to the service when it was started. The key is
that the port was not currently in use. The only port that ONC/RPC
must have is 111 its assigned port for the portmap service.

The most common complaint comes when people put a new service on their
system. When they configure their systems they put the new service
configuration commands at the end of their system startup scripts.
During startup, several network services may be started. Those
services that are ONC/RPC based just pick the next available port,
those that have pre-assigned ports bind to their pre-assigned port.
Clearly the correct sequence is to have all services that need a
particular port to be started first (or if they are "latent" services
that are started by inetd, to have inetd started). Finally, the RPC
services should be started as they will be assigned unused ports. (In
the BSD networking code (which we use) the algorithm for picking
ports is in the file in_pcb.c, function in_pcbbind().)

Services should be started in this order:

a) Services that will "run" continuously and have an assigned
port. Note that this includes rpcbind (nee portmap) that has
port 111 assigned to it.

b) inetd - which will automatically create sockets for those
services that have reserved ports but only run on demand
(like finger)

c) RPC services - which will automatically pick unused ports and
maximize efficiency of the "IP Port" namespace.

The include file /usr/include/netinet/in.h defines a constant
IPPORT_RESERVED to be 1024. The relevant text is:

/*
* Ports < IPPORT_RESERVED are reserved for
* privileged processes (e.g. root).
* Ports > IPPORT_USERRESERVED are reserved
* for servers, not necessarily privileged.
*/
#define IPPORT_RESERVED 1024

#define IPPORT_USERRESERVED 5000

Portmap does not allocate ports, the kernel allocates ports. The code
that does this is part of nearly every UNIX system in the world (and
since the BSD code is 'free' it is often the same code). RPC services
ask the kernel to allocate them a port by calling the "bind()" system
call. The parameter they pass is "INADDR_ANY" which means "allocate
me any IP port you want". The kernel does that by looking at all of
the ports that are currently in use and picking one that is not
currently used. The number picked is either less that 1024 if the
process is privledged, or greater than 1024 if the process is not
privledged. After the kernel has allocated a port, the service
registers this allocation with portmap. The portmapper is merely a
registry of previously allocated ports. Note "allocated" here is
being used in the sense that they are used by an open socket, not
assigned a well known name.

The role of /etc/services is to provide an idea to people who are
looking at network traffic as to where a packet may have originated
from or is headed to. For services like finger that have assigned
ports, they can just hard code the port they want into their
executable. (it isn't like it will change, and if they read it from
/etc/services and someone had mistyped the port number it won't
interoperate with clients anyway!)

It is not practical to read the /etc/services file into the kernel to
prevent it from giving out port numbers that are "pre-assigned", nor
is it generally desirable since with the correct ordering of startup
it is completely unneccesary.

Editors Note: This information was supplied by Chuck McManis of Sun.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/sun-rpc-numbers

IP OPTION NUMBERS

The Internet Protocol (IP) has provision for optional header fields
identified by an option type field. Options 0 and 1 are exactly one
octet which is their type field. All other options have their one
octet type field, followed by a one octet length field, followed by
length-2 octets of option data. The option type field is sub-divided
into a one bit copied flag, a two bit class field, and a five bit
option number. These taken together form an eight bit value for the
option type field. IP options are commonly refered to by this value.

Copy Class Number Value Name Reference
---- ----- ------ ----- ------------------------------- ---------
0 0 0 0 EOOL - End of Options List [RFC791,JBP]
0 0 1 1 NOP - No Operation [RFC791,JBP]
1 0 2 130 SEC - Security [RFC1108]
1 0 3 131 LSR - Loose Source Route [RFC791,JBP]
0 2 4 68 TS - Time Stamp [RFC791,JBP]
1 0 5 133 E-SEC - Extended Security [RFC1108]
1 0 6 134 CIPSO - Commercial Security [???]
0 0 7 7 RR - Record Route [RFC791,JBP]
1 0 8 136 SID - Stream ID [RFC791,JBP]
1 0 9 137 SSR - Strict Source Route [RFC791,JBP]
0 0 10 10 ZSU - Experimental Measurement [ZSu]
0 0 11 11 MTUP - MTU Probe [RFC1191]
0 0 12 12 MTUR - MTU Reply [RFC1191]
1 2 13 205 FINN - Experimental Flow Control [Finn]
1 0 14 142 VISA - Expermental Access Control [Estrin]
0 0 15 15 ENCODE - ??? [VerSteeg]
1 0 16 144 IMITD - IMI Traffic Descriptor [Lee]
1 0 17 145 EIP - ??? [RFC1358]
0 2 18 82 TR - Traceroute [RFC1393]
1 0 19 147 ADDEXT - Address Extension [Ullmann IPv7]

IP TIME TO LIVE PARAMETER

The current recommended default time to live (TTL) for the
Internet Protocol (IP) [45,105] is 64.

IP TOS PARAMETERS

This documents the default Type-of-Service values that are currently
recommended for the most important Internet protocols.

TOS Value Description Reference
--------- -------------------------- ---------
0000 Default [RFC1349]
0001 Minimize Monetary Cost [RFC1349]
0010 Maximize Reliability [RFC1349]
0100 Maximize Throughput [RFC1349]
1000 Minimize Delay [RFC1349]
1111 Maximize Security [RFC1455]

The TOS value is used to indicate "better". Only one TOS value or
property can be requested in any one IP datagram.

Generally, protocols which are involved in direct interaction with a
human should select low delay, while data transfers which may involve
large blocks of data are need high throughput. Finally, high reliability
is most important for datagram-based Internet management functions.

Application protocols not included in these tables should be able to
make appropriate choice of low delay (8 decimal, 1000 binary) or high
throughput (4 decimal, 0100 binary).

The following are recommended values for TOS:

----- Type-of-Service Value -----

Protocol TOS Value

TELNET (1) 1000 (minimize delay)

FTP
Control 1000 (minimize delay)
Data (2) 0100 (maximize throughput)

TFTP 1000 (minimize delay)

SMTP (3)
Command phase 1000 (minimize delay)
DATA phase 0100 (maximize throughput)

Domain Name Service
UDP Query 1000 (minimize delay)
TCP Query 0000
Zone Transfer 0100 (maximize throughput)

NNTP 0001 (minimize monetary cost)

ICMP

Errors 0000
Requests 0000 (4)
Responses <same as request> (4)

Any IGP 0010 (maximize reliability)

EGP 0000

SNMP 0010 (maximize reliability)

BOOTP 0000

Notes:

(1) Includes all interactive user protocols (e.g., rlogin).

(2) Includes all bulk data transfer protocols (e.g., rcp).

(3) If the implementation does not support changing the TOS
during the lifetime of the connection, then the
recommended TOS on opening the connection is the default
TOS (0000).

(4) Although ICMP request messages are normally sent with
the default TOS, there are sometimes good reasons why they
would be sent with some other TOS value. An ICMP
response always uses the same TOS value as was used in the
corresponding ICMP request message.

An application may (at the request of the user) substitute
0001 (minimize monetary cost) for any of the above values.

REFERENCES

[RFC791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 791, DARPA, September
1981.

[RFC1108] Kent, S., "U.S. Department of Defense Security Options for
the Internet Protocol", RFC 1108, BBN Communications,
November 1991.

[RFC1191] Mogul, J., and S. Deering, "Path MTU Discovery", RFC 1191,
DECWRL, Stanford University, November 1990.

[RFC1349] Almquist, P., "Type of Service in the Internet Protocol
Suite", RFC 1349, Consultant, July 1992.

[RFC1358] Chapin, L., Chair, "Charter of the Internet Architecture
Board (IAB)", RFC 1358, Internet Architecture Board, August
1992.

[RFC1393] Malkin, G., "Traceroute Using an IP Option", RFC 1393,
Xylogics, Inc., January 1993.

[RFC1455] Eastlake, D., "Physical Link Security Type of Service",
RFC 1455, Digital Equipment Corporation, May 1993.

[Ullmann IPv7]

PEOPLE

[Estrin] Deborah Estrin <Estrin@usc.edu>

[Finn] Greg Finn <Finn@isi.edu>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[Ullmann] Robert Ullmann <ariel@world.std.com>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ip-parameters

ICMP TYPE NUMBERS

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) has many messages that
are identified by a "type" field.

Type Name Reference
---- ------------------------- ---------
0 Echo Reply [RFC792]
1 Unassigned [JBP]
2 Unassigned [JBP]
3 Destination Unreachable [RFC792]
4 Source Quench [RFC792]
5 Redirect [RFC792]
6 Alternate Host Address [JBP]
7 Unassigned [JBP]
8 Echo [RFC792]
9 Router Advertisement [RFC1256]
10 Router Selection [RFC1256]
11 Time Exceeded [RFC792]
12 Parameter Problem [RFC792]
13 Timestamp [RFC792]
14 Timestamp Reply [RFC792]
15 Information Request [RFC792]
16 Information Reply [RFC792]
17 Address Mask Request [RFC950]
18 Address Mask Reply [RFC950]
19 Reserved (for Security) [Solo]
20-29 Reserved (for Robustness Experiment) [ZSu]
30 Traceroute [RFC1393]
31 Datagram Conversion Error [RFC1475]
32 Mobile Host Redirect [David Johnson]
33 IPv6 Where-Are-You [Bill Simpson]
34 IPv6 I-Am-Here [Bill Simpson]
35 Mobile Registration Request [Bill Simpson]
36 Mobile Registration Reply [Bill Simpson]
37-255 Reserved [JBP]

Many of these ICMP types have a "code" field. Here we list the types
again with their assigned code fields.

Type Name Reference
---- ------------------------- ---------
0 Echo Reply [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

1 Unassigned [JBP]

2 Unassigned [JBP]

3 Destination Unreachable [RFC792]

Codes
0 Net Unreachable
1 Host Unreachable
2 Protocol Unreachable
3 Port Unreachable
4 Fragmentation Needed and Don't Fragment was Set
5 Source Route Failed
6 Destination Network Unknown
7 Destination Host Unknown
8 Source Host Isolated
9 Communication with Destination Network is
Administratively Prohibited
10 Communication with Destination Host is
Administratively Prohibited
11 Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service
12 Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

4 Source Quench [RFC792]
Codes
0 No Code

5 Redirect [RFC792]

Codes
0 Redirect Datagram for the Network (or subnet)
1 Redirect Datagram for the Host
2 Redirect Datagram for the Type of Service and Network
3 Redirect Datagram for the Type of Service and Host

6 Alternate Host Address [JBP]

Codes
0 Alternate Address for Host

7 Unassigned [JBP]

8 Echo [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

9 Router Advertisement [RFC1256]

Codes

0 No Code

10 Router Selection [RFC1256]

Codes
0 No Code

11 Time Exceeded [RFC792]

Codes
0 Time to Live exceeded in Transit
1 Fragment Reassembly Time Exceeded

12 Parameter Problem [RFC792]

Codes
0 Pointer indicates the error
1 Missing a Required Option [RFC1108]
2 Bad Length

13 Timestamp [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

14 Timestamp Reply [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

15 Information Request [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

16 Information Reply [RFC792]

Codes
0 No Code

17 Address Mask Request [RFC950]

Codes
0 No Code

18 Address Mask Reply [RFC950]

Codes
0 No Code

19 Reserved (for Security) [Solo]

20-29 Reserved (for Robustness Experiment) [ZSu]

30 Traceroute [RFC1393]

31 Datagram Conversion Error [RFC1475]

32 Mobile Host Redirect [David Johnson]

33 IPv6 Where-Are-You [Bill Simpson]

34 IPv6 I-Am-Here [Bill Simpson]

35 Mobile Registration Request [Bill Simpson]

36 Mobile Registration Reply [Bill Simpson]

REFERENCES

[RFC792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
RFC 792, USC/Information Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC950] Mogul, J., and J. Postel, "Internet Standard Subnetting
Procedure", STD 5, RFC 950, Stanford, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, August 1985.

[RFC1108] Kent, S., "U.S. Department of Defense Security Options for
the Internet Protocol", RFC 1108, November 1991.

[RFC1256] Deering, S., Editor, "ICMP Router Discovery Messages", RFC
1256, Xerox PARC, September 1991.

[RFC1393] Malkin, G., "Traceroute Using an IP Option", RFC 1393,
Xylogics, Inc., January 1993.

[RFC1475] Ullmann, R., "TP/IX: The Next Internet", RFC 1475, Process
Software Corporation, June 1993.

PEOPLE

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[David Johnson]

[Bill Simpson] <Bill.Simpson@um.cc.umich.edu> September, 1994.

[Solo]

[ZSu] Zaw-Sing Su <ZSu@TSCA.ISTC.SRI.COM>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/icmp-parameters

TCP OPTION NUMBERS

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has provision for optional
header fields identified by an option kind field. Options 0 and 1 are
exactly one octet which is their kind field. All other options have
their one octet kind field, followed by a one octet length field,
followed by length-2 octets of option data.

Kind Length Meaning Reference
---- ------ ------------------------------- ---------
0 - End of Option List [RFC793]
1 - No-Operation [RFC793]
2 4 Maximum Segment Lifetime [RFC793]
3 3 WSOPT - Window Scale [RFC1323]
4 2 SACK Permitted [RFC1072]
5 N SACK [RFC1072]
6 6 Echo (obsoleted by option 8) [RFC1072]
7 6 Echo Reply (obsoleted by option 8)[RFC1072]
8 10 TSOPT - Time Stamp Option [RFC1323]
9 2 Partial Order Connection Permitted[RFC1693]
10 5 Partial Order Service Profile [RFC1693]
11 CC [Braden]
12 CC.NEW [Braden]
13 CC.ECHO [Braden]
14 3 TCP Alternate Checksum Request [RFC1146]
15 N TCP Alternate Checksum Data [RFC1146]
16 Skeeter [Knowles]
17 Bubba [Knowles]
18 3 Trailer Checksum Option [Subbu & Monroe]

TCP ALTERNATE CHECKSUM NUMBERS

Number Description Reference
------- ------------------------------- ----------
0 TCP Checksum [RFC-1146]
1 8-bit Fletchers's algorithm [RFC-1146]
2 16-bit Fletchers's algorithm [RFC-1146]
3 Redundant Checksum Avoidance [Kay]

REFERENCES

[KAY] Kay, J. and Pasquale, J., "Measurement, Analysis, and
Improvement of UDP/IP Throughput for the DECstation 5000,"
Proceedings of the Winter 1993 Usenix Conference, January 1993
(available for anonymous FTP in

ucsd.edu:/pub/csl/fastnet/fastnet.tar.Z). <jkay@ucsd.edu>

[RFC793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet
Program Protocol Specification", STD 7, RFC 793, DARPA,
September 1981.

[RFC1323] Jacobson, V., Braden, R., and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions for
High Performance", RFC 1323, LBL, ISI, Cray Research, May
1992.

[RFC1072] Jacobson, V., and R. Braden, "TCP Extensions for Long-Delay
Paths", RFC 1072, LBL, ISI, October 1988.

[RFC1693] ?????

[RFC1146] Zweig, J., and C. Partridge, "TCP Alternate Checksum
Options", RFC 1146, UIUC, BBN, March 1990.

PEOPLE

[Braden] Bob Braden <braden@isi.edu>

[Knowles] Stev Knowles <stev@ftp.com>

[Kay] J. Kay <jkay@ucsd.edu>

[Subbu & Monroe] <mystery contact>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/tcp-parameters

TELNET OPTIONS

The Telnet Protocol has a number of options that may be negotiated.
These options are listed here. "Internet Official Protocol Standards"
(STD 1) provides more detailed information.

Options Name References
------- ----------------------- ----------
0 Binary Transmission [RFC856,JBP]
1 Echo [RFC857,JBP]
2 Reconnection [NIC50005,JBP]
3 Suppress Go Ahead [RFC858,JBP]
4 Approx Message Size Negotiation [ETHERNET,JBP]
5 Status [RFC859,JBP]
6 Timing Mark [RFC860,JBP]
7 Remote Controlled Trans and Echo [RFC726,JBP]
8 Output Line Width [NIC50005,JBP]
9 Output Page Size [NIC50005,JBP]
10 Output Carriage-Return Disposition [RFC652,JBP]
11 Output Horizontal Tab Stops [RFC653,JBP]
12 Output Horizontal Tab Disposition [RFC654,JBP]
13 Output Formfeed Disposition [RFC655,JBP]
14 Output Vertical Tabstops [RFC656,JBP]
15 Output Vertical Tab Disposition [RFC657,JBP]
16 Output Linefeed Disposition [RFC657,JBP]
17 Extended ASCII [RFC698,JBP]
18 Logout [RFC727,MRC]
19 Byte Macro [RFC735,JBP]
20 Data Entry Terminal [RFC1043,RFC732,JBP]
22 SUPDUP [RFC736,RFC734,MRC]
22 SUPDUP Output [RFC749,MRC]
23 Send Location [RFC779,EAK1]
24 Terminal Type [RFC1091,MS56]
25 End of Record [RFC885,JBP]
26 TACACS User Identification [RFC927,BA4]
27 Output Marking [RFC933,SXS]
28 Terminal Location Number [RFC946,RN6]
29 Telnet 3270 Regime [RFC1041,JXR]
30 X.3 PAD [RFC1053,SL70]
31 Negotiate About Window Size [RFC1073,DW183]
32 Terminal Speed [RFC1079,CLH3]
33 Remote Flow Control [RFC1372,CLH3]
34 Linemode [RFC1184,DB14]
35 X Display Location [RFC1096,GM23]
36 Environment Option [RFC1408,DB14]
37 Authentication Option [RFC1409,DB14]
38 Encryption Option [DB14]
39 New Environment Option [RFC1572,DB14]

40 TN3270E [RFC1647]
255 Extended-Options-List [RFC861,JBP]

Telnet Authentication Types

In [RFC1409], a list of authentication types is introduced. Additions
to the list are registerd by the IANA and documented here.

Type Description Reference
0 NULL [RFC1409]
1 KERBEROS_V4 [RFC1409]
2 KERBEROS_V5 [RFC1409]
3 SPX [RFC1409]
4-5 Unassigned
6 RSA [RFC1409]
7-9 Unassigned
10 LOKI [RFC1409]
11 SSA [Schoch]

REFERENCES

[ETHERNET] "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and
Physical Layer Specification", AA-K759B-TK, Digital
Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA. Also as: "The
Ethernet - A Local Area Network", Version 1.0, Digital
Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, Xerox
Corporation, September 1980. And: "The Ethernet, A Local
Area Network: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Specifications", Digital, Intel and Xerox, November 1982.
And: XEROX, "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link
Layer and Physical Layer Specification", X3T51/80-50, Xerox
Corporation, Stamford, CT., October 1980.

[NIC50005] DDN Protocol Handbook, "Telnet Reconnection Option",
"Telnet Output Line Width Option", "Telnet Output Page Size
Option", NIC 50005, December 1985.

[RFC652] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Carriage-Return Disposition
Option", RFC 652, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC653] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Horizontal Tabstops Option",
RFC 653, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC654] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Horizontal Tab Disposition
Option", RFC 654, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC655] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Formfeed Disposition Option",
RFC 655, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC656] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Vertical Tabstops Option",
RFC 656, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC657] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Vertical Tab Disposition Option",
RFC 657, UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC658] Crocker, D., "Telnet Output Linefeed Disposition", RFC 658,
UCLA-NMC, October 1974.

[RFC698] Tovar, "Telnet Extended ASCII Option", RFC 698, Stanford
University-AI, July 1975.

[RFC726] Postel, J. and D. Crocker, "Remote Controlled Transmission
and Echoing Telnet Option", RFC 726, SRI-ARC, UC Irvine,
March 1977.

[RFC727] Crispin, M., "Telnet Logout Option", RFC 727, Stanford
University-AI, April 1977.

[RFC734] Crispin, M., "SUPDUP Protocol", RFC 734, Stanford,
October 1977.

[RFC735] Crocker, D. and R. Gumpertz, "Revised Telnet Byte Marco
Option", RFC 735, Rand, CMU, November 1977.

[RFC736] Crispin, M., "Telnet SUPDUP Option", Stanford University-AI,
RFC 736, Stanford, October 1977.

[RFC749] Greenberg, B., "Telnet SUPDUP-OUTPUT Option", RFC 749,
MIT-Multics, September 1978.

[RFC779] Killian, E., "Telnet Send-Location Option", RFC 779,
LLL, April 1981.

[RFC856] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Binary Transmission",
STD 27, RFC 856, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May
1983.

[RFC857] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Echo Option", STD 28, RFC
857, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

[RFC858] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Suppress Go Ahead
Option", STD 29, RFC 858, USC/Information Sciences Institute,
May 1983.

[RFC859] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Status Option", STD 30,
RFC 859, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

[RFC860] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Timing Mark Option",
STD 31, RFC 860, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May
1983.

[RFC861] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Extended Options - List
Option", STD 32, RFC 861, USC/Information Sciences Institute,
May 1983.

[RFC885] Postel, J., "Telnet End of Record Option", RFC 885,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, December 1983.

[RFC927] Anderson, B., "TACACS User Identification Telnet Option",
RFC 927, BBN, December 1984.

[RFC933] Silverman, S., "Output Marking Telnet Option", RFC 933,
MITRE, January 1985.

[RFC946] Nedved, R., "Telnet Terminal Location Number Option",
RFC 946, Carnegie-Mellon University, May 1985.

[RDC1041] Rekhter, J., "Telnet 3270 Regime Option", RFC 1041,
IBM, January 1988.

[RFC1043] Yasuda, A., and T. Thompson, "TELNET Data Entry Terminal
Option DODIIS Implementation", RFC 1043, DIA, February 1988.

[RFC1053] Levy, S., and T. Jacobson, "Telnet X.3 PAD Option",
RFC 1053, Minnesota Supercomputer Center, April 1988.

[RFC1073] Waitzman, D., "Telnet Window Size Option", RFC 1073,
BBN STC, October, 1988.

[RFC1079] Hedrick, C., "Telnet Terminal Speed Option", RFC 1079,
Rutgers University, December 1988.

[RFC1091] VanBokkelen, J., "Telnet Terminal Type Option",
RFC 1091, FTP Software, Inc., February 1989.

[RFC1096] Marcy, G., "Telnet X Display Location Option", RFC 1096,
Carnegie Mellon University, March 1989.

[RFC1184] Borman, D., Editor, "Telnet Linemode Option",
RFC 1184, Cray Research, Inc., October 1990.

[RFC1372] Hedrick, C., and D. Borman, "Telnet Remote Flow Control
Option", RFC 1372, Rutgers University, Cray Research, Inc.,
October 1992.

[RFC1408] Borman, D., Editor, "Telnet Environment Option", RFC 1408,
Cray Research, Inc., January 1993.

[RFC1409] Borman, D., Editor, "Telnet Authentication Option", RFC
1409, Cray Research, Inc., January 1993.

[RFC1572] Alexander, S., Editor, "Telnet Environment Option", RFC1572,
Lachman Technology, Inc., January 1994.

[RFC1647] Kelly, B., "TN3270 Enhancements", RFC1647, Auburn
University, July 1994.

PEOPLE

[BA4] Brian Anderson <baanders@CCQ.BBN.CO>

[CLH3] Charles Hedrick <HEDRICK@ARAMIS.RUTGERS.EDU>

[DB14] Dave Borman <dab@CRAY.COM>

[DW183] David Waitzman <dwaitzman@BBN.COM>

[EAK4] Earl Kill <EAK@MORDOR.S1.GOV>

[GM23] Glenn Marcy <Glenn.Marcy@A.CS.CMU.EDU>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[MRC] Mark Crispin <MRC@WSMR-SIMTEL20.ARMY.MIL>

[MS56] Marvin Solomon <solomon@CS.WISC.EDU>

[RN6] Rudy Nedved <Rudy.Nedved@CMU-CS-A.>

[Schoch] Steven Schoch <schoch@sheba.arc.nasa.gov>

[SL70] Stuart Levy <slevy@UC.MSC.UMN.EDU>

[SXS] Steve Silverman <Blankert@MITRE-GATEWAY.ORG>

[YXR] Yakov Rekhter <Yakov@IBM.COM>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/telnet-options

DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM PARAMETERS

The Internet Domain Naming System (DOMAIN) includes several
parameters. These are documented in [RFC1034] and [RFC1035]. The
CLASS parameter is listed here. The per CLASS parameters are defined
in separate RFCs as indicated.

Domain System Parameters:

Decimal Name References
-------- ---- ----------
0 Reserved [PM1]
1 Internet (IN) [RFC1034,PM1]
2 Unassigned [PM1]
3 Chaos (CH) [PM1]
4 Hessoid (HS) [PM1]
5-65534 Unassigned [PM1]
65535 Reserved [PM1]

In the Internet (IN) class the following TYPEs and QTYPEs are defined:

TYPE value and meaning

A 1 a host address [RFC1035]
NS 2 an authoritative name server [RFC1035]
MD 3 a mail destination (Obsolete - use MX) [RFC1035]
MF 4 a mail forwarder (Obsolete - use MX) [RFC1035]
CNAME 5 the canonical name for an alias [RFC1035]
SOA 6 marks the start of a zone of authority [RFC1035]
MB 7 a mailbox domain name (EXPERIMENTAL) [RFC1035]
MG 8 a mail group member (EXPERIMENTAL) [RFC1035]
MR 9 a mail rename domain name (EXPERIMENTAL)[RFC1035]
NULL 10 a null RR (EXPERIMENTAL) [RFC1035]
WKS 11 a well known service description [RFC1035]
PTR 12 a domain name pointer [RFC1035]
HINFO 13 host information [RFC1035]
MINFO 14 mailbox or mail list information [RFC1035]
MX 15 mail exchange [RFC1035]
TXT 16 text strings [RFC1035]

RP 17 for Responsible Person [RFC1183]
AFSDB 18 for AFS Data Base location [RFC1183]
X25 19 for X.25 PSDN address [RFC1183]
ISDN 20 for ISDN address [RFC1183]
RT 21 for Route Through [RFC1183]

NSAP 22 for NSAP address, NSAP style A record [RFC1348]
NSAP-PTR 23 for domain name pointer, NSAP style [RFC1348]

SIG 24 for security signature [Donald Eastlake]
KEY 25 for security key [Donald Eastlake]

PX 26 X.400 mail mapping information [RFC1664]

GPOS 27 Geographical Position [Craig Farrell]

AAAA 28 IP6 Address [Susan Thomson]

AXFR 252 transfer of an entire zone [RFC1035]
MAILB 253 mailbox-related RRs (MB, MG or MR) [RFC1035]
MAILA 254 mail agent RRs (Obsolete - see MX) [RFC1035]
* 255 A request for all records [RFC1035]

REFERENCES

[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and
Facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, USC/Information Sciences
Institute, November 1987.

[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and
Specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, USC/Information Sciences
Institute, November 1987.

[RFC1183] Everhart, C., Mamakos, L., Ullmann, R., and P. Mockapetris,
Editors, "New DNS RR Definitions", RFC 1183, Transarc,
University of Maryland, Prime Computer, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, October 1990.

[RFC1348] Manning, B., "DNS NSAP RRs", RFC 1348, Rice University,
July 1992.

[RFC1664] Allocchio, C., Bonito, A., Cole, B., Giordano, S., and R.
Hagens, "Using the Internet DNS to Distribute RFC1327 Mail
Address Mapping Tables", GARR-Italy, Cisco Systems Inc.,
Centro Svizzero Calcolo Scientifico, Advanced Network &
Services, August 1994.

PEOPLE

[Susan Thomson] Susan Thomson <set@swift.bellcore.com>

[PM1] Paul Mockapetris <pvm@isi.edu>

[Donald Eastlake] Donald E. Eastlake, III <dee@ranger.enet.dec.com>

[Craig Farrell]

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/dns-parameters

MAIL ENCODING HEADER FIELD KEYWORDS

[RFC1505] specifies an initial list of keywords for the experimental
encoding header field (EHF-MAIL), and provides that additional
keywords may be registered with the IANA.

Keyword Description Reference
_______ ___________ ____________

EDIFACT EDIFACT format [RFC1505]
EDI-X12 EDI X12 format [ANSI-X12]
EVFU FORTRAN format [RFC1505]
FS File System format [RFC1505]
Hex Hex binary format [RFC1505]
LZJU90 LZJU90 format [RFC1505]
LZW LZW format [RFC1505]
Message Encapsulated Message [RFC822]
PEM, PEM-Clear Privacy Enhanced Mail [RFC1421]
PGP Pretty Good Privacy [RFC1505]
Postscript Postscript format [POSTSCRIPT]
Shar Shell Archive format [RFC1505]
Signature Signature [RFC1505]
Tar Tar format [RFC1505]
Text Text [IS-10646]
uuencode uuencode format [RFC1505]
URL external URL-reference [RFC1505]

MAIL ENCRYPTION TYPES

[RFC822] specifies that Encryption Types for mail may be assigned.
There are currently no RFC 822 encryption types assigned. Please use
instead the Mail Privacy procedures defined in [RFC1421, RFC1422,
RFC1423].

ESMTP MAIL KEYWORDS

[RFC1651] specifies that extension to SMTP can be identified with
keywords.

Keywords Description Reference

------------ -------------------------------- ---------
SEND Send as mail [RFC821]
SOML Send as mail or terminal [RFC821]
SAML Send as mail and terminal [RFC821]
EXPN Expand the mailing list [RFC821]
HELP Supply helpful information [RFC821]
TURN Turn the operation around [RFC821]
8BITMIME Use 8-bit data [RFC1652]
SIZE Message size declaration [RFC1653]
VERB Verbose [Eric Allman]
ONEX One message transaction only [Eric Allman]

MAIL EXTENSION TYPES

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol [RFC821] specifies a set of
commands or services for mail transfer. A general procedure for
extending the set of services is defined in [RFC1651]. The set of
service extensions is listed here.

Service Ext EHLO Keyword Parameters Verb Reference
----------- ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------
Send SEND none SEND [RFC821]
Send or Mail SOML none SOML [RFC821]
Send and Mail SAML none SAML [RFC821]
Expand EXPN none EXPN [RFC821]
Help HELP none HELP [RFC821]
Turn TURN none TURN [RFC821]
8 Bit MIME 8BITMIME none none [RFC1652]
Size SIZE number none [RFC1653]

MAIL SYSTEM NAMES

In some places, an identification of other mail systems is used.

One of these is in "The COSINE and Internet X.500 Schema" (section
9.3.18) [RFC1274]. The mail system names listed here are used as the
legal values in that schema under the "otherMailbox" attribute
"mailboxType" type (which must be a PrintableString).

Another place is in "Mapping between X.400(1988) / ISO 10021 and RFC
822" (section 4.2.2) [RFC1327]. The names listed here are used as

the legal values in that schema under the "std-or-address" attribute
"registered-dd-type" type (which must be a "key-string").

Note that key-string = <a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and "-" >.

Mail System Name Description Reference
---------------- ------------------------------- ---------
mcimail MCI Mail

MAIL TRANSMISSION TYPES

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol [RFC821] and the Standard for the
Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages [RFC822] specify that a set of
"Received" lines will be prepended to the headers of electronic mail
messages as they are transported through the Internet. These received
line may optionally include either or both a "via" phrase and/or a
"with" phrase. The legal values for the phrases are listed here. The
via phrase is intended to indicate the link or physical medium over
which the message was transferred. The with phrase is intended to
indicate the protocol or logical process that was used to transfer the
message.

VIA link types Description Reference
-------------- ---------------------------- ---------
UUCP Unix-to-Unix Copy Program [???]

WITH protocol types Description Reference
------------------- ---------------------------- ---------
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol [RFC821]
ESMTP SMTP with Service Extensions [RFC1651]

REFERENCES

[ANSI-X12]

[POSTSCRIPT] Adobe Systems Inc., "PostScript Langpuage Reference
Manual", 2nd Edition, 2nd Printing, January 1991.

[IS-10646]

[RFC821] Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", STD 10, RFC 821,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

[RFC822] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA-Internet Text
Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, UDEL, August 1982.

[RFC1274] Barker, P., and S. Kille, "The COSINE and Internet X.500
Schema", RFC 1274, University College London, November 1991.

[RFC1327] Hardcastle-Kille, S., "Mapping between X.400(1988) / ISO
10021 and RFC 822", RFC 1327, University College London,
May 1992.

[RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part I: Message Encipherment and Authentication
Procedures", RFC 1421, IAB IRTF PSRG, IETF PEM WG,
February 1993.

[RFC1422] Kent, S., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet
Electronic Mail: Part II -- Certificate-Based Key
Management", BBN, IAB IRTF PSRG, IETF PEM, February 1993.

[RFC1423] Balenson, D., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part III -- Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers",
RFC 1423, TIS, IAB IRTF PSRG, IETF PEM WG, February 1993.

[RFC1505] Costanzo, A., Robinson, D., and R. Ullmann, "Encoding Header
Field for Internet Messages", RFC 1505, AKC Consulting,
Computervision Corporation, August 1993.

[RFC1651] Klensin, J., Freed, N., Rose, M., Stefferud, E., and D.
Crocker, "SMTP Service Extensions", RFC 1651, MCI, Innosoft,
Dover Beach Consulting, Inc., Network Management Associates,
Inc., Silicon Graphics, Inc., July 1994.

[RFC1652] Klensin, J., Freed, N., Rose, M., Stefferud, E., and D.
Crocker, "SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport",
RFC 1652, MCI, Innosoft, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.,
Network Management Associates, Inc., Silicon Graphics, Inc.,
July 1994.

[RFC1653] Klensin, J., Freed, N., and K. Moore, "SMTP Service
Extension for Message Size Declaration", RFC 1653,
MCI, Innosoft, University of Tennessee, July 1994.

PEOPLE

[Eric Allman]

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/mail-parameters

BOOTP AND DHCP PARAMETERS

The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) [RFC951] describes an IP/UDP
bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) which allows a diskless client machine to
discover its own IP address, the address of a server host, and the
name of a file to be loaded into memory and executed. The Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) [RFC1531] provides a framework for
automatic configuration of IP hosts. The "DHCP Options and BOOTP
Vendor Information Extensions" [RFC1533] describes the additions to the
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) which can also be used as options with the
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

BOOTP Vendor Extensions and DHCP Options are listed below:

Tag Name Data Length Meaning
--- ---- ----------- -------
0 Pad 0 None
1 Subnet Mask 4 Subnet Mask Value
2 Time Offset 4 Time Offset in
Seconds from UTC
3 Gateways N N/4 Gateway addresses
4 Time Server N N/4 Timeserver addresses
5 Name Server N N/4 IEN-116 Server addresses
6 Domain Server N N/4 DNS Server addresses
7 Log Server N N/4 Logging Server addresses
8 Quotes Server N N/4 Quotes Server addresses
9 LPR Server N N/4 Printer Server addresses
10 Impress Server N N/4 Impress Server addresses
11 RLP Server N N/4 RLP Server addresses
12 Hostname N Hostname string
13 Boot File Size 2 Size of boot file in 512 byte
chunks
14 Merit Dump File Client to dump and name
the file to dump it to
15 Domain Name N The DNS domain name of the
client
16 Swap Server N Swap Server addeess
17 Root Path N Path name for root disk
18 Extension File N Path name for more BOOTP info

19 Forward On/Off 1 Enable/Disable IP Forwarding
20 SrcRte On/Off 1 Enable/Disable Source Routing
21 Policy Filter N Routing Policy Filters
22 Max DG Assembly 2 Max Datagram Reassembly Size
23 Default IP TTL 1 Default IP Time to Live
24 MTU Timeout 4 Path MTU Aging Timeout
25 MTU Plateau N Path MTU Plateau Table

26 MTU Interface 2 Interface MTU Size
27 MTU Subnet 1 All Subnets are Local
28 Broadcast Address 4 Broadcast Address
29 Mask Discovery 1 Perform Mask Discovery
30 Mask Supplier 1 Provide Mask to Others
31 Router Discovery 1 Perform Router Discovery
32 Router Request 4 Router Solicitation Address
33 Static Route N Static Routing Table
34 Trailers 1 Trailer Encapsulation
35 ARP Timeout 4 ARP Cache Timeout
36 Ethernet 1 Ethernet Encapsulation
37 Default TCP TTL 1 Default TCP Time to Live
38 Keepalive Time 4 TCP Keepalive Interval
39 Keepalive Data 1 TCP Keepalive Garbage
40 NIS Domain N NIS Domain Name
41 NIS Servers N NIS Server Addresses
42 NTP Servers N NTP Server Addresses
43 Vendor Specific N Vendor Specific Information
44 NETBIOS Name Srv N NETBIOS Name Servers
45 NETBIOS Dist Srv N NETBIOS Datagram Distribution
46 NETBIOS Note Type 1 NETBIOS Note Type
47 NETBIOS Scope N NETBIOS Scope
48 X Window Font N X Window Font Server
49 X Window Manmager N X Window Display Manager
50 Address Request 4 Requested IP Address
51 Address Time 4 IP Address Lease Time
52 Overload 1 Overloaf "sname" or "file"
53 DHCP Msg Type 1 DHCP Message Type
54 DHCP Server Id 4 DHCP Server Identification
55 Parameter List N Parameter Request List
56 DHCP Message N DHCP Error Message
57 DHCP Max Msg Size 2 DHCP Maximum Message Size
58 Renewal Time 4 DHCP Renewal (T1) Time
59 Rebinding Time 4 DHCP Rebinding (T2) Time
60 Class Id N Class Identifier
61 Client Id N Client Identifier
62 Netware/IP Domain N Netware/IP Domain Name
63 Netware/IP Option N Netware/IP sub Options

64-127 Unassigned
128-154 Reserved

255 End 0 None

REFERENCES

[RFC951] Croft, B., and J. Gilmore, "BOOTSTRAP Protocol (BOOTP)",
RFC-951, Stanford and SUN Microsytems, September 1985.

[RFC1531] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", Bucknell
University, October 1993.

[RFC1533] Alexander, S., and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
Extensions", Lachman Technology, Inc., Bucknell University,
October 1993.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/bootp-and-dhcp-
parameters

ADDRESS FAMILY NUMBERS

Several protocols deal with multiple address families. The 16-bit
assignments are listed here.

Number Description Reference
------ ---------------------------------------------------- ---------
0 Reserved
1 IP (IP version 4)
2 IP6 (IP version 6)
3 NSAP
4 HDLC (8-bit multidrop)
5 BBN 1822
6 802 (includes all 802 media plus Ethernet "canonical format")
7 E.163
8 E.164 (SMDS, Frame Relay, ATM)
9 F.69 (Telex)
10 X.121 (X.25, Frame Relay)
11 IPX
12 Appletalk
13 Decnet IV
14 Banyan Vines
65535 Reserved

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/address-family-numbers

FOOBAR AF NUMBERS

In the FTP Operation Over Big Address Records (FOOBAR) Protocol
[RFC1639] there is a field, called "address family" or "af", to
identify the lower level protocol addresses in use. This is an 8 bit
field. The first 16 assignments (0-15) of the af value are exactly
the same as the IP Version number. The assignment for values 16-255
are listed here.

Assigned FOOBAR Address Families

Decimal Keyword Address Family References
------- ------- -------------- ----------
16 IPX Novell IPX
17-254 Unassigned
255 Reserved

REFERENCES

[RFC1639] Piscitello, D., "FTP Operation Over Big Address Records
(FOOBAR)", Core Competence, Inc., June 1994.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/foobar-af-numbers

DIRECTORY SYSTEM NAMES

In the representation of distinquished names (and possibly other
contexts) of the X.500 Directory system, several unique keywords may
be necessary. For example, in the string representation of
distinguished names [RFC1485].

Keyword Attribute (X.520 keys)
------- ---------------------------------
CN CommonName
L LocalityName
ST StateOrProvinceName
O OrganizationName
OU OrganizationalUnitName
C CountryName

REFERENCES

[RFC1485] Hardcastle-Kille, S., "A String Representation of
Distinguished Names (OSI-DS 23 (v5))", RFC1485, ISODE
Consortium, July 1993.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/directory-system-names

PUBLISHER IDENTIFICATION CODE

The RFC "A Format for E-Mailing Bibliographic Records" [RFC1357]
establishs a "publisher-ID" code. The IANA registry of these codes is
listed here.

Code Publisher Reference
------ ------------------------------------------------------- ---------
DUMMY for testing only [RFC1357]
TEST for testing only [RFC1357]
ISI Information Sciences Institute [JBP]
of the University of Southern California
UMCS University of Manchester Computer Science Department [TXC]

REFERENCES

[RFC1357] Cohen, D., Editor, "A Format for E-mailing Bibliographic
Records", RFC 1357, USC/Information Sciences Institute,
July 1992.

PEOPLE

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[TXC] Tim Clement <timc@cs.man.ac.uk>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/publisher-id

OSPF AUTHENTICATION CODES

The Open Shotrest Path First (OSPF) protocols has a provision for
authentication, and the type of authentication can me indicated by a
code number. The following are the registered authentication codes.

Code Authentication Method Reference
---- --------------------- ---------
0 No Authentication [RFC1583]
1 Simple Password Authentication [RFC1583]
2-65535 Reserved

REFERENCES

[RFC1583] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 1583, Proteon, Inc., March
1994.

[RFC1584] Moy, J., "Multicast Extensions to OSPF", RFC 1584, Proteon,
Inc., March 1994.

[RFC1585] Moy, J., "MOSPF: Analysis and Experience", RFC 1585,
Proteon, Inc., March 1994.

[RFC1586] deSouza, O., and M. Rodrigues, "Guidelines for Running OSPF
Over Frame Relay Networks", RFC 1586, AT&T Bell
Laboratories, March 1994.

[RFC1587] Coltun, R., and V. Fuller, "The OSPF NSSA Option", RFC 1587,
RainbowBridge Communications, BARRNet, March 1994.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ospf-authentication-
codes

MEDIA TYPES

[RFC1521] specifies that Content Types, Content Subtypes, Character
Sets, Access Types, and Conversion values for MIME mail will be
assigned and listed by the IANA.

Content Types and Subtypes
--------------------------

Type Subtype Description Reference
---- ------- ----------- ---------
text plain [RFC1521,NSB]
richtext [RFC1521,NSB]
tab-separated-values [Paul Lindner]

multipart mixed [RFC1521,NSB]
alternative [RFC1521,NSB]
digest [RFC1521,NSB]
parallel [RFC1521,NSB]
appledouble [MacMime,Patrik Faltstrom]
header-set [Dave Crocker]

message rfc822 [RFC1521,NSB]
partial [RFC1521,NSB]
external-body [RFC1521,NSB]
news [RFC 1036, Henry Spencer]

application octet-stream [RFC1521,NSB]
postscript [RFC1521,NSB]
oda [RFC1521,NSB]
atomicmail [atomicmail,NSB]
andrew-inset [andrew-inset,NSB]
slate [slate,terry crowley]
wita [Wang Info Transfer,Larry Campbell]
dec-dx [Digital Doc Trans, Larry Campbell]
dca-rft [IBM Doc Content Arch, Larry Campbell]
activemessage [Ehud Shapiro]
rtf [Paul Lindner]
applefile [MacMime,Patrik Faltstrom]
mac-binhex40 [MacMime,Patrik Faltstrom]
news-message-id [RFC1036, Henry Spencer]
news-transmission [RFC1036, Henry Spencer]
wordperfect5.1 [Paul Lindner]
pdf [Paul Lindner]
zip [Paul Lindner]
macwriteii [Paul Lindner]

msword [Paul Lindner]
remote-printing [RFC1486,MTR]

image jpeg [RFC1521,NSB]
gif [RFC1521,NSB]
ief Image Exchange Format [RFC1314]
tiff Tag Image File Format [MTR]

audio basic [RFC1521,NSB]

video mpeg [RFC1521,NSB]
quicktime [Paul Lindner]

The "media-types" directory contains a subdirectory for each content
type and each of those directories contains a file for each content
subtype.

|-application-
|-audio-------
|-image-------
|-media-types-|-message-----
|-multipart---
|-text--------
|-video-------

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types

Character Sets
--------------

All of the character sets listed the section on Character Sets are
registered for use with MIME as MIME Character Sets. The
correspondance between the few character sets listed in the MIME
specification [RFC1521] and the list in that section are:

Type Description Reference
---- ----------- ---------
US-ASCII see ANSI_X3.4-1968 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-1 see ISO_8859-1:1987 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-2 see ISO_8859-2:1987 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-3 see ISO_8859-3:1988 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-4 see ISO_8859-4:1988 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-5 see ISO_8859-5:1988 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-6 see ISO_8859-6:1987 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-7 see ISO_8859-7:1987 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-8 see ISO_8859-8:1988 below [RFC1521,NSB]
ISO-8859-9 see ISO_8859-9:1989 below [RFC1521,NSB]

Access Types
------------

Type Description Reference
---- ----------- ---------
FTP [RFC1521,NSB]
ANON-FTP [RFC1521,NSB]
TFTP [RFC1521,NSB]
AFS [RFC1521,NSB]
LOCAL-FILE [RFC1521,NSB]
MAIL-SERVER [RFC1521,NSB]

Conversion Values
-----------------

Conversion values or Content Transfer Encodings.

Type Description Reference
---- ----------- ---------
7BIT [RFC1521,NSB]
8BIT [RFC1521,NSB]
BASE64 [RFC1521,NSB]
BINARY [RFC1521,NSB]
QUOTED-PRINTABLE [RFC1521,NSB]

MIME / X.400 MAPPING TABLES

MIME to X.400 Table

MIME content-type X.400 Body Part Reference
----------------- ------------------ ---------
text/plain
charset=us-ascii ia5-text [RFC1494]
charset=iso-8859-x EBP - GeneralText [RFC1494]
text/richtext no mapping defined [RFC1494]
application/oda EBP - ODA [RFC1494]
application/octet-stream bilaterally-defined [RFC1494]
application/postscript EBP - mime-postscript-body [RFC1494]
image/g3fax g3-facsimile [RFC1494]
image/jpeg EBP - mime-jpeg-body [RFC1494]
image/gif EBP - mime-gif-body [RFC1494]
audio/basic no mapping defined [RFC1494]
video/mpeg no mapping defined [RFC1494]

Abbreviation: EBP - Extended Body Part

X.400 to MIME Table

Basic Body Parts

X.400 Basic Body Part MIME content-type Reference
--------------------- -------------------- ---------
ia5-text text/plain;charset=us-ascii [RFC1494]
voice No Mapping Defined [RFC1494]
g3-facsimile image/g3fax [RFC1494]
g4-class1 no mapping defined [RFC1494]
teletex no mapping defined [RFC1494]
videotex no mapping defined [RFC1494]
encrypted no mapping defined [RFC1494]
bilaterally-defined application/octet-stream [RFC1494]
nationally-defined no mapping defined [RFC1494]
externally-defined See Extended Body Parts [RFC1494]

X.400 Extended Body Part MIME content-type Reference
------------------------- -------------------- ---------
GeneralText text/plain;charset=iso-8859-x[RFC1494]
ODA application/oda [RFC1494]
mime-postscript-body application/postscript [RFC1494]
mime-jpeg-body image/jpeg [RFC1494]
mime-gif-body image/gif [RFC1494]

REFERENCES

[MacMime] Work in Progress.

[RFC1036] Horton, M., and R. Adams, "Standard for Interchange of
USENET Messages", RFC 1036, AT&T Bell Laboratories,
Center for Seismic Studies, December 1987.

[RFC1494] Alvestrand, H., and S. Thompson, "Equivalences between 1988
X.400 and RFC-822 Message Bodies", RFC 1494, SINTEF DELAB,
Soft*Switch, Inc., August 1993.

[RFC1521] Borenstien, N., and N. Freed, "MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extensions) Part One: Mechanisms for Specifying and
Describing the Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 1521,
Bellcore, Innosoft, September 1993.

PEOPLE

[Larry Campbell]

[Dave Crocker] Dave Crocker <dcrocker@mordor.stanford.edu>

[Terry Crowley]

[NSB] Nathaniel Borenstein <nsb@bellcore.com>

[MTR] Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>

[Paul Lindner]

[PXF] Patrik Faltstrom <paf@nada.kth.se>

[Ehud Shapiro]

[Henry Spencer]

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-
types

CHARACTER SETS

These are the official names for character sets that may be used in
the Internet and may be referred to in Internet documentation. These
names are expressed in ANSI_X3.4-1968 which is commonly called
US-ASCII or simply ASCII. The character set most commonly use in the
Internet and used especially in protocol standards is US-ASCII, this
is strongly encouraged. The use of the name US-ASCII is also
encouraged.

The character set names may be up to 40 characters taken from the
printable characters of US-ASCII. However, no distinction is made
between use of upper and lower case letters.

Character Set Reference
------------- ---------

Name: ANSI_X3.4-1968 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-6
Alias: ANSI_X3.4-1986
Alias: ISO_646.irv:1991
Alias: ASCII
Alias: ISO646-US
Alias: US-ASCII
Alias: us
Alias: IBM367
Alias: cp367

Name: ISO-10646-UCS-2
Source: the 2-octet Basic Multilingual Plane, aka Unicode
this needs to specify network byte order: the standard
does not specify (it is a 16-bit integer space)

Name: ISO-10646-UCS-4
Source: the full code space. (same comment about byte order,
these are 31-bit numbers.

Name: ISO-10646-UTF-1
Source: Universal Transfer Format (1), this is the multibyte
encoding, that subsets ASCII-7. It does not have byte
ordering issues.

Name: ISO_646.basic:1983 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: ref

Name: INVARIANT [RFC1345,KXS2]

Name: ISO_646.irv:1983 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-2
Alias: irv

Name: BS_4730 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-4
Alias: ISO646-GB
Alias: gb
Alias: uk

Name: NATS-SEFI [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-8-1

Name: NATS-SEFI-ADD [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-8-2

Name: NATS-DANO [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-9-1

Name: NATS-DANO-ADD [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-9-2

Name: SEN_850200_B [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-10
Alias: FI
Alias: ISO646-FI
Alias: ISO646-SE
Alias: se

Name: SEN_850200_C [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-11
Alias: ISO646-SE2
Alias: se2

Name: KS_C_5601-1987 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-149
Alias: KS_C_5601-1989

Alias: KSC_5601
Alias: korean

Name: ISO-2022-KR [RFC1557,Choi]
Source: RFC-1557 (see also KS_C_5601-1987)

Name: EUC-KR [RFC1557,Choi]
Source: RFC-1557 (see also KS_C_5861-1992)

Name: ISO-2022-JP [RFC1468,Murai]
Source: RFC-1468

Name: ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554,Ohta]
Source: RFC-1554

Name: JIS_C6220-1969-jp [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: JIS_C6220-1969
Alias: iso-ir-13
Alias: katakana
Alias: x0201-7

Name: JIS_C6220-1969-ro [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-14
Alias: jp
Alias: ISO646-JP

Name: IT [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-15
Alias: ISO646-IT

Name: PT [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-16
Alias: ISO646-PT

Name: ES [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-17
Alias: ISO646-ES

Name: greek7-old [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-18

Name: latin-greek [RFC1345,KXS2]

Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-19

Name: DIN_66003 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-21
Alias: de
Alias: ISO646-DE

Name: NF_Z_62-010_(1973) [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-25
Alias: ISO646-FR1

Name: Latin-greek-1 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-27

Name: ISO_5427 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-37

Name: JIS_C6226-1978 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-42

Name: BS_viewdata [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-47

Name: INIS [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-49

Name: INIS-8 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-50

Name: INIS-cyrillic [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-51

Name: ISO_5427:1981 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-54

Name: ISO_5428:1980 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry

Alias: iso-ir-55

Name: GB_1988-80 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-57
Alias: cn
Alias: ISO646-CN

Name: GB_2312-80 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-58
Alias: chinese

Name: NS_4551-1 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-60
Alias: ISO646-NO
Alias: no

Name: NS_4551-2 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: ISO646-NO2
Alias: iso-ir-61
Alias: no2

Name: NF_Z_62-010 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-69
Alias: ISO646-FR
Alias: fr

Name: videotex-suppl [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-70

Name: PT2 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-84
Alias: ISO646-PT2

Name: ES2 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-85
Alias: ISO646-ES2

Name: MSZ_7795.3 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-86

Alias: ISO646-HU
Alias: hu

Name: JIS_C6226-1983 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-87
Alias: x0208
Alias: JIS_X0208-1983

Name: greek7 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-88

Name: ASMO_449 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: ISO_9036
Alias: arabic7
Alias: iso-ir-89

Name: iso-ir-90 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-a [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-91
Alias: jp-ocr-a

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-b [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-92
Alias: ISO646-JP-OCR-B
Alias: jp-ocr-b

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-b-add [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-93
Alias: jp-ocr-b-add

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-hand [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-94
Alias: jp-ocr-hand

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-hand-add [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-95
Alias: jp-ocr-hand-add

Name: JIS_C6229-1984-kana [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-96

Name: ISO_2033-1983 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-98
Alias: e13b

Name: ANSI_X3.110-1983 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-99
Alias: CSA_T500-1983
Alias: NAPLPS

Name: ISO_8859-1:1987 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-100
Alias: ISO_8859-1
Alias: ISO-8859-1
Alias: latin1
Alias: l1
Alias: IBM819
Alias: CP819

Name: ISO_8859-2:1987 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-101
Alias: ISO_8859-2
Alias: ISO-8859-2
Alias: latin2
Alias: l2

Name: T.61-7bit [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-102

Name: T.61-8bit [RFC1345,KXS2]
Alias: T.61
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-103

Name: ISO_8859-3:1988 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-109
Alias: ISO_8859-3
Alias: ISO-8859-3
Alias: latin3

Alias: l3

Name: ISO_8859-4:1988 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-110
Alias: ISO_8859-4
Alias: ISO-8859-4
Alias: latin4
Alias: l4

Name: ECMA-cyrillic [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-111

Name: CSA_Z243.4-1985-1 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-121
Alias: ISO646-CA
Alias: csa7-1
Alias: ca

Name: CSA_Z243.4-1985-2 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-122
Alias: ISO646-CA2
Alias: csa7-2

Name: CSA_Z243.4-1985-gr [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-123

Name: ISO_8859-6:1987 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-127
Alias: ISO_8859-6
Alias: ISO-8859-6
Alias: ECMA-114
Alias: ASMO-708
Alias: arabic

Name: ISO_8859-6-E [RFC1556,IANA]
Source: RFC-1556

Name: ISO_8859-6-I [RFC1556,IANA]
Source: RFC-1556

Name: ISO_8859-7:1987 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry

Alias: iso-ir-126
Alias: ISO_8859-7
Alias: ISO-8859-7
Alias: ELOT_928
Alias: ECMA-118
Alias: greek
Alias: greek8

Name: T.101-G2 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-128

Name: ISO_8859-8:1988 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-138
Alias: ISO_8859-8
Alias: ISO-8859-8
Alias: hebrew

Name: ISO_8859-8-E [RFC1556,Nussbacher]
Source: RFC-1556

Name: ISO_8859-8-I [RFC1556,Nussbacher]
Source: RFC-1556

Name: CSN_369103 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-139

Name: JUS_I.B1.002 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-141
Alias: ISO646-YU
Alias: js
Alias: yu

Name: ISO_6937-2-add [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry and ISO 6937-2:1983
Alias: iso-ir-142

Name: IEC_P27-1 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-143

Name: ISO_8859-5:1988 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-144
Alias: ISO_8859-5

Alias: ISO-8859-5
Alias: cyrillic

Name: JUS_I.B1.003-serb [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-146
Alias: serbian

Name: JUS_I.B1.003-mac [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: macedonian
Alias: iso-ir-147

Name: ISO_8859-9:1989 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-148
Alias: ISO_8859-9
Alias: ISO-8859-9
Alias: latin5
Alias: l5

Name: greek-ccitt [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-150

Name: NC_NC00-10:81 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: cuba
Alias: iso-ir-151
Alias: ISO646-CU

Name: ISO_6937-2-25 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-152

Name: GOST_19768-74 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: ST_SEV_358-88
Alias: iso-ir-153

Name: ISO_8859-supp [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-154
Alias: latin1-2-5

Name: ISO_10367-box [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-155

Name: latin6 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: iso-ir-157
Alias: l6

Name: latin-lap [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: lap
Alias: iso-ir-158

Name: JIS_X0212-1990 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: ECMA registry
Alias: x0212
Alias: iso-ir-159

Name: DS_2089 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: Danish Standard, DS 2089, February 1974
Alias: DS2089
Alias: ISO646-DK
Alias: dk

Name: us-dk [RFC1345,KXS2]

Name: dk-us [RFC1345,KXS2]

Name: JIS_X0201 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Alias: X0201

Name: KSC5636 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Alias: ISO646-KR

Name: DEC-MCS [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: VAX/VMS User's Manual,
Order Number: AI-Y517A-TE, April 1986.
Alias: dec

Name: hp-roman8 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: LaserJet IIP Printer User's Manual,
HP part no 33471-90901, Hewlet-Packard, June 1989.
Alias: roman8
Alias: r8

Name: macintosh [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: The Unicode Standard ver1.0, ISBN 0-201-56788-1, Oct 1991
Alias: mac

Name: IBM037 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990

Alias: cp037
Alias: ebcdic-cp-us
Alias: ebcdic-cp-ca
Alias: ebcdic-cp-wt
Alias: ebcdic-cp-nl

Name: IBM038 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990
Alias: EBCDIC-INT
Alias: cp038

Name: IBM273 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP273

Name: IBM274 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990
Alias: EBCDIC-BE
Alias: CP274

Name: IBM275 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: EBCDIC-BR
Alias: cp275

Name: IBM277 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: EBCDIC-CP-DK
Alias: EBCDIC-CP-NO

Name: IBM278 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP278
Alias: ebcdic-cp-fi
Alias: ebcdic-cp-se

Name: IBM280 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP280
Alias: ebcdic-cp-it

Name: IBM281 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990
Alias: EBCDIC-JP-E
Alias: cp281

Name: IBM284 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990

Alias: CP284
Alias: ebcdic-cp-es

Name: IBM285 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP285
Alias: ebcdic-cp-gb

Name: IBM290 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990
Alias: cp290
Alias: EBCDIC-JP-kana

Name: IBM297 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp297
Alias: ebcdic-cp-fr

Name: IBM420 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990,
IBM NLS RM p 11-11
Alias: cp420
Alias: ebcdic-cp-ar1

Name: IBM423 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp423
Alias: ebcdic-cp-gr

Name: IBM424 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp424
Alias: ebcdic-cp-he

Name: IBM437 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp437
Alias: 437

Name: IBM500 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP500
Alias: ebcdic-cp-be
Alias: ebcdic-cp-ch

Name: IBM850 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp850

Alias: 850

Name: IBM851 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp851
Alias: 851

Name: IBM852 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp852
Alias: 852

Name: IBM855 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp855
Alias: 855

Name: IBM857 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp857
Alias: 857

Name: IBM860 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp860
Alias: 860

Name: IBM861 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp861
Alias: 861
Alias: cp-is

Name: IBM862 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp862
Alias: 862

Name: IBM863 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991
Alias: cp863
Alias: 863

Name: IBM864 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991
Alias: cp864

Name: IBM865 [RFC1345,KXS2]

Source: IBM DOS 3.3 Ref (Abridged), 94X9575 (Feb 1987)
Alias: cp865
Alias: 865

Name: IBM868 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP868
Alias: cp-ar

Name: IBM869 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991
Alias: cp869
Alias: 869
Alias: cp-gr

Name: IBM870 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP870
Alias: ebcdic-cp-roece
Alias: ebcdic-cp-yu

Name: IBM871 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP871
Alias: ebcdic-cp-is

Name: IBM880 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp880
Alias: EBCDIC-Cyrillic

Name: IBM891 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp891

Name: IBM903 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp903

Name: IBM904 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: cp904
Alias: 904

Name: IBM905 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990
Alias: CP905
Alias: ebcdic-cp-tr

Name: IBM918 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP918
Alias: ebcdic-cp-ar2

Name: IBM1026 [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990
Alias: CP1026

Name: EBCDIC-AT-DE [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-AT-DE-A [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-CA-FR [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-DK-NO [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-DK-NO-A [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-FI-SE [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-FI-SE-A [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-FR [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-IT [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-PT [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-ES [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-ES-A [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-ES-S [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-UK [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: EBCDIC-US [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987

Name: UNKNOWN-8BIT [RFC1428]

Name: MNEMONIC [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: RFC 1345, also known as "mnemonic+ascii+38"

Name: MNEM [RFC1345,KXS2]
Source: RFC 1345, also known as "mnemonic+ascii+8200"

Name: VISCII [RFC1456]
Source: RFC 1456

Name: VIQR [RFC1456]
Source: RFC 1456

Name: KOI8-R [RFC1489]
Source: RFC 1489, based on GOST-19768-74, ISO-6937/8,
INIS-Cyrillic, ISO-5427.

Name: UNICODE-1-1 [RFC1641]
Source: RFC 1641

Name: UNICODE-1-1-UTF-7 [RFC1642]
Source: RFC 1642

REFERENCES

[RFC1345] Simonsen, K., "Character Mnemonics & Character Sets",
RFC 1345, Rationel Almen Planlaegning, Rationel Almen
Planlaegning, June 1992.

[RFC1428] Vaudreuil, G., "Transition of Internet Mail from
Just-Send-8 to 8bit-SMTP/MIME", RFC1428, CNRI, February
1993.

[RFC1456] Vietnamese Standardization Working Group, "Conventions for
Encoding the Vietnamese Language VISCII: VIetnamese
Standard Code for Information Interchange VIQR: VIetnamese
Quoted-Readable Specification Revision 1.1", RFC 1456, May
1993.

[RFC1468] Murai, J., Crispin, M., and E. van der Poel, "Japanese
Character Encoding for Internet Messages", RFC 1468,

Keio University, Panda Programming, June 1993.

[RFC1489] Chernov, A., "Registration of a Cyrillic Character Set",
RFC1489, RELCOM Development Team, July 1993.

[RFC1554] Ohta, M., and K. Handa, "ISO-2022-JP-2: Multilingual
Extension of ISO-2022-JP", RFC1554, Tokyo Institute of
Technology, ETL, December 1993.

[RFC1556] Nussbacher, H., "Handling of Bi-directional Texts in MIME",
RFC1556, Israeli Inter-University, December 1993.

[RFC1557] Choi, U., Chon, K., and H. Park, "Korean Character Encoding
for Internet Messages", KAIST, Solvit Chosun Media,
December 1993.

[RFC1641] Goldsmith, D., and M. Davis, "Using Unicode with MIME",
RFC1641, Taligent, Inc., July 1994.

[RFC1642] Goldsmith, D., and M. Davis, "UTF-7", RFC1642, Taligent,
Inc., July 1994.

PEOPLE

[KXS2] Keld Simonsen <Keld.Simonsen@dkuug.dk>

[Choi] Uhhyung Choi <uhhyung@kaist.ac.kr>

[Murai] Jun Murai <jun@wide.ad.jp>

[Ohta] Masataka Ohta <mohta@cc.titech.ac.jp>

[Nussbacher] Hank Nussbacher <hank@vm.tau.ac.il>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/character-sets

NETWORK MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS

For the management of hosts and gateways on the Internet a data
structure for the information has been defined. This data structure
should be used with any of several possible management protocols, such
as the "Simple Network Management Protocol" (SNMP) [RFC1157], or the
"Common Management Information Protocol over TCP" (CMOT) [RFC1095].

The data structure is the "Structure and Indentification of Management
Information for TCP/IP-based Internets" (SMI) [RFC1155], and the
"Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based
Internets" (MIB-II) [RFC1213].

The SMI includes the provision for panrameters or codes to indicate
experimental or private data structures. These parameter assignments
are listed here.

The older "Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol" (SGMP) [RFC1028] also
defined a data structure. The parameter assignments used with SGMP
are included here for historical completeness.

The network management object identifiers are under the iso (1), org
(3), dod (6), internet (1), or 1.3.6.1, branch of the name space.

The major branches are:

1 iso
1.3 org
1.3.6 dod
1.3.6.1 internet
1.3.6.1.1 directory
1.3.6.1.2 mgmt
1.3.6.1.2.1 mib-2
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3 ifType
1.3.6.1.2.1.10 transmission
1.3.6.1.2.1.10.23 transmission.ppp
1.3.6.1.2.1.27 application
1.3.6.1.2.1.28 mta
1.3.6.1.3 experimental
1.3.6.1.4 private
1.3.6.1.4.1 enterprise
1.3.6.1.5 security
1.3.6.1.6 SNMPv2
1.3.6.1.7 mail

SMI Network Management Directory Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.directory (1.3.6.1.1.)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
all Reserved Reserved for future use [IANA]

SMI Network Management MGMT Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt (1.3.6.1.2.)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved [IANA]
1 MIB [KZM]

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2 (1.3.6.1.2.1)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved Reserved [IANA]
1 system System [RFC1213,KZM]
2 interfaces Interfaces [RFC1213,KZM]
3 at Address Translation [RFC1213,KZM]
4 ip Internet Protocol [RFC1213,KZM]
5 icmp Internet Control Message [RFC1213,KZM]
6 tcp Transmission Control Protocol[RFC1213,KZM]
7 udp User Datagram Protocol [RFC1213,KZM]
8 egp Exterior Gateway Protocol [RFC1213,KZM]
9 cmot CMIP over TCP [RFC1213,KZM]
10 transmission Transmission [RFC1213,KZM]
11 snmp Simple Network Management [RFC1213,KZM]
12 GenericIF Generic Interface Extensions
-- [RFC1229,RFC1239,KZM]
13 Appletalk Appletalk Networking [RFC1243,SXW]
14 ospf Open Shortest Path First [RFC1253,FB77]
15 bgp Border Gateway Protocol [RFC1657]
16 rmon Remote Network Monitoring [RFC1271,SXW]
17 bridge Bridge Objects [RFC1286,EXD]
18 DecnetP4 Decnet Phase 4 [RFC1559, Saperia]
19 Character Character Streams [RFC1658]
20 snmpParties SNMP Parties [RFC1353,KZM]
21 snmpSecrets SNMP Secrets [RFC1353,KZM]
22 snmpDot3RptrMgt [RFC1516]
23 rip-2 Routing Information Protocol [RFC1389]
24 ident Identification Protocol [RFC1414]
25 host Host Resources [RFC1514]
26 snmpDot3MauMgt 802.3 Medium Attachment Units [RFC1515]
27 application Network Services Monitoring [RFC1565]
28 mta Mail Monitoring [RFC1566]
29 dsa X.500 Directory Monitoring [RFC1567]

30 IANAifType Interface Types [RFC1573]
31 ifMIB Interface Types [RFC1573]
32 dns Domain Name System [RFC1611]
33 upsMIB Uninterruptible Power Supplies [RFC1628]
34 sannauMIB SNA NAU MIB [RFC1665]
35 etherMIB Ethernet-like generic objects [RFC1650]
36 sipMIB SMDS inteface objects [RFC1694]
37 atmMIB ATM objects [RFC1695]
38 mdmMIB Dial-up modem objects [RFC1696]
39 rdbmsMIB relational database objects [RFC1697]

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.interface (1.3.6.1.2.1.2)

(1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3)

ifType definitions

Decimal Name Description
------- ---- -----------
1 other none of the following [RFC1213]
2 regular1822 BBN Report 1822 [RFC1213]
3 hdh1822 BBN Report 1822 [RFC1213]
4 ddn-x25 BBN Report 1822 [RFC1213]
5 x25 X.25 [RFC1382]
6 ethernet-csmacd [RFC1213]
7 IEEE802.3 CSMACD--like Objects [RF1284,JXC]
8 IEEE802.4 Token Bus-like Objects
-- [RFC1230,RFC1239,KZM]
9 IEEE802.5 Token Ring-like Objects
-- [RFC1231,RFC1239,KZM]
10 iso88026-man [RFC1213]
11 starLan [RFC1213]
12 proteon-10Mbit [RFC1213]
13 proteon-80Mbit [RFC1213]
14 hyperchannel [RFC1213]
15 FDDI FDDI Objects [RFC1285,JDC20]
16 lapb LAP B [RFC1381]
17 sdlc [RFC1213]
18 ds1 T1/E1 Carrier Objects [RFC1406]
19 e1 obsolete
20 basicISDN [RFC1213]
21 primaryISDN [RFC1213]
22 propPointToPointSerial [RFC1213]
23 ppp Point-to-Point Protocol [RFC1471]
24 softwareLoopback [RFC1213]
25 eon [RFC1213]
26 ethernet-3Mbit [RFC1213]
27 nsip [RFC1213]

28 slip [RFC1213]
29 ultra [RFC1213]
30 ds3 DS3/E3 Interface Objects [RFC1407]
31 sip SMDS Interface Objects [RFC1304,TXC]
32 frame-relay Frame Relay Objects [RFC1315,CXB]
33 RS-232 RS-232 Objects [RFC1659]
34 Parallel Parallel Printer Objects [RFC1660]
35 arcnet ARC network
36 arcnet-plus ARC network plus
37 atm ATM
38 MIOX25 MIOX25 [RFC1461]
39 SONET SONET or SDH
40 x25ple X.25 packet level [RFC1382]
41 iso88022llc 802.2 LLC
42 localTalk
43 smds-dxi SMDS DXI
44 frameRelayService Frame Relay DCE
45 v35 V.35
46 hssi HSSI
47 hippi HIPPI
48 modem generic modem
49 aal5 AAL5 over ATM
50 sonetPath
51 sonetVT
52 smds-icip SMDS Inter-Carrier Interface Protocol
53 propVirtual proprietary vitural/internal interface
54 propMultiLink proprietary multi-link multiplexing
55 IEEE802.12 100BaseVG
56 fibre-channel Fibre Channel

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.transmission (1.3.6.1.2.1.10)

Decimal Name Description
------- ---- -----------
5 x25 X.25 [RFC1382]
7 IEEE802.3 CSMACD--like Objects [RFC1650]
8 IEEE802.4 Token Bus-like Objects
-- [RFC1230,RFC1239,KZM]
9 IEEE802.5 Token Ring-like Objects
-- [RFC1231,RFC1239,KZM]
15 FDDI FDDI Objects [RFC1285,JDC20]
16 lapb LAP B [RFC1381]
18 ds1 T1 Carrier Objects [RFC1406]
19 e1 E1 Carrier Objects [RFC1406]
23 ppp Point-to-Point Protocol [RFC1471]
30 ds3 DS3/E3 Interface Objects [RFC1407]
31 sip SMDS Interface Objects [RFC1694]
32 frame-relay Frame Relay Objects [RFC1315,CXB]

33 RS-232 RS-232 Objects [RFC1659]
34 Parallel Parallel Printer Objects [RFC1660]
35 arcnet ARC network
36 arcnet-plus ARC network plus
37 atm ATM
38 MIOX25 MIOX25 [RFC1461]
39 sonetMIB SONET MIB [RFC1595]
44 frnetservMIB Frame Relay Service MIB for DCE [RFC1596]

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.transmission (1.3.6.1.2.1.10)

(1.3.6.1.2.1.10.23)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
1 pppLcp ppp link control [RFC1471]
2 pppSecurity ppp security [RFC1472]
3 pppIp ppp IP network control [RFC1473]
4 pppBridge ppp bridge networl control [RFC1474]

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.application (1.3.6.1.2.1.27)

(1.3.6.1.2.1.27.2.1.3)

assocApplicationProtocol OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX OBJECT IDENTIFIER
MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"An identification of the protocol being used for the
application. For an OSI Application, this will be the
Application Context. For Internet applications, the IANA
maintains a registry of the OIDs which correspond to
well-known applications. If the application protocol is
not listed in the registry, an OID value of the form
{applTCPProtoID port} or {applUDProtoID port} are used for
TCP-based and UDP-based protocols, respectively. In either
case 'port' corresponds to the primary port number being
used by the protocol."
::= {assocEntry 3}

Decimal Name Description
------- ---- -----------
0 Reserved

(1.3.6.1.2.1.27.3)

(1.3.6.1.2.1.27.4)

-- OIDs of the form {applTCPProtoID port} are intended to be used
-- for TCP-based protocols that don't have OIDs assigned by other
-- means. {applUDPProtoID port} serves the same purpose for
-- UDP-based protocols. In either case 'port' corresponds to
-- the primary port number being used by the protocol. For example,
-- assuming no other OID is assigned for SMTP, an OID of
-- {applTCPProtoID 25} could be used, since SMTP is a TCP-based
-- protocol that uses port 25 as its primary port.

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.mta (1.3.6.1.2.1.28)

(1.3.6.1.2.1.28.2.1.24)

mtaGroupMailProtocol OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX OBJECT IDENTIFIER
MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"An identification of the protocol being used by this group.
For an group employing OSI protocols, this will be the
Application Context. For Internet applications, the IANA
maintains a registry of the OIDs which correspond to
well-known message transfer protocols. If the application
protocol is not listed in the registry, an OID value of the
form {applTCPProtoID port} or {applUDProtoID port} are used
for TCP-based and UDP-based protocols, respectively. In
either case 'port' corresponds to the primary port number
being used by the group. applTCPProtoID and applUDPProtoID
are defined in [5]."
::= {mtaGroupEntry 24}

Decimal Name Description
------- ---- -----------
0 Reserved

SMI Network Management Experimental Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.experimental (1.3.6.1.3.)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved [JKR1]
1 CLNS ISO CLNS Objects [GS2]
* 2 T1-Carrier T1 Carrier Objects [FB77]
* 3 IEEE802.3 Ethernet-like Objects [JXC]
* 4 IEEE802.5 Token Ring-like Objects [EXD]
* 5 DECNet-PHIV DECNet Phase IV [JXS2]
* 6 Interface Generic Interface Objects [KZM]

* 7 IEEE802.4 Token Bus-like Objects [KZM]
* 8 FDDI FDDI Objects [JDC20]
9 LANMGR-1 LAN Manager V1 Objects [JXG1]
10 LANMGR-TRAPS LAN Manager Trap Objects [JXG1]
11 Views SNMP View Objects [CXD]
12 SNMP-AUTH SNMP Authentication Objects [KZM]
* 13 BGP Border Gateway Protocol [SW159]
* 14 Bridge Bridge MIB [FB77]
* 15 DS3 DS3 Interface Type [TXB]
* 16 SIP SMDS Interface Protocol [TXB]
* 17 Appletalk Appletalk Networking [SXW]
* 18 PPP PPP Objects [FJK2]
* 19 Character MIB Character MIB [BS221]
* 20 RS-232 MIB RS-232 MIB [BS221]
* 21 Parallel MIB Parallel MIB [BS221]
22 atsign-proxy Proxy via Community [RXF]
* 23 OSPF OSPF MIB [FB77]
24 Alert-Man Alert-Man [LS8]
25 FDDI-Synoptics FDDI-Synoptics [DXP1]
* 26 Frame Relay Frame Relay MIB [CXB]
* 27 rmon Remote Network Management MIB [SXW]
28 IDPR IDPR MIB [RAW44]
29 HUBMIB IEEE 802.3 Hub MIB [DXM5]
30 IPFWDTBLMIB IP Forwarding Table MIB [FB77]
31 LATM MIB [TXB]
32 SONET MIB [TXB]
33 IDENT [MTR]
34 MIME-MHS [MTR]
35 MAUMIB IEEE 802.3 Mau MIB [DXM5]
36 Host Resources Host Resources MIB [SXW]
37 ISIS-MIB Integrated ISIS protocol MIB [CXG]
38 Chassis Chassis MIB [JDC20]
39 ups ups [JDC20]
40 App-Mon Application Monitoring MIB [TXK]
41 ATM UNI ATM [MXA1]
42 FC Fibre Channel [JXC4]
* 43 DNS Domain Name Service [Rob Austein]
44 X.25 X.25 MIB [Dean Throop]
45 Frame Relay Serv. Frame Relay Service MIB [Tracy Cox]
46 Madman-Applications [Ned Freed]
47 Madman-MTA [Ned Freed]
48 Madman-DSA [Ned Freed]
49 Modem [Steve Waldbusser]
50 SNA NAU [Deirdre Kostick]
51 SDLC SDLC [Jeff Hilgeman]
52 DNS Domain Name Service [Jon Saperia]
53 network-objects IP info ix X.500 [Johannsen]
54 printmib [Joel Gyllenskog]

55 rdbmsmib [Robert Purvey]
56 sipMIB [Tracy Brown]
57 stIImib ST-II protocol MIB [Hartmut Wittig]
58 802.5 SSR MIB 802.5 Station Source Routing MIB [KZM]

* = obsoleted

SMI Private Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.private (1.3.6.1.4)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved [JKR1]
1 enterprise private enterprises [JKR1]

SMI Private Enterprise Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprise (1.3.6.1.4.1)

See the file "enterprise-numbers".

SMI Security Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.security (1.3.6.1.5)

Decimal Name Description References
------- ---- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved [JKR1]
1 kerberosV4 Kerberos version 4 objects [1,BCN]
2 kerberosV5 Kerberos version 5 objects [2,BCN]

SMI SNMPv2 Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.snmpv2 (1.3.6.1.6)

SMI mail Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.mail (1.3.6.1.7)

1 mime-mhs

REFERENCES

[1] Miller, S.P., B.C. Neuman, J.I. Schiller, and J.H. Saltzer,
"Project Athena Technical Plan Section E.2.1: Kerberos
Authentication and Authorization System", Project Athena,

MIT, December 1987.

[2] Kohl, J., and B.C. Neuman, "The Kerberos Network
Authentication Service (V5)" work in progress, September
1992.

[RFC1028] Davin, J., J. Case, M. Fedor, and M. Schoffstall, "A Simple
Gateway Monitoring Protocol", RFC 1028, Proteon, Inc.,
University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Cornell University,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, November 1987.

[RFC1095] Warrier, U., and L. Besaw, "The Common Management
Information Services and Protocol over TCP/IP (CMOT)",
RFC 1095, Unisys Corp., Hewlett-Packard, April 1989.

[RFC1155] Rose, M., and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and Identification
of Management Information for TCP/IP-based internets",
STD 16, RFC 1155, Performance Systems International, Hughes
LAN Systems, May 1990.

[RFC1157] Case, J., M. Fedor, M. Schoffstall, and J. Davin,
"A Simple Network Management Protocol", STD 15, RFC 1157,
SNMP Research, Performance Systems International,
Performance Systems International, MIT Laboratory for
Computer Science, May 1990.

[RFC1213] McCloghrie, K., and M. Rose, "Management Information Base
for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II",
STD 17, RFC 1213, Hughes LAN Systems, Performance Systems
International, March 1991.

[RFC1229] McCloghrie, K., Editor, "Extensions to the Generic-Interface
MIB", RFC 1229, Hughes LAN Systems, Inc., May 1991.

[RFC1230] McCloghrie, K., and R. Fox, "IEEE 802.4 Token Bus MIB",
RFC 1230, Hughes LAN Systems, Inc., Synoptics, Inc.,
May 1991.

[RFC1231] McCloghrie, K., Fox, R., and E. Decker, "IEEE 802.5 Token
Ring MIB", RFC 1231, Hughes LAN Systems, Inc., Synoptics,
Inc., cisco Systems, Inc., May 1991.

[RFC1239] Reynolds, J., "Reassignment of Experimental MIBs to
Standard MIBs", RFC 1239, USC/Information Sciences
Institute, ISI, June 1991.

[RFC1243] Waldbusser, S., Editor, "AppleTalk Management Information
Base", RFC 1243, Carnegie Mellon University, July 1991.

[RFC1253] Baker, F., and R. Coltun, "OSPF Version 2 Management
Information Base", RFC 1253, ACC, Computer Science Center,
August 1991.

[RFC1271] Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring Management
Information Base", RFC 1271, Carnegie Mellon University,
November 1991.

[RFC1284] Cook, J., Editor, "Definitions of Managed Objects
for the Ethernet-like Interface Types", RFC 1284, Chipcom
Corporation, December 1991.

[RFC1285] Case, J., "FDDI Management Information Base", RFC 1285,
SNMP Research, Incorporated, January 1992.

[RFC1286] Decker, E., Langille, P., Rijsinghani, A., and K.
McCloghrie, "Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges",
RFC 1286, cisco Systems, Inc., DEC, Hughes LAN Systems,
Inc., December 1991.

[RFC1304] Cox, T., and K. Tesnik, Editors, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for the SIP Interface Type", RFC 1304, Bell
Communications Research, February 1992.

[RFC1315] Brown, C., Baker, F., and C. Carvalho, "Management
Information Base for Frame Relay DTEs", RFC 1315, Wellfleet
Communications, Inc., Advanced Computer Communications,
April 1992.

[RFC1353] McCloghrie, K., Davin, J., and J. Galvin, "Definitions of
Managed Objects for Administration of SNMP Parties",
RFC 1353, Hughes LAN Systems, Inc., MIT Laboratory for
Computer Science, Trusted Information Systems, Inc.,
July 1992.

[RFC1381] Throop, D., and F. Baker, "SNMP MIB Extension for X.25
LAPB", RFC 1381, Data General Corporation, Advanced Computer
Communications, November 1992.

[RFC1382] Throop, D., Editor, "SNMP MIB Extension for the X.25 Packet
Layer", RFC 1382, Data General Corporation, November 1992.

[RFC1389] Malkin, G., and F. Baker, "RIP Version 2 MIB Extension", RFC
1389, Xylogics, Inc., Advanced Computer Communications,
January 1993.

[RFC1406] Baker, F., and J. Watt, Editors, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for the DS1 and E1 Interface Types", RFC 1406,

Advanced Computer Communications, Newbridge Networks
Corporation, January 1993.

[RFC1407] Cox, T., and K. Tesink, "Definitions of Managed Objects
for the DS3/E3 Interface Type", RFC 1407, Bell
Communications Research, January 1993.

[RFC1414] St. Johns, M., and M. Rose, "Identification MIB", RFC 1414,
US Department of Defense, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.,
February 1993.

[RFC1461] Throop, D., "SNMP MIB extension for Multiprotocol
Interconnect over X.25", RFC 1461, Data General Corporation,
May 1993.

[RFC1471] Kastenholz, F., "The Definitions of Managed Objects for
the Link Control Protocol of the Point-to-Point Protocol",
RFC 1471, FTP Software, Inc., June 1993.

[RFC1472] Kastenholz, F., "The Definitions of Managed Objects for
the Security Protocols of the Point-to-Point Protocol", RFC
1472, FTP Software, Inc., June 1993.

[RFC1473] Kastenholz, F., "The Definitions of Managed Objects for
the IP Network Control Protocol of the Point-to-Point
Protocol", RFC 1473, FTP Software, Inc., June 1993.

[RFC1474] Kastenholz, F., "The Definitions of Managed Objects for
the Bridge Network Control Protocol of the Point-to-Point
Protocol" RFC 1474, FTP Software, Inc., June 1993.

[RFC1514] Grillo, P., and S. Waldbusser, "Host Resources MIB", RFC
1514, Network Innovations, Intel Corporation, Carnegie
Mellon University, September 1993.

[RFC1515] McMaster, D., McCloghrie, K., and S. Roberts, "Definitions
of Managed Objects for IEEE 802.3 Medium Attachment Units
(MAUs)", RFC 1515, SynOptics Communications, Inc., Hughes
LAN Systems, Inc., Farallon Computing, Inc., September 1993.

[RFC1516] McMaster, D., and K. McCloghrie, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for IEEE 802.3 Repeater Devices", RFC 1516,
SynOptics Communications, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Inc.,
September 1993.

[RFC1559] Saperia, J., "DECnet Phase IV MIB Extensions", RFC 1559,
Digital Equipment Corporation, December 1993.

[RFC1565] Kille, S., WG Chair, and N. Freed, Editor, "Network Services
Monitoring MIB", RFC 1565, ISODE Consortium and Innosoft,
January 1994.

[RFC1566] Kille, S., WG Chair, and N. Freed, Editor, "Mail Monitoring
MIB", RFC 1566, ISODE Consortium, Innosoft, January 1994.

[RFC1567] Mansfield, G., and S. Kille, "X.500 Directory Monitoring
MIB", RFC 1567, AIC Systems Laboratory, ISODE Consortium,
January 1994.

[RFC1573] McCloghrie, K., and F. Kastenholz, "Evolution of the
Interfaces Group of MIB-II", RFC 1573, Hughes LAN Systems,
FTP Software, January 1994.

[RFC1595] Brown, T., and K. Tesink, Editors, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for the SONET/SDH Interface Type", RFC 1595,
Bell Communications Research, March 1994.

[RFC1596] Brown, T., Editor, Definitions of Managed Objects for Frame
Relay Service", RFC 1596, Bell Communications Research,
March 1994.

[RFC1611] Austein, R., and J. Saperia, "DNS Server MIB Extensions",
RFC 1611, Epilogue Technology Corporation, Digital Equipment
Corporation, May 1994.

[RFC1628] Case, J., Editor, "UPS Management Information Base", RFC
1628, SNMP Research, Incorporated, May 1994.

[RFC1650] Kastenholz, F., "Definitions of Managed Objects for
the Ethernet-like Interface Types using SMIv2", RFC 1650,
FTP Software, Inc., August 1994.

[RFC1657] Willis, S., Burruss, J., and J. Chu, Editor, "Definitions of
Managed Objects for the Fourth Version of the Border Gateway
Protocol (BGP-4) using SMIv2", RFC 1657, Wellfleet
Communications Inc., IBM Corp., July 1994.

[RFC1658] Stewart, B., "Definitions of Managed Objects for Character
Stream Devices using SMIv2", RFC 1658, Xyplex, Inc., July
1994.

[RFC1659] Stewart, B., "Definitions of Managed Objects for RS-232-like
Hardware Devices using SMIv2", RFC 1659, Xyplex, Inc., July
1994.

[RFC1660] Stewart, B., "Definitions of Managed Objects for

Parallel-printer-like Hardware Devices using SMIv2", RFC
1660, Xyplex, Inc., July
1994.

[RFC1665] Kielczewski, Z., Kostick, D., and K. Shih, Editors,
"Definitions of Managed Objects for SNA NAUs using SMIv2",
RFC 1665, Eicon Technology Corporation, Bell Communications
Research, Novell, July 1994.

[RFC1694] Brown, T., and K. Tesink, Editors, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for SMDS Interfaces using SMIv2", RFC 1694, Bell
Communications Research, August 1994.

[RFC1695] Ahmed, M., and K. Tesink, Editors, "Definitions of Managed
Objects for ATM Management Version 8.0 using SMIv2", RFC
1695, Bell Communications Research, August 1994.

[RFC1696] Barnes, J., Brown, L., Royston, R., and S. Waldbusser,
"Modem Management Information Base (MIB) using SMIv2", RFC
1696, Xylogics, Inc., Motorola, US Robotics, Inc., Carnegie
Mellon University, August 1994.

[RFC1697] Brower, D., Editor, Purvy, B., RDBMSMIB Working Group Chair,
Daniel, A., Sinykin, M., and J. Smith, "Relational Database
Management System (RDBMS) Management Information Base (MIB)
using SMIv2", RFC 1697, The ASK Group, INGRES DBMS
Development, Oracle Corporation, Informix Software, Inc.,
Oracle Corporation, August 1994.

PEOPLE

[Rob Austein]

[BCN] B. Clifford Neuman <bcn@isi.edu>

[BS221] Bob Stewart <STEWART@XYPLEX.COM>

[CXB] Caralyn Brown <cbrown%wellfleet.com@talcott.harvard.edu>

[CXD] Chuck Davin <jrd@ptt.lcs.mit.edu>

[CXG] Chris Gunner <gunner@dsmail.lkg.dec.com>

[Dean Throop]

[DXM5] Donna McMaster <mcmaster@synoptics.com>

[DXP1] David Perkins <dperkins@synoptics.com>

[EXD] Eric Decker <cire@cisco.com>

[FB77] Fred Baker <fbaker@acc.com>

[FJK2]

[GS2] Greg Satz <satz@CISCO.COM>

[IANA] IANA <iana@isi.edu>

[JDC20] Jeffrey Case <case@UTKUX1.UTK.EDU>

[JKR1] Joyce K. Reynolds <jkrey@isi.edu>

[JXC] John Cook <cook@chipcom.com>

[JXG1] Jim Greuel <jimg%hpcndpc@hplabs.hp.com>

[JXS2] Jon Saperia <saperia@tcpjon.enet.dec.com>

[Jeff Hilgeman]

[Johannsen]

[KZM] Keith McCloghrie <KZM@HLS.COM>

[LS8] Louis Steinberg <lou@ARAMIS.RUTGERS.EDU>

[MXA1] Masuma Ahmed <mxa@mail.bellcore.com>

[MTR] Marshall Rose <mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us>

[RAW44] Robert A. Woodburn <WOODY@SPARTA.COM>

[JXC4] John Chu <jychu@watson.ibm.com>

[Ned Freed]

[Deirdre Kostick]

[Joel Gyllenskog] Joel Gyllenskog <jgyllens@hpdmd48.boi.hp.com>

[Robert Purvey] Robert Purvey <bpurvy@us.oracle.com>

[RXF] Richard Fox <rfox@synoptics.com>

[Jon Saperia] Jon Saperia <saperia@tcpjon.enet.dec.com>

[SW159] Steven Willis <swillis@WELLFLEET.COM>

[SXW] Steve Waldbusser <sw01+@andrew.cmu.edu>

[TXB] Tracy Brown <tacox@mail.bellcore.com>

[TXK] Teemu Kurki <grus@funet.fi>

[Hartmut Wittig]

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/smi-numbers

PRIVATE ENTERPRISE NUMBERS

SMI Network Management Private Enterprise Codes:

Prefix: iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprise (1.3.6.1.4.1)

This file is

ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/enterprise-numbers

Decimal Name References
------- ---- ----------
0 Reserved Joyce K. Reynolds <jkrey@isi.edu>
1 Proteon John A. Shriver <jas@PROTEON.COM>
2 IBM Vik Chandra <vc@ralvm6.vnet.ibm.com>
3 CMU Steve Waldbusser <sw01+@andrew.cmu.edu>
4 Unix Keith Sklower <sklower@okeeffe.berkeley.edu>
5 ACC Art Berggreen <art@SALT.ACC.COM>
6 TWG John Lunny <jlunny@eco.twg.com> (703) 847-4500
7 CAYMAN Beth Miaoulis beth@cayman.com
8 PSI Marty Schoffstahl schoff@NISC.NYSER.NET
9 cisco Greg Satz satz@CISCO.COM
10 NSC Geof Stone geof@NETWORK.COM
11 HP R. Dwight Schettler rds%hpcndm@HPLABS.HP.COM
12 Epilogue Karl Auerbac karl@empirical.com
13 U of Tennessee Jeffrey Case case@UTKUX1.UTK.EDU
14 BBN Robert Hinden <hinden@ENG.SUN.COM>
15 Xylogics, Inc. John R. LoVerso loverso@westford.ccur.com
16 Timeplex Laura Bridge laura@uunet.UU.NET
17 Canstar Sanand Patel sanand@HUB.TORONTO.EDU
18 Wellfleet Caralyn Brown cbrown@wellfleet.com
19 TRW Jay Frederking jayf@blackhole.ind.TRW.COM
20 MIT Jon Rochlis jon@ATHENA.MIT.EDU
21 EON Michael Waters ---none---
22 Spartacus Yoav Kluger ykluger@HAWK.ULOWELL.EDU
23 Novell Steve Bostock steveb@novell.com
24 Spider Systems Peter Reid peter@spider.co.uk
25 NSFNET Hans-Werner Braun HWB@MCR.UMICH.EDU
26 Hughes LAN Systems Keith McCloghrie KZM@HLS.COM
27 Intergraph Guy Streeter guy@guy.bll.ingr.com
28 Interlan Bruce Taber taber@europa.InterLan.COM
29 Vitalink Communications
30 Ulana Bill Anderson wda@MITRE-BEDFORD.ORG
31 NSWC Stephen Northcutt SNORTHC@RELAY-NSWC.NAVY.MIL
32 Santa Cruz Operation Keith Reynolds keithr@SCO.COM
33 Xyplex Bob Stewart STEWART@XYPLEX.COM
34 Cray Hunaid Engineer hunaid@OPUS.CRAY.COM
35 Bell Northern Research Glenn Waters gwaters@BNR.CA

36 DEC Ron Bhanukitsiri rbhank@DECVAX.DEC.COM
37 Touch Brad Benson ---none---
38 Network Research Corp. Bill Versteeg bvs@NCR.COM
39 Baylor College of Medicine Stan Barber SOB@BCM.TMC.EDU
40 NMFECC-LLNL Steven Hunter hunter@CCC.MFECC.LLNL.GOV
41 SRI David Wolfe ctabka@TSCA.ISTC.SRI.COM
42 Sun Microsystems Dennis Yaro yaro@SUN.COM
43 3Com Jeremy Siegel jzs@NSD.3Com.COM
44 CMC Dave Preston ---none---
45 SynOptics David Perkins dperkins@synoptics.com
46 Cheyenne Software Reijane Huai sibal@CSD2.NYU.EDU
47 Prime Computer Mike Spina WIZARD%enr.prime.com@RELAY.CS.NET
48 MCNC/North Carolina Data Network Ken Whitfield ken@MCNC.ORG
49 Chipcom John Cook cook@chipcom.com
50 Optical Data Systems Josh Fielk ---none---
51 gated Jeffrey C. Honig jch@gated.cornell.edu
52 Cabletron Systems Roger Dev ---none---
53 Apollo Computers Jeffrey Buffun jbuffum@APOLLO.COM
54 DeskTalk Systems, Inc. David Kaufman ---none---
55 SSDS Ron Strich ---none---
56 Castle Rock Computing John Sancho ---none---
57 MIPS Computer Systems Charles Marker II marker@MIPS.COM
58 TGV, Inc. Ken Adelman Adelman@TGV.COM
59 Silicon Graphics, Inc. Ronald Jacoby rj@SGI.COM
60 University of British Columbia Don McWilliam mcwillm@CC.UBC.CA
61 Merit Bill Norton wbn@MERIT.EDU
62 FiberCom Eric Rubin err@FIBERCOM.COM
63 Apple Computer Inc Jim Hayes Hayes@APPLE.COM
64 Gandalf Henry Kaijak ---none---
65 Dartmouth Philip Koch Philip.Koch@DARTMOUTH.EDU
66 David Systems Kathryn de Graaf degraaf@davidsys.com
67 Reuter Bob Zaniolo ---none---
68 Cornell Laurie Collinsworth ljc1@cornell.edu
69 LMS L. Michael Sabo Sabo@DOCKMASTER.NCSC.MIL
70 Locus Computing Corp. Arthur Salazar lcc.arthur@SEAS.UCLA.EDU
71 NASA Steve Schoch SCHOCH@AMES.ARC.NASA.GOV
72 Retix Alex Martin ---none---
73 Boeing Jerry Geisler ---none---
74 AT&T Rich Bantel rgb@mtung.att.com
75 Ungermann-Bass Didier Moretti ---none---
76 Digital Analysis Corporation
Skip Koppenhaver stubby!skip@uunet.UU.NET
77 LAN Manager Doug Karl KARL-D@OSU-20.IRCC.OHIO-STATE.EDU
78 Netlabs Jonathan Biggar jon@netlabs.com
79 ICL Jon Infante ---none---
80 Auspex Systems Brian A. Ehrmantraut bae@auspex.com
81 Lannet Company Efrat Ramati ---none---
82 Network Computing Devices Dave Mackie lupine!djm@UUNET.UU.NET

83 Raycom Systems Bruce Willins ---none---
84 Pirelli Focom Ltd. Sam Lau ---none---
85 Datability Software Systems Larry Fischer lfischer@dss.com
86 Network Application Technology Y.C. Wang ---none---
87 LINK (Lokales Informatik-Netz Karlsruhe)
Guenther Schreiner snmp-admin@ira.uka.de
88 NYU Bill Russell russell@cmcl2.NYU.EDU
89 RND Rina Nethaniel ---none---
90 InterCon Systems Corporation Amanda Walker AMANDA@INTERCON.COM
91 Coral Network Corporation Jason Perreault jason@coral.com
92 Webster Computer Corporation Robert R. Elz kre@munnari.oz.au
93 Frontier Technologies Corporation
Prakash Ambegaonkar ---none---
94 Nokia Data Communications Douglas Egan ---none---
95 Allen-Bradely Company
Bill King abvax!calvin.icd.ab.com!wrk@uunet.UU.NET
96 CERN
Jens T. Rasmussen jenst%cernvax.cern.ch@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
97 Sigma Network Systems, Inc.
Ken Virgile signet!ken@xylogics.COM
98 Emerging Technologies, Inc.
Dennis E. Baasch etinc!dennis@uu.psi.com
99 SNMP Research Jeffrey Case case@UTKUX1.UTK.EDU
100 Ohio State University
Shamim Ahmed ahmed@nisca.ircc.ohio-state.edu
101 Ultra Network Technologies Julie Dmytryk
Julie_Dmytryk.MKT@usun.ultra.com
102 Microcom Annmarie Freitas ---none---
103 Martin Marietta Astronautic Group David Rageth DAVE@MMC.COM
104 Micro Technology Mike Erlinger mike@lexcel.com
105 Process Software Corporation Bernie Volz VOLZ@PROCESS.COM
106 Data General Corporation
Joanna Karwowska karwowska@dg-rtp.dg.com
107 Bull Company Anthony Berent berent@rdgeng.enet.dec.com
108 Emulex Corporation Jeff Freeman ---none---
109 Warwick University Computing Services
Israel Drori raanan@techunix.technion.ac.il
110 Network General Corporation
James Davidson ngc!james@uunet.UU.NET
111 Oracle John Hanley jhanley@oracle.com
112 Control Data Corporation Nelluri L. Reddy reddy@uc.msc.umn.edu
113 Hughes Aircraft Company Keith McCloghrie KZM@HLS.COM
114 Synernetics, Inc. Jas Parmar jas@synnet.com
115 Mitre Bede McCall bede@mitre.org
116 Hitachi, Ltd. Hirotaka Usuda ---none---
117 Telebit Mark S. Lewis mlewis@telebit.com
118 Salomon Technology Services Paul Maurer II ---none---
119 NEC Corporation Yoshiyuki Akiyama

kddlab!ccs.mt.nec.co.jp!y-akiyam@uunet.uu.net
120 Fibermux Michael Sung msung@ccrelay.fibermux.com
121 FTP Software Inc. Stev Knowles stev@vax.ftp.com
122 Sony Takashi Hagiwara Hagiwara@Sm.Sony.Co.Jp
123 Newbridge Networks Corporation James Watt ---none---
124 Racal-Milgo Information Systems Maurice R. Turcotte
mailrus!uflorida!rm1!dnmrt%rmatl@uunet.UU.NET
125 CR SYSTEMS Soren H. Sorensen ---none---
126 DSET Corporation Dan Shia dset!shia@uunet.UU.NET
127 Computone Bill Versteeg bvs@NCR.COM
128 Tektronix, Inc. Dennis Thomas dennist@tektronix.TEK.COM
129 Interactive Systems Corporation
Steve Alexander stevea@i88.isc.com
130 Banyan Systems Inc.
Deepak Taneja eepak=Taneja%Eng%Banyan@Thing.banyan.com
131 Sintrom Datanet Limited
132 Bell Canada Mark Fabbi markf@gpu.utcs.utoronto.ca
133 Crosscomm Corporation Reuben Sivan crossc!rsivan@uunet.UU.NET
134 Rice University Catherine Foulston cathyf@rice.edu
135 T3Plus Networking, Inc. Harley Frazee harley@io.t3plus.com
136 Concurrent Computer Corporation
John R. LoVerso loverso@westford.ccur.com
137 Basser Paul O'Donnell paulod@cs.su.oz.au
138 Luxcom
139 Artel Jon Ziegler Ziegler@Artel.com
140 Independence Technologies, Inc. (ITI)
Gerard Berthet gerard@indetech.com
141 Frontier Software Development Narendra Popat ---none---
142 Digital Computer Limited Osamu Fujiki ---none---
143 Eyring, Inc. Ron Holt ron@Eyring.COM
144 Case Communications Peter Kumik ---none---
145 Penril DataComm, Inc. Keith Hogan keith%penril@uunet.uu.net
146 American Airlines Bill Keatley ---none---
147 Sequent Computer Systems Scott Hahn sdh@sequent.com
148 Bellcore Kaj Tesink kaj@nvuxr.cc.bellcore.com
149 Konkord Communications Ken Jones konkord!ksj@uunet.uu.net
150 University of Washington
Christopher Wheeler cwheeler@cac.washignton.edu
151 Develcon Sheri Mayhew zaphod!sherim@herald.usask.ca
152 Solarix Systems Paul Afshar paul@solar1.portal.com
153 Unifi Communications Corp. Yigal Hochberg yigal@unifi.com
154 Roadnet Dale Shelton ---none---
155 Network Systems Corp.
Nadya K. El-Afandi nadya@khara.network.com
156 ENE (European Network Engineering) Peter Cox ---none---
157 Dansk Data Elektronik A/S Per Bech Hansen pbh@dde.dk
158 Morning Star Technologies Karl Fox karl@MorningStar.Com
159 Dupont EOP Oscar Rodriguez ---none---

160 Legato Systems, Inc. Jon Kepecs kepecs@Legato.COM
161 Motorola SPS Vince Enriquez enriquez@sps.mot.com
162 European Space Agency (ESA)
Eduardo EDUATO%ESOC.BITNET@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
163 BIM Bernard Lemercier bl@sunbim.be
164 Rad Data Communications Ltd. Oft Israel ---none---
165 Intellicom Paul Singh ---none---
166 Shiva Corporation Phil Budne phil@Shiva.COM
167 Fujikura America Debbie Reed ---none---
168 Xlnt Designs INC (XDI) Mike Anello mike@xlnt.com
169 Tandem Computers Rex Davis ---none---
170 BICC David A. Brown fzbicdb@uk.ac.ucl
171 D-Link Systems, Inc. Henry P. Nagai ---none---
172 AMP, Inc. Rick Downs ---none---
173 Netlink Mauro Zallocco ---none---
174 C. Itoh Electronics Larry Davis ---none---
175 Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI)
Kent Tsuno tsuno@sumitomo.com
176 DHL Systems, Inc.
David B. Gurevich dgurevic@rhubarb.ssf-sys.dhl.com
177 Network Equipment Technologies Mark Tom marktom@tom.net.com
178 APTEC Computer Systems Larry Burton ssds!larryb@uunet.UU.NET
179 Schneider & Koch & Co, Datensysteme GmbH Thomas Ruf tom@rsp.de
180 Hill Air Force Base Russell G. Wilson rwilson@oodis01.af.mil
181 ADC Kentrox Bruce Kropp ktxc8!bruce@uunet.UU.NET
182 Japan Radio Co. Nagayuki Kojima nkojima@lab.nihonmusen.co.jp
183 Versitron Matt Harris ---none---
184 Telecommunication Systems Hugh Lockhart ---none---
185 Interphase Gil Widdowson ---none---
186 Toshiba Corporation Mike Asagami toshiba@mothra.nts.uci.edu
187 Clearpoint Research Corp.
188 Ascom Andrew Smith andrew@hasler.ascom.ch
189 Fujitsu America Chung Lam ---none---
190 NetCom Solutions, Inc. Dale Cabell---none---
191 NCR Cheryl Krupczak clefor@secola.columbia.ncr.com
192 Dr. Materna GmbH Torsten Beyer tb@Materna.de
193 Ericsson Business Communications Gunnar Nilsson ---none---
194 Metaphor Computer Systems Paul Rodwick ---none---
195 Patriot Partners Paul Rodwick ---none---
196 The Software Group Limited (TSG)
Ragnar Paulson tsgfred!ragnar@uunet.UU.NET
197 Kalpana, Inc. Anil Bhavnani ---none---
198 University of Waterloo
R. J. White snmp-tech@watmath.waterloo.edu
199 CCL/ITRI
Ming-Perng Chen N100CMP0%TWNITRI1.BITNET@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
200 Coeur Postel Professor Kynikos Special Consultant
201 Mitsubish Cable Industries, Ltd. Masahiko Hori ---none---

202 SMC Lance Sprung ---none---
203 Crescendo Communication, Inc. Prem Jain prem@cres.com
204 Goodall Software Engineering Doug Goodall goodall@crl.com
205 Intecom Brad Parke ---none---
206 Victoria University of Wellington
Jonathan Stone jonathan@isor.vuw.ac.nz
207 Allied Telesis, Inc.
Scott Holley SCOTT_CLINTON_HOLLEY@cup.portal.com
208 Dowty Network Systems A/S Hartvig Ekner hj@dowtyns.dk
209 Protools Glen Arp ---none---
210 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp.
Toshiharu Sugawara sugawara%wink.ntt.jp@RELAY.CS.NET
211 Fujitsu Limited Ippei Hayashi hayashi@sysrap.cs.fujitsu.co.jp
212 Network Peripherals Inc. Creighton Chong cchong@fastnet.com
213 Netronix, Inc. Jacques Roth ---none---
214 University of Wisconsin - Madison
Dave Windorski DAVID.WINDORSKI@MAIL.ADMIN.WISC.EDU
215 NetWorth, Inc. Craig Scott ---none---
216 Tandberg Data A/S Harald Hoeg haho%huldra.uucp@nac.no
217 Technically Elite Concepts, Inc.
Russell S. Dietz Russell_Dietz@Mcimail.com
218 Labtam Australia Pty. Ltd.
Michael Podhorodecki michael@labtam.oz.au
219 Republic Telcom Systems, Inc.
Steve Harris rtsc!harris@boulder.Colorado.edu
220 ADI Systems, Inc. Paul Liu ---none---
221 Microwave Bypass Systems, Inc. Tad Artis ---none---
222 Pyramid Technology Corp. Richard Rein rein@pyramid.com
223 Unisys_Corp Lawrence Brow ---none---
224 LANOPTICS LTD., Israel
Israel Drori raanan@techunix.technion.ac.il
225 NKK Corporation J. Yoshida ---none---
226 MTrade UK Ltd. Peter Delchiappo ---none---
227 Acals Patrick Cheng pcheng@dill.ind.trw.com
228 ASTEC, Inc. Hiroshi Fujii fujii@astec.co.jp
229 Delmarva Power John K. Scoggin, Jr. scoggin@delmarva.com
230 Telematics International, Inc. Kevin Smith ---none---
231 Siemens Nixdorf Informations Syteme AG
Gunther Kroenert ---none---
232 Compaq
233 NetManage, Inc. William Dunn netmanage@cup.portal.com
234 NCSU Computing Center David Joyner david@unity.ncsu.edu
235 Empirical Tools and Technologies
Karl Auerbach karl@empirical.com
236 Samsung Group Hong K. Paik paik@samsung.com
237 Takaoka Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd.
Hidekazu Hagiwara hagiwara@takaoka.takaoka-electric.co.jp
238 Netrix Systems Corporation Eldon S. Mast esm@netrix.com

239 WINDATA Bob Rosenbaum ---none---
240 RC International A/S Carl H. Dreyer chd@rci.dk
241 Netexp Research Henk Boetzkes ---none---
242 Internode Systems Pty Ltd
Simon Hackett simon@ucs.adelaide.edu.au
243 netCS Informationstechnik GmbH
Oliver Korfmacher okorf@bunt.netcs.com
244 Lantronix Rich Lyman rich@alecto.gordian.com
245 Avatar Consultants
Kory Hamzeh ames!avatar.com!kory@harvard.harvard.edu
246 Furukawa Electoric Co. Ltd.
Shoji Fukutomi kddlab!polo.furukawa.co.jp!fuku@uunet.UU.NET
247 AEG Electrcom R. Nurnberg ---none---
248 Richard Hirschmann GmbH & Co.
Heinz Nisi mia@intsun.rus.uni-stuttgart.de
249 G2R Inc. Khalid Hireche ---none---
250 University of Michigan
Tim Howes Tim.Howes@terminator.cc.umich.edu
251 Netcomm, Ltd. W.R. Maynard-Smith ---none---
252 Sable Technology Corporation Rodney Thayer ---none---
253 Xerox Edwards E. Reed ipcontact.cin_ops@xerox.com
254 Conware Computer Consulting GmbH
Michael Sapich sapich@conware.de
255 Compatible Systems Corp. John Gawf gawf@compatible.com
256 Scitec Communications Systems Ltd. Stephen Lewis ---none---
257 Transarc Corporation Pat Barron Pat_Barron@TRANSARC.COM
258 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Nob Mizuno mizuno@isl.mei.co.jp
259 ACCTON Technology Don Rooney ---none---
260 Star-Tek, Inc. Carl Madison carl@startek.com
261 Codenoll Tech. Corp. Dan Willie ---none---
262 Formation, Inc. Carl Marcinik ---none---
263 Seiko Instruments, Inc. (SII) Yasuyoshi Watanabe ---none---
264 RCE (Reseaux de Communication d'Entreprise S.A.)
Etienne Baudras-Chardigny ---none---
265 Xenocom, Inc. Sean Welch welch@raven.ulowell.edu
266 KABELRHEYDT Hubert Theissen ---none---
267 Systech Computer Corporation
Brian Petry systech!bpetry@uunet.UU.NET
268 Visual Brian O'Shea bos@visual.com
269 SDD (Scandinavian Airlines Data Denmark A/S)
Per Futtrup ---none---
270 Zenith Electronics Corporation David Lin ---none---
271 TELECOM FINLAND Petri Jokela ---none---
272 BinTec Computersystems Marc Sheldon ms@BinTec.DE
273 EUnet Germany Marc Sheldon ms@Germany.EU.net
274 PictureTel Corporation Oliver Jones oj@pictel.com
275 Michigan State University Lih-Er Wey WEYLE@msu.edu

276 GTE Telecom Incorporated Grant Gifford ---none---
277 Cascade Communications Corp.
Chikong Shue alpo!chi@uunet.uu.net
278 Hitachi Cable, Ltd. Takahiro Asai ---none---
279 Olivetti Marco Framba framba@orc.olivetti.com
280 Vitacom Corporation Parag Rastogi parag@cup.portal.com
281 INMOS Graham Hudspith gwh@inmos.co.uk
282 AIC Systems Laboratories Ltd. Glenn Mansfield glenn@aic.co.jp
283 Cameo Communications, Inc. Alan Brind ---none---
284 Diab Data AB Mats Lindstrom mli@diab.se
285 Olicom A/S Lars Povlsen krus@olicom.dk
286 Digital-Kienzle Computersystems Hans Jurgen Dorr ---none---
287 CSELT(Centro Studi E Laboratori Telecomunicazioni)
Paolo Coppo coppo@cz8700.cselt.stet.it
288 Electronic Data Systems Mark Holobach holobach@tis.eds.com
289 McData Corporation Glenn Levitt gpl0363@mcmail.mcdata.com
290 Harris Corporation David Rhein davidr@ssd.csd.harris.com
291 Technology Dynamics, Inc. Chip Standifer TDYNAMICS@MCIMAIL.COM
292 DATAHOUSE Information Systems Ltd. Kim Le ---none---
293 DSIR Network Group Tony van der Peet srghtvp@grv.dsir.govt.nz
294 Texas Instruments Blair Sanders Blair_Sanders@mcimail.com
295 PlainTree Systems Inc. Paul Chefurka chefurka@plntree.UUCP
296 Hedemann Software Development
Stefan Hedemann 100015.2504@compuserve.com
297 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Hiroshi Kume
Kume%KSPB%Fuji_Xerox@tcpgw.netg.ksp.fujixerox.co.jp
298 Asante Technology Hsiang Ming Ma ---none---
299 Stanford University
RL "Bob" Morgan morgan@jessica.stanford.edu
300 Digital Link Jimmy Tu jimmy@dl.com
301 Raylan Corporation Mark S. Lewis mlewis@telebit.com
302 Datacraft Alan Lloyd alan@datacraft.oz
303 Hughes Keith McCloghrie KZM@HLS.COM
304 Farallon Computing, Inc. Steven Sweeney ---none---
305 GE Information Services Steve Bush sfb@ncoast.org
306 Gambit Computer Communications Zohar Seigal ---none---
307 Livingston Enterprises, Inc.
Steve Willens steve@livingston.com
308 Star Technologies Jim Miner miner@star.com
309 Micronics Computers Inc. Darren Croke dc@micronics.com
310 Basis, Inc. Heidi Stettner heidi@mtxinu.COM
311 Microsoft John M. Ballard jballard@microsoft.com
312 US West Advance Technologies
Donna Hopkins dmhopki@uswat.uswest.com
313 University College London Shaw C. Chuang S.Chuang@cs.ucl.ac.uk
314 Eastman Kodak Company W. James Colosky wjc@tornado.kodak.com
315 Network Resources Corporation Kathy Weninger ---none---
316 Atlas Telecom Bruce Kropp ktxc8!bruce@uunet.UU.NET

317 Bridgeway Umberto Vizcaino ---none---
318 American Power Conversion Corp.
Peter C. Yoest apc!yoest@uunet.uu.net
319 DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Project
Paul Krystosek krystosk@eid.anl.gov
320 VerSteeg CodeWorks Bill Versteeg bvs@NCR.COM
321 Verilink Corp Bill Versteeg bvs@NCR.COM
322 Sybus Corportation Mark T. Dauscher mdauscher@sybus.com
323 Tekelec Bob Grady ---none---
324 NASA Ames Research Cente Nick Cuccia cuccia@nas.nasa.gov
325 Simon Fraser University Robert Urquhart quipu@sfu.ca
326 Fore Systems, Inc. Eric Cooper ecc@fore.com
327 Centrum Communications, Inc. Vince Liu ---none---
328 NeXT Computer, Inc.
Lennart Lovstrand Lennart_Lovstrand@NeXT.COM
329 Netcore, Inc. Skip Morton ---none---
330 Northwest Digital Systems Brian Dockter ---none---
331 Andrew Corporation Ted Tran ---none---
332 DigiBoard Dror Kessler dror@digibd.com
333 Computer Network Technology Corp. Bob Meierhofer ---none---
334 Lotus Development Corp. Bill Flanagan bflanagan@lotus.com
335 MICOM Communication Corporation
Donna Beatty SYSAD@prime.micom.com
336 ASCII Corporation Toshiharu Ohno tony-o@ascii.co.jp
337 PUREDATA Research Tony Baxter tony@puredata.com
338 NTT DATA Yasuhiro Kohata kohata@rd.nttdata.jp
339 Empros Systems International David Taylor dtaylor@ems.cdc.ca
340 Kendall Square Research (KSR) Dave Hudson tdh@uunet.UU.NET
341 Martin Marietta Energy Systems Gary Haney haneyg@ornl.gov
342 Network Innovations Pete Grillo pl0143@mail.psi.net
343 Intel Corporation Brady Orand borand@pcocd2.intel.com
344 Proxar Ching-Fa Hwang cfh@proxar.com
345 Epson Research Center Richard Schneider rschneid@epson.com
346 Fibernet George Sandoval ---none---
347 Box Hill Systems Corporation Tim Jones tim@boxhill.com
348 American Express Travel Related Services
Jeff Carton jcarton@amex-trs.com
349 Compu-Shack Tomas Vocetka OPLER%CSEARN.bitnet@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
350 Parallan Computer, Inc. Charles Dulin ---none---
351 Stratacom Clyde Iwamoto cki@strata.com
352 Open Networks Engineering, Inc. Russ Blaesing rrb@one.com
353 ATM Forum Keith McCloghrie KZM@HLS.COM
354 SSD Management, Inc. Bill Rose ---none---
355 Automated Network Management, Inc. Carl Vanderbeek ---none--
356 Magnalink Communications Corporation
David E. Kaufman ---none---
357 TIL Systems, Ltd. Garry McCracken ---none---
358 Skyline Technology, Inc. Don Weir ---none---

359 Nu-Mega Technologies, Inc. Dirk Smith ---none---
360 Morgan Stanley & Co. Inc.
Victor Kazdoba vsk@katana.is.morgan.com
361 Integrated Business Network Michael Bell ---none---
362 L & N Technologies, Ltd. Steve Loring ---none---
363 Cincinnati Bell Information Systems, Inc.
Deron Meranda dmeranda@cbis.COM
364 OSCOM International
Farhad Fozdar f_fozdar@fennel.cc.uwa.edu.au
365 MICROGNOSIS Paul Andon pandon@micrognosis.co.uk
366 Datapoint Corporation Lee Ziegenhals lcz@sat.datapoint.com
367 RICOH Co. Ltd.
Toshio Watanabe watanabe@godzilla.rsc.spdd.ricoh.co.jp
368 Axis Communications AB Martin Gren martin@axis.se
369 Pacer Software Wayne Tackabury wft@pacersoft.com
370 Axon Networks Inc. Robin Iddon axon@cix.clink.co.uk
371 Brixton Systems, Inc. Peter S. Easton easton@brixton.com
372 GSI Etienne Demailly etienne.demailly@gsi.fr
373 Tatung Co., Ltd.
Chih-Yi Chen TCCISM1%TWNTTIT.BITNET@pucc.Princeton.EDU
374 DIS Research LTD. Ray Compton rayc@command.com
375 Quotron Systems, Inc.
Richard P. Stubbs richard@atd.quotron.com
376 Dassault Electronique
Olivier J. Caleff caleff@dassault-elec.fr
377 Corollary, Inc. James L. Gula gula@corollary.com
378 SEEL, Ltd. Ken Ritchie ---none---
379 Lexcel Mike Erlinger mike@lexcel.com
380 Sophisticated Technologies, Inc.
Bill Parducci 70262.1267@compuserve.com
381 OST A. Pele ---none---
382 Megadata Pty Ltd. Andrew McRae andrew@megadata.mega.oz.au
383 LLNL Livermore Computer Center
Dan Nessett nessett@ocfmail.ocf.llnl.gov
384 Dynatech Communications Graham Welling s8000!gcw@uunet.uu.net
385 Symplex Communications Corp. Cyrus Azar ---none---
386 Tribe Computer Works Ken Fujimoto fuji@tribe.com
387 Taligent, Inc. Lorenzo Aguilar lorenzo@taligent.com
388 Symbol Technologies, Inc.
John Kramer +1-408-369-2679 jkramer@psd.symbol.com
389 Lancert Mark Hankin ---none---
390 Alantec Paul V. Fries pvf@alantec.com
391 Ridgeback Solutions
Errol Ginsberg bacchus!zulu!errol@uu2.psi.com
392 Metrix, Inc. D. Venkatrangan venkat@metrix.com
393 Excutive Systems/XTree Company
Dale Cabell cabell@smtp.xtree.com
394 NRL Communication Systems Branch

R. K. Nair nair@itd.nrl.navy.mil
395 I.D.E. Corporation Rob Spade ---none---
396 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.
Claude Huss claude@trc.mew.mei.co.jp
397 MegaPAC Ian George ---none---
398 Pilkington Communication Systems Dave Atkinson ---none---
399 Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc.
Masha Golosovker masha@hicomb.hi.com
400 METEO FRANCE Remy Giraud Remy.Giraud@meteo.fr
401 PRC Inc. Jim Noble noble_jim@prc.com
402 Wal*Mart Stores, Inc. Mike Fitzgerel mlfitzg@wal-mart.com
403 Nissin Electric Company, Ltd. Aki Komatsuzaki (408) 737-0274
404 Distributed Support Information Standard
Mike Migliano <mike@uwm.edu>
405 SMDS Interest Group (SIG)
Elysia C. Tan <ecmt1@sword.bellcore.com>
406 SolCom Systems Ltd. Hugh Evans 0506 873855
407 Bell Atlantic Colin deSa socrates!bm5ld15@bagout.BELL-ATL.COM
408 Advanced Multiuser Technologies Corporation
409 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Yoshitaka Ogawa <ogawa@nkai.cow.melco.co.jp>
410 C.O.L. Systems, Inc. Frank Castellucci (914) 277-4312
411 University of Auckland
Nevil Brownlee < n.brownlee@aukuni.ac.nz>
412 Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF)
Dave Perkins <dperkins@synoptics.com>
413 Klever Computers, Inc. Tom Su 408-735-7723 kci@netcom.com
414 Amdahl Corporation Steve Young sy@uts.admahl.com
415 JTEC Pty, Ltd. Jan Bartel (02) 809 6933
416 Matra Communcation Hong-Loc Nguyen (33.1) 34.60.85.25
417 HAL Computer Systems Michael A. Petonic petonic@hal.com
418 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Russ Wright wright@lbl.gov
419 Dale Computer Corporation Dean Craven 1-800-336-7483
420 IPTC, Universitaet of Tuebingen
Andreas J. Haug <ahaug@mailserv.zdv.uni-tuebingen.de>
421 Bytex Corporation
Mary Ann Burt <bytex!ws054!maryann@uunet.UU.NET>
422 Cogwheel, Inc. Brian Ellis bri@Cogwheel.COM
423 Lanwan Technologies Thomas Liu (408) 986-8899
424 Thomas-Conrad Corporation Karen Boyd 512-836-1935
425 TxPort Bill VerSteeg bvs@ver.com
426 Compex, Inc. Andrew Corlett BDA@ORION.OAC.UCI.EDU
427 Evergreen Systems, Inc. Bill Grace (415) 897-8888
428 HNV, Inc. James R. Simons jrs@denver.ssds.COM
429 U.S. Robotics, Inc. Chris Rozman chrisr@usr.com
430 Canada Post Corporation Walter Brown +1 613 722-8843
431 Open Systems Solutions, Inc. David Ko davidk@ossi.com
432 Toronto Stock Exchange Paul Kwan (416) 947-4284

433 MamakosTransSys Consulting
Louis A. Mamakos louie@transsys.com
434 EICON Vartan Narikian vartan@eicon.qc.ca
435 Jupiter Systems Russell Leefer rml@jupiter.com
436 SSTI Philip Calas (33) 61 44 19 51
437 Grand Junction Networks Randy Ryals randyr@grandjunction.com
438 Anasazi, Inc. Chad Larson (chad@anasazi.com)
439 Edward D. Jones and Company John Caruso (314) 851-3422
440 Amnet, Inc. Richard Mak mak@amnet.COM
441 Chase Research Kevin Gage ---none---
442 PEER Networks Randy Presuhn randy@peer.com
443 Gateway Communications, Inc. Ed Fudurich ---none---
444 Peregrine Systems Eric Olinger eric@peregrine.com
445 Daewoo Telecom SeeYoung Oh oco@scorpio.dwt.co.kr
446 Norwegian Telecom Research Paul Hoff paalh@brage.nta.no
447 WilTel Anil Prasad anil_prasad@wiltel.com
448 Ericsson-Camtec Satish Popat ---none---
449 Codex Thomas McGinty ---none---
450 Basis Heidi Stettner heidi@mtxinu.COM
451 AGE Logic Syd Logan syd@age.com
452 INDE Electronics Gordon Day gday@inde.ubc.ca
453 ISODE Consortium Steve Kille S.Kille@isode.com
454 J.I. Case Mike Oswald mike@helios.uwsp.edu
455 Trillium Jeff Lawrence j_lawrence@trillium.com
456 Bacchus Inc. Errol Ginsberg bacchus!zulu!errol@uu2.psi.com
457 MCC Doug Rosenthal rosenthal@mcc.com
458 Stratus Computer Dave Snay dks@sw.stratus.com
459 Quotron Richard P. Stubbs richard@atd.quotron.com
460 Beame & Whiteside Carl Beame beame@ns.bws.com
461 Cellular Technical Services Greg Hummel ---none---
462 Shore Microsystems, Inc. Gordon Elam (309) 229-3009
463 Telecommunications Techniques Corp. Tom Nisbet nisbet@tt.com
464 DNPAP (Technical University Delft)
Jan van Oorschot <bJan.vOorschot@dnpap.et.tudelft.nl>
465 Plexcom, Inc. Bruce Miller (805) 522-3333
466 Tylink Stavros Mohlulis (508) 285-0033
467 Brookhaven National Laboratory
Dave Stampf drs@bach.ccd.bnl.gov
468 Computer Communication Systems
Gerard Laborde <Gerard.Laborde@sp1.y-net.fr>
469 Norand Corp. Rose Gorrell 319-269-3100
470 MUX-LAP Philippe Labrosse 514-735-2741
471 Premisys Communications, Inc
Mike MacFaden <premisys!mike@fernwood.mpk.ca.us>
472 Bell South Telecommunications Johnny Walker 205-988-7105
473 J. Stainsbury PLC Steve Parker 44-71-921-7550
474 Ki Research Inc Toni Barckley 410-290-0355x220
475 Wandel and Goltermann Technologies

David Walters 919-941-5730x4203 <walter@wg.com>
476 Emerson Computer Power
Roger Draper 714-457-3638 rdraper@cerf.net
477 Network Software Associates Jeffery Chiao 714-768-4013
478 Procter and Gamble Peter Marshall 513-983-1100x5988
479 Meridian Technology Corporation
Kenneth B. Denson <kdenson@magic.meridiantc.com>
480 QMS, Inc. Bill Lott lott@imagen.com
481 Network Express Tom Jarema 313-761-5051 ITOH@MSEN.COM
482 LANcity Corporation Pam Yassini pam@lancity.com
483 Dayna Communications, Inc.
Sanchaita Datta datta@signus.utah.edu
484 kn-X Ltd. Sam Lau 44 943 467007
485 Sync Research, Inc. Alan Bartky (714) 588-2070
486 PremNet Ken Huang HuangK@rimail.interlan.com
487 SIAC Peter Ripp (212) 383-9061
488 New York Stock Exchange Peter Ripp (212) 383-9061
489 American Stock Exchange Peter Ripp (212) 383-9061
490 FCR Software, Inc. Brad Parker brad@fcr.com
491 National Medical Care, Inc. Robert Phelan (617) 466-9850
492 Dialogue Communication Systemes, S.A.
Klaus Handke +(49) 30 802 24 97
493 NorTele Bjorn Kvile +47 2 48 89 90
494 Madge Networks, Inc.
Duncan Greatwood dgreatwo@madge.mhs.compuserve.com
495 Memotec Communications Graham Higgins ghiggins@teleglobe.com
496 CTON Nick Hennenfent nicholas@cton.com
497 Leap Technology, Inc. George Economou george@leap.com
498 General DataComm, Inc. William Meltzer meltzer@gdc.com
499 ACE Communications, Ltd. Danny On 972-3-570-1423
500 Automatic Data Processing (ADP) Alex Rosin (201) 714-3982
501 Programa SPRITEL Alberto Martinez
Martinez_Alberto_SPRITEL@euskom.spritel.es
502 Adacom Aial Haorch 972-4-899-899
503 Metrodata Ltd Nick Brown 100022.767@compuserve.com
504 Ellemtel Telecommunication Systems Laboratories
Richard G Bruvik Richard.Bruvik@eua.ericsson.se
505 Arizona Public Service Duane Booher DBOOHER@APSC.COM
506 NETWIZ, Ltd., Emanuel Wind eumzvir@techunix.technion.ac.il
507 Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) Paul Kummer
P.Kummer@daresbury.ac.uk
508 The First Boston Corporation Kevin Chou
csfb1!dbadmin4!kchou@uunet.UU.NET
509 Hadax Electronics Inc. Marian Kramarczyk
73477.2731@compuserve.com
510 VTKK Markku Lamminluoto lamminluoto@vtkes1.vtkk.fi
511 North Hills Israel Ltd. Carmi Cohen carmi@north.hellnet.org
512 TECSIEL R. Burlon sr@teculx.tecsiel.it

513 Bayerische Motoren Werke (BMW) AG Michael Connolly
mconnolly@net.bmw.de
514 CNET Technologies Nelson Su 408-954-8000
515 MCI Kurt Robohm krobohm@mcimail.com
516 Human Engineering AG (HEAG) Urs Brunner
ubrunner@clients.switch.ch
517 FileNet Corporation Joe Raby raby@filenet.com
518 NFT-Ericsson Kjetil Donasen +47 2 84 24 00
519 Dun & Bradstreet Vic Smagovic 908-464-2079
520 Intercomputer Communications Brian Kean 513-745-0500x244
521 Defense Intelligence Agency
Barry Atkinson DIA-DMS@DDN-CONUS.DDN.MIL
522 Telesystems SLW Inc. Joe Magony 416-441-9966
523 APT Communications David Kloper 301-831-1182
524 Delta Airlines Jim Guy 404-715-2948
525 California Microwave Kevin Braun 408-720-6520
526 Avid Technology Inc Steve Olynyk 508-640-3328
527 Integro Advanced Computer Systems
Pascal Turbiez +33-20-08-00-40
528 RPTI Chris Shin 886-2-918-3006
529 Ascend Communications Inc. Marc Hyman 510-769-6001
530 Eden Computer Systems Inc. Louis Brando 305-591-7752
531 Kawasaki-Steel Corp
Tomoo Watanabe nrd@info.kawasaki-steel.co.jp
532 Barclays Malcolm Houghton +44 202 671 212
533 B.U.G., Inc. Isao Tateishi tateishi@bug.co.jp
534 Exide Electronics Brian Hammill hamill@dolphin.exide.com
535 Superconducting Supercollider Lab.
Carl W. Kalbfleisch cwk@irrational.ssc.gov
536 Triticom Jim Bales (612) 937-0772
537 Universal Instruments Corp.
Tom Dinnel BA06791%BINGVAXA.bitnet@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
538 Information Resources, Inc. Jeff Gear jjg@infores.com
539 Applied Innovation, Inc. Dean Dayton dean@aicorp.cmhnet.org
540 Crypto AG Roland Luthi luthi@iis.ethz.ch
541 Infinite Networks, Ltd. Sean Harding +44 923 710 277
542 Rabbit Software Bill Kwan kwan@rabbit.com
543 Apertus Technologies Stuart Stanley stuarts@apertus.com
544 Equinox Systems, Inc. Monty Norwood 1-800-275-3500 x293
545 Hayes Microcomputer Products
Chris Roussel hayes!hayes.com!croussel@uunet.UU.NET
546 Empire Technologies Inc. Cheryl Krupczak cheryl@cc.gatech.edu
547 Glaxochem, Ltd. Andy Wilson 0229 52261547
548 KPY Network Partners, Corp.
Gordon Vickers sccs@pizza.netcom.com
549 Agent Technology, Inc. Ibi Dhilla idhilla@genesis.nred.ma.us
550 Dornier GMBH Arens Heinrech 49-7545-8 ext 9337
551 Telxon Corporation Frank Ciotti frankc@teleng.telxon.com

552 Entergy Corporation Louis Cureau 504-364-7630
553 Garrett Communications Inc. Igor Khasin (408) 980-9752
554 Agile Networks, Inc. Dave Donegan ddonegan@agile.com
555 Larscom Sameer Jayakar 415-969-7572
556 Stock Equipment Karl Klebenow 216-543-6000
557 ITT Corporation Kevin M. McCauley kmm@vaxf.acdnj.itt.com
558 Universal Data Systems, Inc.
Howard Cunningham 70400.3671@compuserve.com
559 Sonix Communications, Ltd. David Webster +44 285 641 651
560 Paul Freeman Associates, Inc.
Pete Wilson pwilson@world.std.com
561 John S. Barnes, Corp. Michael Lynch 704-878-4107
562 Northern Telecom, Ltd.
Glenn Waters 613-763-3933 <gwaters@bnr.ca>
563 CAP Debris Patrick Preuss ppr@lfs.hamburg.cap-debris.de
564 Telco Systems NAC Harry Hirani Harry@telco-nac.com
565 Tosco Refining Co Fred Sanderson 510-602-4358
566 Russell Info Sys Atul Desai 714-362-4040
567 University of Salford Richard Letts R.J.Letts@salford.ac.uk
568 NetQuest Corp. Jerry Jacobus netquest@tigger.jvnc.net
569 Armon Networking Ltd. Yigal Jacoby yigal@armon.hellnet.org
570 IA Corporation Didier Fort Didier.Fort@lia.com
571 AU-System Communicaton AB Torbjorn Ryding 8-7267572
572 GoldStar Information & Communications, Ltd.
Soo N. Kim ksn@giconet.gsic.co.kr
573 SECTRA AB Tommy Pedersen tcp@sectra.se
574 ONEAC Corporation Bill Elliot ONEACWRE@AOL.COM
575 Tree Technologies Michael Demjanenko (716) 688-4640
576 GTE Government Systems Henry Hernandez (617) 455-2942
577 Denmac Systems, Inc. Andy Denenberg (708) 291-7760
578 Interlink Computer Sciences, Inc.
Mike Mazurek mfm@interlink.com
579 Bridge Information Systems, Inc. Stephen Harvey (314) 567-8482
580 Leeds and Northrup Australia (LNA) Nigel Cook nigelc@lna.oz.au
581 BHA Computer David Hislop rob@bha.oz.au
582 Newport Systems Solutions, Inc.
Pauline Chen paulinec@netcom.com
583 Atrium Technologies Narender Reddy Vangati vnr@atrium.com
584 ROBOTIKER Maribel Narganes maribel@teletek.es
585 PeerLogic Inc. Ratinder Ahuja ratinder@peerlogic.com
586 Digital Transmittion Systems Bill VerSteeg bvs@ver.com
587 Far Point Communications Bill VerSteeg bvs@ver.com
588 Xircom Bill VerSteeg bvs@ver.com
589 Mead Data Central Stephanie Bowman steph@meaddata.com
590 Royal Bank of Canada N. Lim (416) 348-5197
591 Advantis, Inc. Janet Brehm 813 878-4298
592 Chemical Banking Corp. Paul McDonnell pmcdonnl@world.std.com
593 Eagle Technology Ted Haynes (408) 441-4043

594 British Telecom Ray Smyth rsmyth@bfsec.bt.co.uk
595 Radix BV P. Groenendaal project2@radix.nl
596 TAINET Communication System Corp.
Joseph Chen +886-2-6583000 (R.O.C.)
597 Comtek Services Inc. Steve Harris (703) 506-9556
598 Fair Issac Steve Pasadis apple.com!fico!sxp (415) 472-2211
599 AST Research Inc. Bob Beard bobb@ast.com
600 Soft*Star s.r.l. Ing. Enrico Badella softstar@pol88a.polito.it
601 Bancomm Joe Fontes jwf@bancomm.com
602 Trusted Information Systems, Inc.
James M. Galvin galvin@tis.com
603 Harris & Jeffries, Inc. Deepak Shahane hjinc@CERF.NET
604 Axel Technology Corp. Henry Ngai (714) 455-1688
605 GN Navtel, Inc. Joe Magony 416-479-8090
606 CAP debis Patrick Preuss +49 40 527 28 366
607 Lachman Technology, Inc. Steve Alexander stevea@lachman.com
608 Galcom Networking Ltd.
Zeev Greenblatt galnet@vax.trendline.co.il
609 BAZIS M. van Luijt martin@bazis.nl
610 SYNAPTEL Eric Remond remond@synaptel.fr
611 Investment Management Services, Inc.
J. Laurens Troost rens@stimpys.imsi.com
612 Taiwan Telecommunication Lab
Dennis Tseng LOUIS%TWNMOCTL.BITNET@pucc.Princeton.EDU
613 Anagram Corporation Michael Demjanenko (716) 688-4640
614 Univel John Nunneley jnunnele@univel.com
615 University of California, San Diego
Arthur Bierer abierer@ucsd.edu
616 CompuServe Ed Isaacs, Brian Biggs SYSADM@csi.compuserve.com
617 Telstra - OTC Australia
Peter Hanselmann peterhan@turin.research.otc.com.au
618 Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Ananth Kupanna ananth@access.digex.com
619 DGA Ltd. Tom L. Willis twillis@pintu.demon.co.uk
620 Elegant Communications Inc.
Robert Story Robert.Story@Elegant.COM
621 Experdata Claude Lubin clubin@expdat.gna.org
622 Unisource Business Networks Sweden AB
Goran Sterner gsr@tip.net
623 Molex, Inc. Steven Joffe molex@mcimail.com
624 Quay Financial Software Mick Fleming mickf@quay.ie
625 VMX Inc. Joga Ryali joga@vmxi.cerfnet.com
626 Hypercom, Inc. Noor Chowdhury (602) 548-2113
627 University of Guelph Kent Percival Percival@CCS.UoGuelph.CA
628 DIaLOGIKa Juergen Jungfleisch 0 68 97 9 35-0
629 NBASE Switch Communication
Sergiu Rotenstein 75250.1477@compuserve.com
630 Anchor Datacomm B.V. Erik Snoek sdrierik@diamond.sara.nl

631 PACDATA John Reed johnr@hagar.pacdata.com
632 University of Colorado Evi Nemeth evi@cs.colorado.edu
633 Tricom Communications Limited
Robert Barrett 0005114429@mcimail.com
634 Santix Software GmbH
Michael Santifaller santi%mozart@santix.guug.de
635 FastComm Communications Corp.
Bill Flanagan 70632.1446@compuserve.com
636 The Georgia Institute of Technology
Michael Mealling michael.mealling@oit.gatech.edu
637 Alcatel Data Networks
Douglas E. Johnson doug.e.johnson@adn.sprint.com
638 GTECH Brian Ruptash bar@gtech.com
639 UNOCAL Corporation Peter Ho ho@unocal.com
640 First Pacific Network Randy Hamilton 408-703-2763
641 Lexmark International Don Wright don@lexmark.com
642 Qnix Computer Sang Weon, Yoo swyoo@qns.qnix.co.kr
643 Jigsaw Software Concepts (Pty) Ltd.
Willem van Biljon wvb@itu2.sun.ac.za
644 VIR, Inc. Mark Cotton (215) 364-7955
645 SFA Datacomm Inc. Don Lechthaler lech@world.std.com
646 SEIKO Telecommunication Systems, Inc.
Lyn T. Robertson (503) 526-5638
647 Unified Management Andy Barnhouse (612) 561-4944
648 RADLINX Ltd. Ady Lifshes ady%rndi@uunet.uu.net
649 Microplex Systems Ltd. Henry Lee hyl@microplex.com
650 Objecta Elektronik & Data AB Johan Finnved jf@objecta.se
651 Phoenix Microsystems Bill VerSteeg bvs@ver.com
652 Distributed Systems International, Inc.
Ron Mackey rem@dsiinc.com
653 Evolving Systems, Inc. Judith C. Bettinger judy@evolving.com
654 SAT GmbH Walter Eichelburg 100063.74@compuserve.com
655 CeLAN Technology, Inc. Mark Liu 886--35-772780
656 Landmark Systems Corp.
Steve Sonnenberg steves@socrates.umd.edu
657 Netone Systems Co., Ltd.
YongKui Shao syk@new-news.netone.co.jp
658 Loral Data Systems Jeff Price jprice@cps070.lds.loral.com
659 Cellware Broadband Technology Michael Roth mike@cellware.de
660 Mu-Systems Gaylord Miyata miyata@world.std.com
661 IMC Networks Corp. Jerry Roby (714) 724-1070
662 Octel Communications Corp. Alan Newman (408) 321-5182
663 RIT Technologies LTD. Ghiora Drori drori@dcl.hellnet.org
664 Adtran Jeff Wells 205-971-8000
665 PowerPlay Technologies, Inc. Ray Caruso rayman@csn.org
666 Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.
Shigeru Urushibara uru@cs1.cs.oki.co.jp
667 Specialix International Jeremy Rolls jeremyr@specialix.co.uk

668 INESC (Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores)
Pedro Ramalho Carlos prc@inesc.pt
669 Globalnet Communications Real Barriere (514) 651-6164
670 Product Line Engineer SVEC Computer Corp.
Rich Huang msumgr@enya.cc.fcu.edu.tw
671 Printer Systems Corp. Bill Babson bill@prsys.com
672 Contec Micro Electronics USA David Sheih (408) 434-6767
673 Unix Integration Services Chris Howard chris@uis.com
674 Dell Computer Corporation Steven Blair sblair@dell.com
675 Whittaker Electronic Systems Michael McCune mccune@cerf.net
676 QPSX Communications David Pascoe davidp@qpsx.oz.au
677 Loral WDl Mike Aronson Mike_Aronson@msgate.wdl.loral.com
678 Federal Express Corp. Randy Hale (901) 369-2152
679 E-COMMS Inc. Harvey Teale (206) 857-3399
680 Software Clearing House Tom Caris ca@sch.com
681 Antlow Computers LTD. C. R. Bates 44-635-871829
682 Emcom Corp. Mike Swartz emcom@cerf.net
683 Extended Systems, Inc.
Al Youngwerth alberty@tommy.extendsys.com
684 Sola Electric Mike Paulsen (708) 439-2800
685 Esix Systems, Inc. Anthony Chung esix@esix.tony.com
686 3M/MMM Chris Amley ccamley@mmm.com
687 Cylink Corp. Ed Chou ed@cylink.com
688 Znyx Advanced Systems Division, Inc.
Alan Deikman aland@netcom.com
689 Texaco, Inc. Jeff Lin linj@Texaco.com
690 McCaw Cellular Communication Corp. Tri Phan tri.phan@mccaw.com
691 ASP Computer Product Inc. Elise Moss 71053.1066@compuserve.com
692 HiPerformance Systems Mike Brien +27-11-806-1000
693 Regionales Rechenzentrum
Sibylle Schweizer unrz54@daphne.rrze.uni-erlangen.de
694 SAP AG Dr. Uwe Hommel +49 62 27 34 0
695 ElectroSpace System Inc.
Dr. Joseph Cleveland e03353@esitx.esi.org
696 ( Unassigned )
697 MultiPort Software Reuben Sivan 72302.3262@compuserve.com
698 Combinet, Inc. Samir Sawhney samir@combinet.com
699 TSCC Carl Wist carlw@tscc.com
700 Teleos Communications Inc. Bill Nayavich wln@teleoscom.com
701 Alta Research Amy Saperstein (305) 428-8535
702 Independence Blue Cross Bill Eshbach esh@ibx.com
703 ADACOM Station Interconnectivity LTD.
Itay Kariv +9 72 48 99 89 9
704 MIROR Systems Frank Kloes +27 12 911 0003
705 Merlin Gerin Adam Stolinski (714) 557-1637 x249
706 Owen-Corning Fiberglas Tom Mann mann.td@ocf.compuserve.com
707 Talking Networks Inc. Terry Braun tab@lwt.mtxinu.com
708 Cubix Corporation Rebekah Marshall (702) 883-7611

709 Formation Inc. Bob Millis bobm@formail.formation.com
710 Lannair Ltd. Pablo Brenner pablo@lannet.com
711 LightStream Corp. Chris Chiotasso chris@lightstream.com
712 LANart Corp. Doron I. Gartner doron@lanart.com
713 University of Stellenbosch Graham Phillips phil@cs.sun.ac.za
714 Wyse Technology Bill Rainey bill@wyse.com
715 DSC Communications Corp. Colm Bergin cbergin@cpdsc.com
716 NetEc Thomas Krichel netec@uts.mcc.ac.uk
717 Breltenbach Software Engineering Hilmar Tuneke +02 92 49 70 00
718 Victor Company of Japan,Limited
Atsushi Sakamoto 101176.2703@compuserve.com
719 Japan Direx Corporation Teruo Tomiyama +81 3 3498 5050
720 NECSY Network Control Systems S.p.A. Piero Fiozzo fip@necsy.it
721 ISDN Systems Corp. Jeff Milloy p00633@psilink.com
722 Zero-One Technologies, LTD. Curt Chen + 88 62 56 52 32 33
723 Radix Technologies, Inc. Steve Giles giless@delphi.com
724 National Institute of Standards and Technology
Jim West west@mgmt3.ncsl.nist.gov
725 Digital Technology Inc. Chris Gianattasio gto@lanhawk.com
726 Castelle Corp. Waiming Mok wmm@castelle.com
727 Presticom Inc. Martin Dube 76270.2672@compuserve.com
728 Showa Electric Wire & Cable Co., Ltd.
Robert O'Grady kfn@tanuki.twics.co.jp
729 SpectraGraphics Jack Hinkle hinkle@spectra.com
730 Connectware Inc. Rick Downs rxd4@acsysinc.com
731 Wind River Systems Emily Hipp hipp@wrs.com
732 RADWAY International Ltd. Doron Kolton 0005367977@mcimail.com
733 System Management ARTS, Inc. Alexander Dupuy dupuy@smarts.com
734 Persoft, Inc. Steven M. Entine entine@pervax.persoft.com
735 Xnet Technology Inc. Esther Chung estchung@xnet-tech.com
736 Unison-Tymlabs Dean Andrews ada@unison.com
737 Micro-Matic Research Patrick Lemli 73677.2373@compuserve.com
738 B.A.T.M. Advance Technologies
Nahum Killim bcrystal@actcom.co.il
739 University of Copenhagen Kim H|glund shotokan@diku.dk
740 Network Security Systems, Inc.
Carleton Smith rpitt@nic.cerf.net
741 JNA Telecommunications Sean Cody seanc@jna.com.au
742 Encore Computer Corporation Tony Shafer tshafer@encore.com
743 Central Intelligent Agency Carol Jobusch 703 242-2485
744 ISC (GB) Limited Mike Townsend miket@cix.compulink.co.uk
745 Digital Communication Associates Ravi Shankar shankarr@dca.com
746 CyberMedia Inc. Unni Warrier unni@cs.ucla.edu
747 Distributed Systems International, Inc.
Ron Mackey rem@dsiinc.com
748 Peter Radig EDP-Consulting Peter Radig +49 69 9757 6100
749 Vicorp Interactive Systems Phil Romine phil@vis.com
750 Inet Inc. Bennie Lopez brl@inetinc.com

751 Argonne National Laboratory Michael Shaffer mashaffer@anl.gov
752 Tek Logix Peter Palsall 905 625-4121
753 North Western University Phil Draughon jpd@nwu.edu
754 Astarte Fiber Networks James Garnett garnett@catbelly.com
755 Diederich & Associates, Inc.
Douglas Capitano dlcapitano@delphi.com
756 Florida Power Corporation Bob England rengland@fpc.com
757 ASK/INGRES Howard Dernehl howard@ingres.com
758 Open Network Enterprise Spada Stefano +39 39 245-8101
759 The Home Depot Keith Porter ktp01@homedepot.com
760 Pan Dacom Telekommunikations Jens Andresen +49 40 644 09 71
761 NetTek Steve Kennedy steve@gbnet.com
762 Karlnet Corp. Doug Kall kbridge@osu.edu
763 Efficient Networks, Inc. Thirl Johnson (214) 991-3884
764 Fiberdata Jan Fernquist +46 828 8383
765 Lanser Emil Smilovici (514) 485-7104
766 Telebit Communications A/S Peder Chr. Norgaard pcn@tbit.dk
767 HILAN GmbH Markus Pestinger markus@lahar.ka.sub.org
768 Network Computing Inc.
Fredrik Noon fnoon@ncimail.mhs.compuserve.com
769 Walgreens Company Denis Renaud (708) 818-4662
770 Internet Initiative Japan Inc. Toshiharu Ohno tony-o@iij.ad.jp
771 GP van Niekerk Ondernemings
Gerrit van Niekerk gvanniek@dos-lan.cs.up.ac.za
772 DSP & Telecoms Research Group
Patrick McGleenon p.mcgleenon@ee.queens-belfast.ac.uk
773 Securities Industry Automation Corporation
Chiu Szeto cszeto@prism.poly.edu
774 SYNaPTICS David Gray david@synaptics.ie
775 Data Switch Corporation Joe Welfeld jwelfeld@dasw.com
776 Telindus Distribution Karel Van den Bogaert kava@telindus.be
777 MAXM Systems Corporation Gary Greathouse ggreathouse@maxm.com
778 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft
Jan Gottschick jan.gottschick@isst.fhg.de
779 EQS Business Services Ken Roberts kroberts@esq.com
780 CNet Technology Inc. Repus Hsiung idps17@shts.seed.net.tw
781 Datentechnik GmbH Thomas Pischinger +43 1 50100 266
782 Network Solutions Inc. Dave Putman davep@netsol.com
783 Viaman Software Vikram Duvvoori info@viman.com
784 Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft Zuerich
Roland Bernet Roland.Bernet@zh014.ubs.ubs.ch
785 University of Twente - TIOS Aiko Pras pras@cs.utwente.nl
786 Simplesoft Inc. Sudhir Pendse sudhir@netcom.com
787 Stony Brook, Inc. Ken Packert p01006@psilink.com
788 Unified Systems Solutions, Inc.
Steven Morgenthal smorgenthal@attmail.com
789 Network Appliance Corporation
Varun Mehta varun@butch.netapp.com

790 Ornet Data Communication Technologies Ltd.
Haim Kurz haim@ornet.co.il
791 Computer Associates International
Glenn Gianino giagl01@usildaca.cai.com
792 Multipoint Network Inc. Michael Nguyen mike@multipoint.com
793 NYNEX Science & Technology Lily Lau llau@nynexst.com
794 Commercial Link Systems Wiljo Heinen wiljo@freeside.cls.de
795 Adaptec Inc. Tom Battle tab@lwt.mtxinu.com
796 Softswitch Charles Springer cjs@ssw.com
797 Link Technologies, Inc. Roy Chu royc@wyse.com
798 IIS Olry Rappaport iishaifa@attmail.com
799 Mobile Solutions Inc. Dale Shelton dshelton@srg.srg.af.mil
800 Xylan Corp. Burt Cyr burt@xylan.com
801 Airtech Software Forge Limited
Callum Paterson tsf@cix.compulink.co.uk
802 National Semiconductor Maurice Turcotte mturc@atlanta.nsc.com
803 Video Lottery Technologies Angelo Lovisa ange@awd.cdc.com
804 National Semiconductor Corp Waychi Doo wcd@berlioz.nsc.com
805 Applications Management Corp
Terril (Terry) Steichen tjs@washington.ssds.com
806 Travelers Insurance Company Eric Miner ustrv67v@ibmmail.com
807 Taiwan International Standard Electronics Ltd.
B. J. Chen bjchen@taisel.com.tw
808 US Patent and Trademark Office Rick Randall randall@uspto.gov
809 Hynet, LTD. Amir Fuhrmann amf@teleop.co.il
810 Aydin, Corp. Rick Veher (215) 657-8600
811 ADDTRON Technology Co., LTD. Tommy Tasi +8 86-2-4514507
812 Fannie Mae David King s4ujdk@fnma.com
813 MultiNET Services Hubert Martens martens@multinet.de
814 GECKO mbH Holger Dopp hdo@gecko.de
815 Memorex Telex Mike Hill hill@raleng.mtc.com
816 Advanced Communications Networks (ACN) SA
Antoine Boss +41 38 247434
817 Telekurs AG Jeremy Brookfield bkj@iris.F2.telekurs.ch
818 Victron bv Jack Stiekema jack@victron.nl
819 CF6 Company Francois Caron +331 4696 0060
820 Walker Richer and Quinn Inc.
Rebecca Higgins rebecca@elmer.wrq.com
821 Saturn Systems Paul Parker paul_parker@parker.fac.cs.cmu.edu
822 Mitsui Marine and Fire Insurance Co. LTD.
Kijuro Ikeda +813 5389 8111
823 Loop Telecommunication International, Inc.
Charng-Show Li +886 35 787 696
824 Telenex Corporation James Krug (609) 866-1100
825 Bus-Tech, Inc. Charlie Zhang chun@eecs.cory.berkley.edu
826 ATRIE Fred B.R. Tuang cmp@fddi3.ccl.itri.org.tw
827 Gallagher & Robertson A/S Arild Braathen arild@gar.no
828 Networks Northwest, Inc. John J. Hansen jhansen@networksnw.com

829 Conner Peripherials Richard Boyd rboyd@mailserver.conner.com
830 Elf Antar France P. Noblanc +33 1 47 44 45 46
831 Lloyd Internetworking Glenn McGregor glenn@lloyd.com
832 Datatec Industries, Inc. Chris Wiener cwiener@datatec.com
833 TAICOM Scott Tseng cmp@fddi3.ccl.itri.org.tw
834 Brown's Operating System Services Ltd.
Alistair Bell alistair@ichthya.demon.co.uk
835 MiLAN Technology Corp. Gopal Hegde gopal@milan.com
836 NetEdge Systems, Inc. Dave Minnich Dave_Minnich@netedge.com
837 NetFrame Systems George Mathew george_mathew@netframe.com
838 Xedia Corporation Colin Kincaid colin%madway.uucp@dmc.com
839 Pepsi Niraj Katwala niraj@netcom.com
840 Tricord Systems, Inc. Mark Dillon mdillon@tricord.mn.org
841 Proxim Inc. Russ Reynolds proxim@netcom.com
842 Applications Plus, Inc. Joel Estes joele@hp827.applus.com
843 Pacific Bell Aijaz Asif saasif@srv.PacBell.COM
844 Supernet Sharon Barkai sharon@supernet.com
845 TPS-Teleprocessing Systems Manfred Gorr gorr@tpscad.tps.de
846 Technology Solutions Company Niraj Katwala niraj@netcom.com
847 Computer Site Technologies Tim Hayes (805) 967-3494
848 NetPort Software John Bartas jbartas@sunlight.com
849 Alon Systems Menachem Szus 70571.1350@compuserve.com
850 Tripp Lite Lawren Markle 72170.460@compuserve.com
851 NetComm Limited
Paul Ripamonti paulri@msmail.netcomm.pronet.com
852 Precision Systems, Inc. (PSI)
Fred Griffin cheryl@empiretech.com
853 Objective Systems Integrators Ed Reeder Ed.Reeder@osi.com
854 Simpact Associates Inc.
Robert Patterson bpatterson@dcs.simpact.com
855 Systems Enhancement Corporation
Steve Held 71165.2156@compuserve.com
856 Information Integration, Inc. Gina Sun iiii@netcom.com
857 CETREL S.C. Louis Reinard ssc-re@cetrel.lu
858 ViaTech Development
Theodore J. Collins III ted.collins@vtdev.mn.org
859 Olivetti North America Tom Purcell tomp@mail.spk.olivetti.com
860 WILMA Nikolaus Schaller hns@ldv.e-technik.tu-muenchen.de
861 ILX Systems Inc. Peter Mezey peterm@ilx.com
862 Total Peripherals Inc. Mark Ustik (508) 393-1777
863 SunNetworks Consultant John Brady jbrady@fedeast.east.sun.com
864 Arkhon Technologies, Inc. Joe Wang rkhon@nic.cerf.net
865 Computer Sciences Corporation
George M. Dands dands@sed.csc.com
866 Philips.TRT Thibault Muchery +33 14128 7000
867 Katron Technologies Inc. Robert Kao +88 627 991 064
868 Transition Engineering Inc.
Hemant Trivedi hemant@transition.com

869 Altos Engineering Applications, Inc.
Wes Weber or Dave Erhart altoseng@netcom.com
870 Nicecom Ltd. Arik Ramon arik@nicecom.nice.com
871 Fiskars/Deltec Carl Smith (619) 291-2973
872 AVM GmbH Andreas Stockmeier stocki@avm-berlin.de
873 Comm Vision Richard Havens (408) 923 0301 x22
874 Institute for Information Industry
Peter Pan peterpan@pdd.iii.org.tw
875 Legent Corporation Gary Strohm gstrohm@legent.com
876 Network Automation Doug Jackson +64 6 285 1711
877 NetTech Marshall Sprague marshall@nettech.com
878 Coman Data Communications Ltd.
Zvi Sasson coman@nms.cc.huji.ac.il
879 Skattedirektoratet Karl Olav Wroldsen +47 2207 7162
880 Client-Server Technologies Timo Metsaportti timo@itf.fi
881 Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques
Chuck Noren chuck.noren@es.atl.sita.int
882 Maximum Strategy Inc. Paul Stolle pstolle@maxstrat.com
883 Integrated Systems, Inc. Michael Zheng mz@isi.com
884 E-Systems, Melpar Rick Silton rsilton@melpar.esys.com
885 Reliance Comm/Tec Mark Scott 73422.1740@compuserve.com
886 Summa Four Inc. Paul Nelson (603) 625-4050
887 J & L Information Systems Rex Jackson (818) 709-1778
888 Forest Computer Inc. Dave Black dave@forest.com
889 Palindrome Corp. Jim Gast jgast@palindro.mhs.compuserve.com
890 ZyXEL Communications Corp. Harry Chou howie@csie.nctu.edu.tw
891 Network Managers (UK) Ltd, Mark D Dooley mark@netmgrs.co.uk
892 Sensible Office Systems Inc. Pat Townsend (712) 276-0034
893 Informix Software Anthony Daniel anthony@informix.com
894 Dynatek Communications Howard Linton (703) 490-7205
895 Versalynx Corp. Dave Fisler (619) 536-8023
896 Potomac Scheduling Communications Company
David Labovitz del@access.digex.net
897 Sybase Inc. Dave Meldrum meldrum@sybase.com
898 DiviCom Inc. Eyal Opher eyal@divi.com
899 Datus elektronische Informationssysteme GmbH
Hubert Mertens marcus@datus.uucp
900 Matrox Electronic Systems Limited
Marc-Andre Joyal marc-andre.joyal@matrox.com
901 Digital Products, Inc. Ross Dreyer rdreyer@digprod.com
902 Scitex Corp. Ltd. Yoav Chalfon yoav_h@ird.scitex.com
903 RAD Vision Oleg Pogorelik radvis@vax.trendline.co.il
904 Tran Network Systems Paul Winkeler paulw@revco.com
905 Scorpion Logic Sean Harding +09 2324 5672
906 Inotech Inc. Eric Jacobs (703) 641-0469
907 Controlled Power Co. Yu Chin 76500,3160@compuserve.com
908 Elsag Bailey Incorporate Derek McKearney mckearney@bailey.com
909 J.P. Morgan Chung Szeto szeto_chung@jpmorgan.com

910 Clear Communications Corp. Kurt Hall khall@clear.com
911 General Technology Inc. Perry Rockwell (407) 242-2733
912 Adax Inc. Jory Gessow jory@adax.com
913 Mtel Technologies, Inc. Jon Robinson 552-3355@mcimail.com
914 Underscore, Inc. Jeff Schnitzer jds@underscore.com
915 SerComm Corp. Ben Lin +8 862-577-5400
916 Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Joseph Sturonas sturonaj@mpg.mcgawpark.baxter.com
917 Tellus Technology Ron Cimorelli (510) 498-8500
918 Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility
Paul Banta banta@cebaf.gov
919 Canoga Perkins Margret Siska (818) 718-6300
920 R.I.S Technologies Fabrice Lacroix +33 7884 6400
921 INFONEX Corp. Kazuhiro Watanabe kazu@infonex.co.jp
922 WordPerfect Corp. Douglas Eddy eddy@wordperfect.com
923 NRaD Russ Carleton roccor@netcom.com
924 Hong Kong Telecommunications Ltd. K. S. Luk +8 52 883 3183
925 Signature Systems Doug Goodall goodall@crl.com
926 Alpha Technologies LTD. Guy Pothiboon (604) 430-8908
927 PairGain Technologies, Inc. Ken Huang kenh@pairgain.com
928 Sonic Systems Sudhakar Ravi sudhakar@sonicsys.com
929 Steinbrecher Corp. Kary Robertson krobertson@delphi.com
930 Centillion Networks, Inc. Derek Pitcher derek@lanspd.com
931 Network Communication Corp.
Tracy Clark ncc!central!tracyc@netcomm.attmail.com
932 Sysnet A.S. Carstein Seeberg case@sysnet.no
933 Telecommunication Systems Lab Gerald Maguire maguire@it.kth.se
934 QMI Scott Brickner (410) 573-0013
935 Phoenixtec Power Co., LTD. An-Hsiang Tu +8 862 646 3311
936 Hirakawa Hewtech Corp. H. Ukaji lde02513@niftyserve.or.jp
937 No Wires Needed B.V. Arnoud Zwemmer roana@cs.utwente.nl
938 Primary Access Kerstin Lodman lodman@priacc.com
939 Enterprises.FDSW Dag Framstad dag.framstad@fdsw.no
940 Grabner & Kapfer GnbR Vinzenz Grabner zen@wsr.ac.att
941 Nemesys Research Ltd. Michael Dixon mjd@nemesys.co.uk
942 Pacific Communication Sciences, Inc. (PSCI)
Yvonne Kammer mib-contact@pcsi.com
943 Level One Communications, Inc.
Moshe Kochinski moshek@level1.com
944 Fast Track, Inc. Andrew H. Dimmick adimmick@world.std.com
945 Andersen Consulting, OM/NI Practice
Greg Tilford p00919@psilink.com
946 Bay Technologies Pty Ltd. Paul Simpson pauls@baytech.com.au
947 Integrated Network Corp. Daniel Joffe wandan@integnet.com
948 Epoch, Inc. David Haskell deh@epoch.com
949 Wang Laboratories Inc. Pete Reilley pvr@wiis.wang.com
950 Polaroid Corp. Sari Germanos sari@temerity.polaroid.com
951 Sunrise Sierra Gerald Olson (510) 443-1133

952 Silcon Group Bjarne Bonvang +45 75 54 22 55
953 Coastcom Donald Pickerel dpickere@netcom.com
954 4th DIMENSION SOFTWARE LTD.
Thomas Segev/Ely Hofner autumn@zeus.datasrv.co.il
955 SEIKO SYSTEMS Inc. Kiyoshi Ishida ishi@ssi.co.jp
956 PERFORM Jean-Hugues Robert +33 42 27 29 32
957 TV/COM International Jean Tellier (619) 675-1376
958 Network Integration, Inc.
Scott C. Lemon slemon@nii.mhs.compuserve.com
959 Sola Electric, A Unit of General Signal
Bruce Rhodes 72360,2436@compuserve.com
960 Gradient Technologies, Inc. Geoff Charron geoff@gradient.com
961 Tokyo Electric Co., Ltd. A. Akiyama +81 558 76 9606
962 Codonics, Inc. Joe Kulig jjk@codonics.com
963 Delft Technical University Mark Schenk m.schenk@ced.tudelft.nl
964 Carrier Access Corp. Roger Koenig tomquick@carrier.com
965 eoncorp Barb Wilson wilsonb@eon.com
966 Naval Undersea Warfare Center
Mark Lovelace lovelace@mp34.nl.nuwc.navy.mil
967 AWA Limited Mike Williams +61 28 87 71 11
968 Distinct Corp. Tarcisio Pedrotti tarci@distinct.com
969 National Technical University of Athens
Theodoros Karounos karounos@phgasos.ntua.gr
970 BGS Systems, Inc. Amr Hafez amr@bgs.com
971 McCaw Wireless Data Inc. Brian Bailey bbailey@airdata.com
972 Bekaert Koen De Vleeschauwer kdv@bekaert.com
973 Epic Data Inc. Vincent Lim vincent_lim@epic.wimsey.com
974 Prodigy Services Co. Ed Ravin elr@wp.prodigy.com
975 First Pacific Networks (FPN) Randy Hamilton randy@fpn.com
976 Xylink Ltd. Bahman Rafatjoo 100117.665@compuserve.com
977 Relia Technologies Corp. Fred Chen fredc@relia1.relia.com.tw
978 Legacy Storage Systems Inc.
James Hayes james@lss-chq.mhs.compuserve.com
979 Digicom, SPA Claudio Biotti +39 3312 0 0122
980 Ark Telecom Alan DeMars alan@arktel.com
981 National Security Agency (NSA)
Cynthia Stewart maedeen@romulus.ncsc.mil
982 Southwestern Bell Corporation
Brian Bearden bb8840@swuts.sbc.com
983 Virtual Design Group, Inc.
Chip Standifer 70650.3316@compuserve.com
984 Rhone Poulenc Olivier Pignault +33 1348 2 4053
985 Swiss Bank Corporation Neil Todd toddn@gb.swissbank.com
986 ATEA N.V. Walter van Brussel p81710@banyan.atea.be
987 Computer Communications Specialists, Inc.
Carolyn Zimmer cczimmer@crl.com
988 Object Quest, Inc. Michael L. Kornegay mlk@bir.com
989 DCL System International, Ltd. Gady Amit gady-a@dcl-see.co.il

990 SOLITON SYSTEMS K.K. Masayuki Yamai +81 33356 6091
991 U S Software Don Dunstan ussw@netcom.com
992 Systems Research and Applications Corporation
Todd Herr herrt@smtplink.sra.com
993 University of Florida Todd Hester todd@circa.ufl.edu
994 Dantel, Inc. John Litster (209) 292-1111
995 Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. Dale Martenson (612) 785-3500 x519
996 Softlink Ltd. Moshe Leibovitch softlink@zeus.datasrv.co.il
997 ProSum Christian Bucari +33.1.4590.6231
998 March Systems Consultancy, Ltd.
Ross Wakelin r.wakelin@march.co.uk
999 Hong Technology, Inc. Walt Milnor brent@oceania.com
1000 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority iana@isi.edu
1001 PECO Energy Co. Rick Rioboli u002rdr@peco.com
1002 United Parcel Service Steve Pollini nrd1sjp@nrd.ups.com
1003 Storage Dimensions, Inc. Michael Torhan miketorh@xstor.com
1004 ITV Technologies, Inc. Jacob Chen itv@netcom.com
1005 TCPSI Victor San Jose Victor.Sanjose@sp1.y-net.es
1006 Promptus Communications, Inc. Paul Fredette (401) 683-6100
1007 Norman Data Defense Systems
Kristian A. Bognaes norman@norman.no
1008 Pilot Network Services, Inc. Rob Carrade carrade@pilot.net
1009 Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation
Chris Cowan cc@austin.ibm.com
1010 SISRO Kamp Alexandre 100074.344@compuserve.com
1011 NetVantage Kevin Bailey speed@kaiwan.com
1012 Marconi S.p.A. Giuseppe Grasso gg@relay.marconi.it
1013 SURECOM Mike S. T. Hsieh +886.25.92232
1014 Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club
Edmond Lee 100267.3660@compuserve.com
1015 Gupta Howard Cohen hcohen@gupta.com
1016 Tone Software Corporation Neil P. Harkins (714) 991-9460
1017 Opus Telecom Pace Willisson pace@blitz.com
1018 Cogsys Ltd. Niall Teasdale niall@hedgehog.demon.co.uk
1019 Komatsu, Ltd. Akifumi Katsushima +81 463.22.84.30
1020 ROI Systems, Inc Michael Wong (801) 942-1752
1021 Lightning Instrumentation SA Mike O'Dowd odowd@lightning.ch
1022 TimeStep Corp. Stephane Lacelle slacelle@newbridge.com
1023 INTELSAT Ivan Giron i.giron@intelsat.int
1024 Network Research Corporation Japan, Ltd.
Tsukasa Ueda 100156.2712@compuserve.com
1025 Relational Development, Inc. Steven Smith rdi@ins.infonet.net
1026 Emerald Systems, Corp. Robert A. Evans Jr. (619) 673-2161 x5120
1027 Mitel, Corp. Tom Quan tq@software.mitel.com
1028 Software AG Peter Cohen sagpc@sagus.com
1029 MillenNet, Inc. Manh Do (510) 770-9390
1030 NK-EXA Corp. Ken'ichi Hayami hayami@dst.nk-exa.co.jp
1031 BMC Software Chris Sharp csharp@patrol.com

1032 StarFire Enterprises, Inc. Lew Gaiter lg@starfire.com
1033 Hybrid Networks, Inc. Doug Muirhead dougm@hybrid.com
1034 Quantum Software GmbH Thomas Omerzu omerzu@quantum.de
1035 Openvision Technologies Limited
Andrew Lockhart alockhart@openvision.co.uk
1036 Healthcare Communications, Inc. (HCI)
Larry Streepy streepy@healthcare.com
1037 SAIT Systems Hai Dotu +3223.7053.11
1038 SAT Mleczko Alain +33.1.4077.1156
1039 CompuSci Inc., Bob Berry bberry@compusci.com
1040 Aim Technology Ganesh Rajappan ganeshr@aim.com
1041 CIESIN Kalpesh Unadkat kalpesh@ciesin.org
1042 Systems & Technologies International
Howard Smith ghamex@aol.com
1043 Israeli Electric Company (IEC) Yoram Harlev yoram@yor.iec.co.il
1044 Phoenix Wireless Group, Inc.
Gregory M. Buchanan buchanan@pwgi.com
1045 SWL Bill Kight wkightgrci.com (410) 290.7245
1046 nCUBE Greg Thompson gregt@ncube.com
1047 Cerner, Corp. Dennis Avondet (816) 221.1024 X2432
1048 Andersen Consulting Mark Lindberg mlindber@andersen.com
1049 Lincoln Telephone Company Bob Morrill root@si6000.ltec.com
1050 Acer Jay Tao jtao@Altos.COM
1051 Cedros Juergen Haakert +49.2241.9701.80
1052 AirAccess Ido Ophir 100274.365@compuserve.com
1053 Expersoft Corporation David Curtis curtis@expersoft.com
1054 Eskom Sanjay Lakhani h00161@duvi.eskom.co.za
1055 SBE, Inc. Vimal Vaidya vimal@sbei.com
1056 EBS, Inc. Emre Gundogan baroque@ebs.com
1057 American Computer and Electronics, Corp.
Tom Abraham tha@acec.com
1058 Syndesis Limited Wil Macaulay wil@syndesis.com
1059 Isis Distributed Systems, Inc. Ken Chapman kchapman@isis.com
1060 Priority Call Management Greg Schumacher gregs@world.std.com
1061 Koelsch & Altmann GmbH
Christian Schreyer 100142.154@compuserve.com
1062 WIPRO INFOTECH LTD. Chandrashekar Kapse kapse@wipinfo.soft.net
1063 Controlware Uli Blatz ublatz@cware.de
1064 Mosaic Software W.van Biljon willem@mosaic.co.za
1065 Canon Information Systems
Victor Villalpando vvillalp@cisoc.canon.com
1066 AmericaOnline Andrew R. Scholnick andrew@aol.net
1067 Whitetree Network Technologies, Inc.
Carl Yang cyang@whitetree.com
1068 Xetron Corp. Dave Alverson davea@xetron.com
1069 Target Concepts, Inc. Bill Price bprice@tamu.edu
1070 DMH Software Yigal Hochberg 72144.3704@compuserve.com
1071 Innosoft International, Inc. Jeff Allison jeff@innosoft.com

1072 Controlware GmbH Uli Blatz ublatz@cware.de
1073 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
Mike Youngberg mikey@synacom.com
1074 Boole & Babbage Rami Rubin rami@boole.com
1075 System Engineering Support, Ltd. Vince Taylor +44 454.614.638
1076 SURFnet Ton Verschuren Ton.Verschuren@surfnet.nl
1077 OpenConnect Systems, Inc. Mark Rensmeyer mrensme@oc.com
1078 PDTS (Process Data Technology and Systems)
Martin Gutenbrunner GUT@pdts.mhs.compuserve.com
1079 Cornet, Inc. Nat Kumar (703) 658-3400
1080 NetStar, Inc. John K. Renwick jkr@netstar.com
1081 Semaphore Communications, Corp. Jimmy Soetarman (408) 980-7766
1082 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Shouzo Ohdate ohdate@casio.co.jp
1083 CSIR Frikkie Strecker fstreck@marge.mikom.csir.co.za
1084 APOGEE Communications Olivier Caleff caleff@apogee-com.fr
1085 Information Management Company Michael D. Liss mliss@imc.com
1086 Wordlink, Inc. Mike Aleckson (314) 878-1422
1087 PEER Avinash S. Rao arao@cranel.com
1088 Telstra Corp. Michael Scollay michaels@ind.tansu.com.au
1089 Net X, Inc. Sridhar Kodela techsupp@netx.unicomp.net
1090 PNC PLC Gordon Tees +44 716.061.200

To request an assignment of an Enterprise Number send the complete
company name, address, and phone number; and the contact's person
complete name, address, phone number, and email mailbox in an email
message to <iana-mib@isi.edu>.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/enterprise-numbers

SGMP Vendor Specific Codes: [obsolete]

Prefix: 1,255,

Decimal Name References
------- ---- ----------
0 Reserved [JKR1]
1 Proteon [JS18]
2 IBM [JXR]
3 CMU [SXW]
4 Unix [MS9]
5 ACC [AB20]
6 TWG [MTR]
7 CAYMAN [BXM2]
8 NYSERNET [MS9]
9 cisco [GS2]
10 BBN [RH6]
11 Unassigned [JKR1]
12 MIT [JR35]
13-254 Unassigned [JKR1]
255 Reserved [JKR1]

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/sgmp-vendor-specific-
codes

ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL PARAMETERS

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) specified in [RFC826] has
several parameters. The assigned values for these parameters are
listed here.

REVERSE ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL OPERATION CODES

The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) specified in [RFC903]
uses the "Reverse" codes below.

DYNAMIC REVERSE ARP

The Dynamic Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (DRARP) uses the
"DRARP" codes below. For further information, contact: David Brownell
(suneast!helium!db@Sun.COM).

INVERSE ADDRESS RESOULUTION PROTOCOL

The Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (IARP) specified in [RFC1293]
uses the "InARP" codes below.

Assignments:

Number Operation Code (op) Reference
------ -------------------------- ---------
1 REQUEST [RFC826]
2 REPLY [RFC826]
3 request Reverse [RFC903]
4 reply Reverse [RFC903]
5 DRARP-Request [David Brownell]
6 DRARP-Reply [David Brownell]
7 DRARP-Error [David Brownell]
8 InARP-Request [RFC1293]
9 InARP-Reply [RFC1293]
10 ARP-NAK [Mark Laubach]

Number Hardware Type (hrd) References
------ ----------------------------------- ----------
1 Ethernet (10Mb) [JBP]
2 Experimental Ethernet (3Mb) [JBP]
3 Amateur Radio AX.25 [PXK]
4 Proteon ProNET Token Ring [JBP]
5 Chaos [GXP]
6 IEEE 802 Networks [JBP]
7 ARCNET [JBP]
8 Hyperchannel [JBP]
9 Lanstar [TU]

10 Autonet Short Address [MXB1]
11 LocalTalk [JKR1]
12 LocalNet (IBM PCNet or SYTEK LocalNET) [JXM]
13 Ultra link [RXD2]
14 SMDS [GXC1]
15 Frame Relay [AGM]
16 Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) [JXB2]
17 HDLC [JBP]
18 Fibre Channel [Yakov Rekhter]
19 Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) [Mark Laubach]
20 Serial Line [JBP]
21 Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) [MXB1]

Protocol Type (pro)

Use the same codes as listed in the section called "Ethernet Numbers
of Interest" (all hardware types use this code set for the protocol
type).

REFERENCES

[RFC826] Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol or
Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48-bit Ethernet
Addresses for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37, RFC
826, MIT-LCS, November 1982.

[RFC903] Finlayson, R., Mann, T., Mogul, J., and M. Theimer, "A
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", STD 38, RFC 903,
Stanford University, June 1984.

[RFC1293] Bradley, T., and C. Brown, "Inverse Address Resolution
Protocol", RFC 1293, Wellfleet Communications, Inc.,
January 1992.

PEOPLE

[AGM] Andy Malis <malis_a@timeplex.com>

[GXC1] George Clapp <meritec!clapp@bellcore.bellcore.com>

[GXP] Gill Pratt <gill%mit-ccc@MC.LCS.MIT.EDU>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JKR1] Joyce K. Reynolds <jkrey@isi.edu>

[JXM] Joseph Murdock <---none--->

[MXB1] Mike Burrows <burrows@SRC.DEC.COM>

[PXK] Philip Koch <Philip.Koch@DARTMOUTH.EDU>

[RXD2] Rajiv Dhingra <rajiv@ULTRA.COM>

[TU] Tom Unger <tom@CITI.UMICH>

[David Brownell]

[Mark Laubach]

[Yakov Rekhter] <Yakov@IBM.COM>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/arp-parameters

IEEE 802 NUMBERS OF INTEREST

Some of the networks of all classes are IEEE 802 Networks. These
systems may use a Link Service Access Point (LSAP) field in much the
same way the MILNET uses the "link" field. Further, there is an
extension of the LSAP header called the Sub-Network Access Protocol
(SNAP).

The IEEE likes to describe numbers in binary in bit transmission
order, which is the opposite of the big-endian order used throughout
the Internet protocol documentation.

Assignments:

Link Service Access Point Description References
------------------------- ----------- ----------
IEEE Internet
binary binary decimal
00000000 00000000 0 Null LSAP [IEEE]
01000000 00000010 2 Indiv LLC Sublayer Mgt [IEEE]
11000000 00000011 3 Group LLC Sublayer Mgt [IEEE]
00100000 00000100 4 SNA Path Control [IEEE]
01100000 00000110 6 Reserved (DOD IP) [RFC768,JBP]
01110000 00001110 14 PROWAY-LAN [IEEE]
01110010 01001110 78 EIA-RS 511 [IEEE]
01111010 01011110 94 ISI IP [JBP]
01110001 10001110 142 PROWAY-LAN [IEEE]
01010101 10101010 170 SNAP [IEEE]
01111111 11111110 254 ISO CLNS IS 8473 [RFC926,JXJ]
11111111 11111111 255 Global DSAP [IEEE]

These numbers (and others) are assigned by the IEEE Standards Office.
The address is:

IEEE Registration Authority
c/o Iris Ringel
IEEE Standards Dept
445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
Phone +1 908 562 3813
Fax: +1 908 562 1571

The fee is $1000 and it takes 10 working days after receipt of the
request form and fee. They will not do anything via fax or phone.

At an ad hoc special session on "IEEE 802 Networks and ARP", held
during the TCP Vendors Workshop (August 1986), an approach to a

consistent way to send DoD-IP datagrams and other IP related protocols
(such as the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)) on 802 networks was
developed, using the SNAP extension (see [RFC1042]).

REFERENCES

[RFC768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.

[RFC926] International Standards Organization, "Protocol for Providing
the Connectionless-Mode Network Services", RFC 926, ISO,
December 1984.

[RFC1042] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "A Standard for the
Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802 Networks", STD
43, RFC 1042, USC/Information Sciences Institute, February
1988.

PEOPLE

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JXJ] <mystery contact>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ieee-802-numbers

ETHER TYPES

Many of the networks of all classes are Ethernets (10Mb) or
Experimental Ethernets (3Mb). These systems use a message "type"
field in much the same way the ARPANET uses the "link" field.

If you need an Ether Type, contact:

Xerox Systems Institute
3400 Hillview Ave.
PO BOX 10034
Palo Alto, CA 94303

Phone: 415-813-7164
Contact: Fonda Lix Pallone

The following list of EtherTypes is contributed unverified information
from various sources.

Assignments:

Ethernet Exp. Ethernet Description References
------------- ------------- ----------- ----------
decimal Hex decimal octal
000 0000-05DC - - IEEE802.3 Length Field [XEROX]
257 0101-01FF - - Experimental [XEROX]
512 0200 512 1000 XEROX PUP (see 0A00) [8,XEROX]
513 0201 - - PUP Addr Trans (see 0A01)[XEROX]
0400 Nixdorf [XEROX]
1536 0600 1536 3000 XEROX NS IDP [133,XEROX]
0660 DLOG [XEROX]
0661 DLOG [XEROX]
2048 0800 513 1001 Internet IP (IPv4) [105,JBP]
2049 0801 - - X.75 Internet [XEROX]
2050 0802 - - NBS Internet [XEROX]
2051 0803 - - ECMA Internet [XEROX]
2052 0804 - - Chaosnet [XEROX]
2053 0805 - - X.25 Level 3 [XEROX]
2054 0806 - - ARP [88,JBP]
2055 0807 - - XNS Compatability [XEROX]
2076 081C - - Symbolics Private [DCP1]
2184 0888-088A - - Xyplex [XEROX]
2304 0900 - - Ungermann-Bass net debugr[XEROX]
2560 0A00 - - Xerox IEEE802.3 PUP [XEROX]
2561 0A01 - - PUP Addr Trans [XEROX]
2989 0BAD - - Banyan Systems [XEROX]
4096 1000 - - Berkeley Trailer nego [XEROX]
4097 1001-100F - - Berkeley Trailer encap/IP[XEROX]

5632 1600 - - Valid Systems [XEROX]
16962 4242 - - PCS Basic Block Protocol [XEROX]
21000 5208 - - BBN Simnet [XEROX]
24576 6000 - - DEC Unassigned (Exp.) [XEROX]
24577 6001 - - DEC MOP Dump/Load [XEROX]
24578 6002 - - DEC MOP Remote Console [XEROX]
24579 6003 - - DEC DECNET Phase IV Route[XEROX]
24580 6004 - - DEC LAT [XEROX]
24581 6005 - - DEC Diagnostic Protocol [XEROX]
24582 6006 - - DEC Customer Protocol [XEROX]
24583 6007 - - DEC LAVC, SCA [XEROX]
24584 6008-6009 - - DEC Unassigned [XEROX]
24586 6010-6014 - - 3Com Corporation [XEROX]
28672 7000 - - Ungermann-Bass download [XEROX]
28674 7002 - - Ungermann-Bass dia/loop [XEROX]
28704 7020-7029 - - LRT [XEROX]
28720 7030 - - Proteon [XEROX]
28724 7034 - - Cabletron [XEROX]
32771 8003 - - Cronus VLN [131,DT15]
32772 8004 - - Cronus Direct [131,DT15]
32773 8005 - - HP Probe [XEROX]
32774 8006 - - Nestar [XEROX]
32776 8008 - - AT&T [XEROX]
32784 8010 - - Excelan [XEROX]
32787 8013 - - SGI diagnostics [AXC]
32788 8014 - - SGI network games [AXC]
32789 8015 - - SGI reserved [AXC]
32790 8016 - - SGI bounce server [AXC]
32793 8019 - - Apollo Computers [XEROX]
32815 802E - - Tymshare [XEROX]
32816 802F - - Tigan, Inc. [XEROX]
32821 8035 - - Reverse ARP [48,JXM]
32822 8036 - - Aeonic Systems [XEROX]
32824 8038 - - DEC LANBridge [XEROX]
32825 8039-803C - - DEC Unassigned [XEROX]
32829 803D - - DEC Ethernet Encryption [XEROX]
32830 803E - - DEC Unassigned [XEROX]
32831 803F - - DEC LAN Traffic Monitor [XEROX]
32832 8040-8042 - - DEC Unassigned [XEROX]
32836 8044 - - Planning Research Corp. [XEROX]
32838 8046 - - AT&T [XEROX]
32839 8047 - - AT&T [XEROX]
32841 8049 - - ExperData [XEROX]
32859 805B - - Stanford V Kernel exp. [XEROX]
32860 805C - - Stanford V Kernel prod. [XEROX]
32861 805D - - Evans & Sutherland [XEROX]
32864 8060 - - Little Machines [XEROX]
32866 8062 - - Counterpoint Computers [XEROX]

32869 8065 - - Univ. of Mass. @ Amherst [XEROX]
32870 8066 - - Univ. of Mass. @ Amherst [XEROX]
32871 8067 - - Veeco Integrated Auto. [XEROX]
32872 8068 - - General Dynamics [XEROX]
32873 8069 - - AT&T [XEROX]
32874 806A - - Autophon [XEROX]
32876 806C - - ComDesign [XEROX]
32877 806D - - Computgraphic Corp. [XEROX]
32878 806E-8077 - - Landmark Graphics Corp. [XEROX]
32890 807A - - Matra [XEROX]
32891 807B - - Dansk Data Elektronik [XEROX]
32892 807C - - Merit Internodal [HWB]
32893 807D-807F - - Vitalink Communications [XEROX]
32896 8080 - - Vitalink TransLAN III [XEROX]
32897 8081-8083 - - Counterpoint Computers [XEROX]
32923 809B - - Appletalk [XEROX]
32924 809C-809E - - Datability [XEROX]
32927 809F - - Spider Systems Ltd. [XEROX]
32931 80A3 - - Nixdorf Computers [XEROX]
32932 80A4-80B3 - - Siemens Gammasonics Inc. [XEROX]
32960 80C0-80C3 - - DCA Data Exchange Cluster[XEROX]
80C4 Banyan Systems [XEROX]
80C5 Banyan Systems [XEROX]
32966 80C6 - - Pacer Software [XEROX]
32967 80C7 - - Applitek Corporation [XEROX]
32968 80C8-80CC - - Intergraph Corporation [XEROX]
32973 80CD-80CE - - Harris Corporation [XEROX]
32975 80CF-80D2 - - Taylor Instrument [XEROX]
32979 80D3-80D4 - - Rosemount Corporation [XEROX]
32981 80D5 - - IBM SNA Service on Ether [XEROX]
32989 80DD - - Varian Associates [XEROX]
32990 80DE-80DF - - Integrated Solutions TRFS[XEROX]
32992 80E0-80E3 - - Allen-Bradley [XEROX]
32996 80E4-80F0 - - Datability [XEROX]
33010 80F2 - - Retix [XEROX]
33011 80F3 - - AppleTalk AARP (Kinetics)[XEROX]
33012 80F4-80F5 - - Kinetics [XEROX]
33015 80F7 - - Apollo Computer [XEROX]
33023 80FF-8103 - - Wellfleet Communications [XEROX]
33031 8107-8109 - - Symbolics Private [XEROX]
33072 8130 - - Hayes Microcomputers [XEROX]
33073 8131 - - VG Laboratory Systems [XEROX]
8132-8136 Bridge Communications [XEROX]
33079 8137-8138 - - Novell, Inc. [XEROX]
33081 8139-813D - - KTI [XEROX]
8148 Logicraft [XEROX]
8149 Network Computing Devices[XEROX]
814A Alpha Micro [XEROX]

33100 814C - - SNMP [JKR1]
814D BIIN [XEROX]
814E BIIN [XEROX]
814F Technically Elite Concept[XEROX]
8150 Rational Corp [XEROX]
8151-8153 Qualcomm [XEROX]
815C-815E Computer Protocol Pty Ltd[XEROX]
8164-8166 Charles River Data System[XEROX]
817D-818C Protocol Engines [XEROX]
818D Motorola Computer [XEROX]
819A-81A3 Qualcomm [XEROX]
81A4 ARAI Bunkichi [XEROX]
81A5-81AE RAD Network Devices [XEROX]
81B7-81B9 Xyplex [XEROX]
81CC-81D5 Apricot Computers [XEROX]
81D6-81DD Artisoft [XEROX]
81E6-81EF Polygon [XEROX]
81F0-81F2 Comsat Labs [XEROX]
81F3-81F5 SAIC [XEROX]
81F6-81F8 VG Analytical [XEROX]
8203-8205 Quantum Software [XEROX]
8221-8222 Ascom Banking Systems [XEROX]
823E-8240 Advanced Encryption Syste[XEROX]
827F-8282 Athena Programming [XEROX]
8263-826A Charles River Data System[XEROX]
829A-829B Inst Ind Info Tech [XEROX]
829C-82AB Taurus Controls [XEROX]
82AC-8693 Walker Richer & Quinn [XEROX]
8694-869D Idea Courier [XEROX]
869E-86A1 Computer Network Tech [XEROX]
86A3-86AC Gateway Communications [XEROX]
86DB SECTRA [XEROX]
86DE Delta Controls [XEROX]
34543 86DF - - ATOMIC [JBP]
86E0-86EF Landis & Gyr Powers [XEROX]
8700-8710 Motorola [XEROX]
8A96-8A97 Invisible Software [XEROX]
36864 9000 - - Loopback [XEROX]
36865 9001 - - 3Com(Bridge) XNS Sys Mgmt[XEROX]
36866 9002 - - 3Com(Bridge) TCP-IP Sys [XEROX]
36867 9003 - - 3Com(Bridge) loop detect [XEROX]
65280 FF00 - - BBN VITAL-LanBridge cache[XEROX]
FF00-FF0F ISC Bunker Ramo [XEROX]

The standard for transmission of IP datagrams over Ethernets and
Experimental Ethernets is specified in [RFC894] and [RFC895]
respectively.

NOTE: Ethernet 48-bit address blocks are assigned by the IEEE.

IEEE Registration Authority
c/o Iris Ringel
IEEE Standards Department
445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
Phone +1 908 562 3813
Fax: +1 908 562 1571

IANA ETHERNET ADDRESS BLOCK

The IANA owns an Ethernet address block which may be used for
multicast address asignments or other special purposes.

The address block in IEEE binary is: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0111 1010

In the normal Internet dotted decimal notation this is 0.0.94 since
the bytes are transmitted higher order first and bits within bytes are
transmitted lower order first (see "Data Notation" in the
Introduction).

IEEE CSMA/CD and Token Bus bit transmission order: 00 00 5E

IEEE Token Ring bit transmission order: 00 00 7A

Appearance on the wire (bits transmitted from left to right):

0 23 47
| | |
1000 0000 0000 0000 0111 1010 xxxx xxx0 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
| |
Multicast Bit 0 = Internet Multicast
1 = Assigned by IANA for
other uses

Appearance in memory (bits transmitted right-to-left within octets,
octets transmitted left-to-right):

0 23 47
| | |
0000 0001 0000 0000 0101 1110 0xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
| |
Multicast Bit 0 = Internet Multicast

1 = Assigned by IANA for other uses

The latter representation corresponds to the Internet standard
bit-order, and is the format that most programmers have to deal with.
Using this representation, the range of Internet Multicast addresses
is:

01-00-5E-00-00-00 to 01-00-5E-7F-FF-FF in hex, or

1.0.94.0.0.0 to 1.0.94.127.255.255 in dotted decimal

ETHERNET VENDOR ADDRESS COMPONENTS

Ethernet hardware addresses are 48 bits, expressed as 12 hexadecimal
digits (0-9, plus A-F, capitalized). These 12 hex digits consist of
the first/left 6 digits (which should match the vendor of the Ethernet
interface within the station) and the last/right 6 digits which
specify the interface serial number for that interface vendor.

Ethernet addresses might be written unhyphenated (e.g., 123456789ABC),
or with one hyphen (e.g., 123456-789ABC), but should be written
hyphenated by octets (e.g., 12-34-56-78-9A-BC).

These addresses are physical station addresses, not multicast nor
broadcast, so the second hex digit (reading from the left) will be
even, not odd.

At present, it is not clear how the IEEE assigns Ethernet block
addresses. Whether in blocks of 2**24 or 2**25, and whether
multicasts are assigned with that block or separately. A portion of
the vendor block address is reportedly assigned serially, with the
other portion intentionally assigned randomly. If there is a global
algorithm for which addresses are designated to be physical (in a
chipset) versus logical (assigned in software), or globally-assigned
versus locally-assigned addresses, some of the known addresses do not
follow the scheme (e.g., AA0003; 02xxxx).

00000C Cisco
00000E Fujitsu
00000F NeXT
000010 Sytek
00001D Cabletron
000020 DIAB (Data Intdustrier AB)
000022 Visual Technology
00002A TRW

000032 GPT Limited (reassigned from GEC Computers Ltd)
00005A S & Koch
00005E IANA
000065 Network General
00006B MIPS
000077 MIPS
00007A Ardent
000089 Cayman Systems Gatorbox
000093 Proteon
00009F Ameristar Technology
0000A2 Wellfleet
0000A3 Network Application Technology
0000A6 Network General (internal assignment, not for products)
0000A7 NCD X-terminals
0000A9 Network Systems
0000AA Xerox Xerox machines
0000B3 CIMLinc
0000B7 Dove Fastnet
0000BC Allen-Bradley
0000C0 Western Digital
0000C5 Farallon phone net card
0000C6 HP Intelligent Networks Operation (formerly Eon Systems)
0000C8 Altos
0000C9 Emulex Terminal Servers
0000D7 Dartmouth College (NED Router)
0000D8 3Com? Novell? PS/2
0000DD Gould
0000DE Unigraph
0000E2 Acer Counterpoint
0000EF Alantec
0000FD High Level Hardvare (Orion, UK)
000102 BBN BBN internal usage (not registered)
0020AF 3COM ???
001700 Kabel
008064 Wyse Technology / Link Technologies
00802B IMAC ???
00802D Xylogics, Inc. Annex terminal servers
00808C Frontier Software Development
0080C2 IEEE 802.1 Committee
0080D3 Shiva
00AA00 Intel
00DD00 Ungermann-Bass
00DD01 Ungermann-Bass
020701 Racal InterLan
020406 BBN BBN internal usage (not registered)
026086 Satelcom MegaPac (UK)
02608C 3Com IBM PC; Imagen; Valid; Cisco
02CF1F CMC Masscomp; Silicon Graphics; Prime EXL

080002 3Com (Formerly Bridge)
080003 ACC (Advanced Computer Communications)
080005 Symbolics Symbolics LISP machines
080008 BBN
080009 Hewlett-Packard
08000A Nestar Systems
08000B Unisys
080011 Tektronix, Inc.
080014 Excelan BBN Butterfly, Masscomp, Silicon Graphics
080017 NSC
08001A Data General
08001B Data General
08001E Apollo
080020 Sun Sun machines
080022 NBI
080025 CDC
080026 Norsk Data (Nord)
080027 PCS Computer Systems GmbH
080028 TI Explorer
08002B DEC
08002E Metaphor
08002F Prime Computer Prime 50-Series LHC300
080036 Intergraph CAE stations
080037 Fujitsu-Xerox
080038 Bull
080039 Spider Systems
080041 DCA Digital Comm. Assoc.
080045 ???? (maybe Xylogics, but they claim not to know this number)
080046 Sony
080047 Sequent
080049 Univation
08004C Encore
08004E BICC
080056 Stanford University
080058 ??? DECsystem-20
08005A IBM
080067 Comdesign
080068 Ridge
080069 Silicon Graphics
08006E Concurrent Masscomp
080075 DDE (Danish Data Elektronik A/S)
08007C Vitalink TransLAN III
080080 XIOS
080086 Imagen/QMS
080087 Xyplex terminal servers
080089 Kinetics AppleTalk-Ethernet interface
08008B Pyramid
08008D XyVision XyVision machines

080090 Retix Inc Bridges
484453 HDS ???
800010 AT&T
AA0000 DEC obsolete
AA0001 DEC obsolete
AA0002 DEC obsolete
AA0003 DEC Global physical address for some DEC machines
AA0004 DEC Local logical address for systems running
DECNET

ETHERNET MULTICAST ADDRESSES

An Ethernet multicast address consists of the multicast bit, the
23-bit vendor component, and the 24-bit group identifier assigned by
the vendor. For example, DEC is assigned the vendor component
08-00-2B, so multicast addresses assigned by DEC have the first
24-bits 09-00-2B (since the multicast bit is the low-order bit of the
first byte, which is "the first bit on the wire").

Ethernet Type
Address Field Usage

Multicast Addresses:

01-00-5E-00-00-00- 0800 Internet Multicast [RFC1112]
01-00-5E-7F-FF-FF
01-00-5E-80-00-00- ???? Internet reserved by IANA
01-00-5E-FF-FF-FF
01-80-C2-00-00-00 -802- Spanning tree (for bridges)
09-00-02-04-00-01? 8080? Vitalink printer
09-00-02-04-00-02? 8080? Vitalink management
09-00-09-00-00-01 8005 HP Probe
09-00-09-00-00-01 -802- HP Probe
09-00-09-00-00-04 8005? HP DTC
09-00-1E-00-00-00 8019? Apollo DOMAIN
09-00-2B-00-00-00 6009? DEC MUMPS?
09-00-2B-00-00-01 8039? DEC DSM/DTP?
09-00-2B-00-00-02 803B? DEC VAXELN?
09-00-2B-00-00-03 8038 DEC Lanbridge Traffic Monitor (LTM)
09-00-2B-00-00-04 ???? DEC MAP End System Hello
09-00-2B-00-00-05 ???? DEC MAP Intermediate System Hello
09-00-2B-00-00-06 803D? DEC CSMA/CD Encryption?
09-00-2B-00-00-07 8040? DEC NetBios Emulator?
09-00-2B-00-00-0F 6004 DEC Local Area Transport (LAT)
09-00-2B-00-00-1x ???? DEC Experimental
09-00-2B-01-00-00 8038 DEC LanBridge Copy packets

(All bridges)
09-00-2B-01-00-01 8038 DEC LanBridge Hello packets
(All local bridges)
1 packet per second, sent by the
designated LanBridge
09-00-2B-02-00-00 ???? DEC DNA Lev. 2 Routing Layer routers?
09-00-2B-02-01-00 803C? DEC DNA Naming Service Advertisement?
09-00-2B-02-01-01 803C? DEC DNA Naming Service Solicitation?
09-00-2B-02-01-02 803E? DEC DNA Time Service?
09-00-2B-03-xx-xx ???? DEC default filtering by bridges?
09-00-2B-04-00-00 8041? DEC Local Area Sys. Transport (LAST)?
09-00-2B-23-00-00 803A? DEC Argonaut Console?
09-00-4E-00-00-02? 8137? Novell IPX
09-00-56-00-00-00- ???? Stanford reserved
09-00-56-FE-FF-FF
09-00-56-FF-00-00- 805C Stanford V Kernel, version 6.0
09-00-56-FF-FF-FF
09-00-77-00-00-01 ???? Retix spanning tree bridges
09-00-7C-02-00-05 8080? Vitalink diagnostics
09-00-7C-05-00-01 8080? Vitalink gateway?
0D-1E-15-BA-DD-06 ???? HP
AB-00-00-01-00-00 6001 DEC Maintenance Operation Protocol
(MOP) Dump/Load Assistance
AB-00-00-02-00-00 6002 DEC Maintenance Operation Protocol
(MOP) Remote Console
1 System ID packet every 8-10 minutes,
by every:
DEC LanBridge
DEC DEUNA interface
DEC DELUA interface
DEC DEQNA interface
(in a certain mode)
AB-00-00-03-00-00 6003 DECNET Phase IV end node Hello
packets 1 packet every 15 seconds,
sent by each DECNET host
AB-00-00-04-00-00 6003 DECNET Phase IV Router Hello packets
1 packet every 15 seconds, sent by
the DECNET router
AB-00-00-05-00-00 ???? Reserved DEC through
AB-00-03-FF-FF-FF
AB-00-03-00-00-00 6004 DEC Local Area Transport (LAT) - old
AB-00-04-00-xx-xx ???? Reserved DEC customer private use
AB-00-04-01-xx-yy 6007 DEC Local Area VAX Cluster groups
Sys. Communication Architecture (SCA)
CF-00-00-00-00-00 9000 Ethernet Configuration Test protocol
(Loopback)

Broadcast Address:

FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 0600 XNS packets, Hello or gateway search?
6 packets every 15 seconds, per XNS
station
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 0800 IP (e.g. RWHOD via UDP) as needed
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 0804 CHAOS
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 0806 ARP (for IP and CHAOS) as needed
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 0BAD Banyan
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 1600 VALID packets, Hello or gateway
search?
1 packets every 30 seconds, per VALID
station
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 8035 Reverse ARP
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 807C Merit Internodal (INP)
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF 809B EtherTalk

REFERENCES

[RFC894] Hornig, C., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams
over Ethernet Networks, STD 41, RFC 894, Symbolics,
April 1984.

[RFC895] Postel, J., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams
over Experimental Ethernet Networks, STD 42, RFC 895,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, April 1984.

[RFC1112] Deeering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting",
STD 5, RFC 1112, Stanford University, August 1989.

PEOPLE

[AXC] Andrew Cherenson <arc@SGI.COM>

[DCP1] David Plummer <DCP@SCRC-QUABBIN.ARPA>

[DT15] Daniel Tappan <Tappan@BBN.COM>

[HWB] Hans-Werner Braun <HWB@MCR.UMICH.EDU>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JKR1] Joyce K. Reynolds <jkrey@isi.edu>

[JXM] Joseph Murdock <---none--->

[XEROX] Fonda Pallone (415-813-7164)

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ethernet-numbers

X.25 TYPE NUMBERS

CCITT defines the high order two bits of the first octet of call user
data as follows:

00 - Used for other CCITT recomendations (such as X.29)
01 - Reserved for use by "national" administrative
authorities
10 - Reserved for use by international administrative authoorities
11 - Reserved for arbitrary use between consenting DTEs

Call User Data (hex) Protocol Reference
------------------- -------- ---------

01 PAD [GS2]
C5 Blacker front-end descr dev [AGM]
CC IP [RFC877,AGM]*
CD ISO-IP [AGM]
CF PPP [RFC1598]
DD Network Monitoring [AGM]

*NOTE: ISO SC6/WG2 approved assignment in ISO 9577 (January 1990).

REFERENCES

[RFC877] Korb, J., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams
Over Public Data Networks", RFC 877, Purdue University,
September 1983.

[RFC1598] Simpson, W., "PPPin X.25", RFC 1598, Daydreamer, March 1994.

PEOPLE

[AGM] Andy Malis <malis_a@timeplex.com>

[GS2] Greg Satz <satz@CISCO.COM>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/x25-type-numbers

PUBLIC DATA NETWORK NUMBERS

One of the Internet Class A Networks is the international system of
Public Data Networks. This section lists the mapping between the
Internet Addresses and the Public Data Network Addresses (X.121).

Assignments:

Internet Public Data Net Description References
-------------- ----------------- ----------- ----------
014.000.000.000 Reserved [JBP]
014.000.000.001 3110-317-00035 00 PURDUE-TN [TN]
014.000.000.002 3110-608-00027 00 UWISC-TN [TN]
014.000.000.003 3110-302-00024 00 UDEL-TN [TN]
014.000.000.004 2342-192-00149 23 UCL-VTEST [PK]
014.000.000.005 2342-192-00300 23 UCL-TG [PK]
014.000.000.006 2342-192-00300 25 UK-SATNET [PK]
014.000.000.007 3110-608-00024 00 UWISC-IBM [MS56]
014.000.000.008 3110-213-00045 00 RAND-TN [MO2]
014.000.000.009 2342-192-00300 23 UCL-CS [PK]
014.000.000.010 3110-617-00025 00 BBN-VAN-GW [JD21]
014.000.000.011 2405-015-50300 00 CHALMERS [UXB]
014.000.000.012 3110-713-00165 00 RICE [PAM6]
014.000.000.013 3110-415-00261 00 DECWRL [PAM6]
014.000.000.014 3110-408-00051 00 IBM-SJ [SXA3]
014.000.000.015 2041-117-01000 00 SHAPE [JFW]
014.000.000.016 2628-153-90075 00 DFVLR4-X25 [GB7]
014.000.000.017 3110-213-00032 00 ISI-VAN-GW [JD21]
014.000.000.018 2624-522-80900 52 FGAN-SIEMENS-X25 [GB7]
014.000.000.019 2041-170-10000 00 SHAPE-X25 [JFW]
014.000.000.020 5052-737-20000 50 UQNET [AXH]
014.000.000.021 3020-801-00057 50 DMC-CRC1 [VXT]
014.000.000.022 2624-522-80329 02 FGAN-FGANFFMVAX-X25 [GB7]
014.000.000.023 2624-589-00908 01 ECRC-X25 [PXD]
014.000.000.024 2342-905-24242 83 UK-MOD-RSRE [JXE2]
014.000.000.025 2342-905-24242 82 UK-VAN-RSRE [AXM]
014.000.000.026 2624-522-80329 05 DFVLRSUN-X25 [GB7]
014.000.000.027 2624-457-11015 90 SELETFMSUN-X25 [BXD]
014.000.000.028 3110-408-00146 00 CDC-SVL [RAM57]
014.000.000.029 2222-551-04400 00 SUN-CNUCE [ABB2]
014.000.000.030 2222-551-04500 00 ICNUCEVM-CNUCE [ABB2]
014.000.000.031 2222-551-04600 00 SPARE-CNUCE [ABB2]
014.000.000.032 2222-551-04700 00 ICNUCEVX-CNUCE [ABB2]
014.000.000.033 2222-551-04524 00 CISCO-CNUCE [ABB2]
014.000.000.034 2342-313-00260 90 SPIDER-GW [AD67]

014.000.000.035 2342-313-00260 91 SPIDER-EXP [AD67]
014.000.000.036 2342-225-00101 22 PRAXIS-X25A [TXR]
014.000.000.037 2342-225-00101 23 PRAXIS-X25B [TXR]
014.000.000.038 2403-712-30250 00 DIAB-TABY-GW [FXB]
014.000.000.039 2403-715-30100 00 DIAB-LKP-GW [FXB]
014.000.000.040 2401-881-24038 00 DIAB-TABY1-GW [FXB]
014.000.000.041 2041-170-10060 00 STC [TC27]
014.000.000.042 2222-551-00652 60 CNUCE [TC27]
014.000.000.043 2422-510-05900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.044 2422-670-08900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.045 2422-516-01000 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.046 2422-450-00800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.047 2422-610-00200 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.048 2422-310-00300 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.049 2422-470-08800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.050 2422-210-04600 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.051 2422-130-28900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.052 2422-310-27200 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.053 2422-250-05800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.054 2422-634-05900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.055 2422-670-08800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.056 2422-430-07400 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.057 2422-674-07800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.058 2422-230-16900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.059 2422-518-02900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.060 2422-370-03100 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.061 2422-516-03400 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.062 2422-616-04400 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.063 2422-650-23500 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.064 2422-330-02500 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.065 2422-350-01900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.066 2422-410-00700 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.067 2422-539-06200 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.068 2422-630-07200 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.069 2422-470-12300 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.070 2422-470-13000 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.071 2422-170-04600 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.072 2422-516-04300 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.073 2422-530-00700 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.074 2422-650-18800 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.075 2422-450-24500 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.076 2062-243-15631 00 DPT-BXL-DDC [LZ15]
014.000.000.077 2062-243-15651 00 DPT-BXL-DDC2 [LZ15]
014.000.000.078 3110-312-00431 00 DPT-CHI [LZ15]
014.000.000.079 3110-512-00135 00 DPT-SAT-ENG [LZ15]
014.000.000.080 2080-941-90550 00 DPT-PAR [LZ15]
014.000.000.081 4545-511-30600 00 DPT-PBSC [LZ15]
014.000.000.082 4545-513-30900 00 DPT-HONGKONG [LZ15]

014.000.000.083 4872-203-55000 00 UECI-TAIPEI [LZ15]
014.000.000.084 2624-551-10400 20 DPT-HANOVR [LZ15]
014.000.000.085 2624-569-00401 99 DPT-FNKFRT [LZ15]
014.000.000.086 3110-512-00134 00 DPT-SAT-SUPT [LZ15]
014.000.000.087 4602-3010-0103 20 DU-X25A [JK64]
014.000.000.088 4602-3010-0103 21 FDU-X25B [JK64]
014.000.000.089 2422-150-33700 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.090 2422-271-07100 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.091 2422-516-00100 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.092 2422-650-18800 00 Norsk Informas. [OXG]
014.000.000.093 2422-250-30400 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.094 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.095 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.096 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.097 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.098 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.099 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.100 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.101 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.102 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.103 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.104 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.105 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.106 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.107 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.108 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.109 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.110 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.111 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.112 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.113 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.114 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.115 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.116 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.117 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.118 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.119 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.120 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.121 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.122 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.123 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.124 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.125 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.126 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.127 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.128 Leissner Data AB [PXF1]
014.000.000.129 2422-150-17900 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.130 2422-150-42700 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]

014.000.000.131 2422-190-41900 00 T-G Airfreight AS [OXG]
014.000.000.132 2422-616-16100 00 Tollpost-Globe AS [OXG]
014.000.000.133 2422-150-50700-00 Tollpost-Globe Int. [OXG]
014.000.000.134 2422-190-28100-00 Intersped AS [OXG]

014.000.000.135-014.255.255.254 Unassigned [JBP]
014.255.255.255 Reserved [JBP]

The standard for transmission of IP datagrams over the Public Data
Network is specified in RFC-1356 [69].

REFERENCES

[RFC877] Korb, J., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams
Over Public Data Networks", RFC 877, Purdue University,
September 1983.

PEOPLE

[ABB2] A. Blasco Bonito <blasco@ICNUCEVM.CNUCE.CNR.IT>

[AD67] Andy Davis <andy@SPIDER.CO.UK>

[AXH] Arthur Harvey <harvey@gah.enet.dec.com>

[AXM] Alex Martin <---none--->

[BXD] Brian Dockter <---none--->

[FXB] <mystery contact>

[GB7] Gerd Beling <GBELING@ISI.EDU>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu.

[JD21] Jonathan Dreyer <Dreyer@CCV.BBN.COM>

[JFW] Jon F. Wilkes <Wilkes@CCINT1.RSRE.MOD.UK>

[JK64] mystery contact!

[JXE2] Jeanne Evans <JME%RSRE.MOD.UK@CS.UCL.AC.UK>

[LZ15] Lee Ziegenhals <lcz@sat.datapoint.com>

[MS56] Marvin Solomon <solomon@CS.WISC.EDU>

[MO2] Michael O'Brien <obrien@AEROSPACE.AERO.ORG>

[OXG] Oyvind Gjerstad <ogj%tglobe2.UUCP@nac.no>

[PAM6] Paul McNabb <pam@PURDUE.EDU>

[PK] Peter Kirstein <Kirstein@NSS.CS.UCL.AC.UK>

[PXD] Peter Delchiappo <---none--->

[PXF1] Per Futtrup <---none--->

[RAM57] Rex Mann <---none--->

[SXA3] Sten Andler <---none--->

[TN] Thomas Narten <narten@PURDUE.EDU>

[TC27] Thomas Calderwood <TCALDERW@BBN.COM>

[TXR] Tim Rylance <praxis!tkr@UUNET.UU.NET>

[UXB] <mystery contact>

[VXT] V. Taylor <vktaylor@NCS.DND.CA>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/public-data-network-
numbers

MILNET LINK NUMBERS

The word "link" here refers to a field in the original MILNET Host/IMP
interface leader. The link was originally defined as an 8-bit field.
Later specifications defined this field as the "message-id" with a
length of 12 bits. The name link now refers to the high order 8 bits of
this 12-bit message-id field. The Host/IMP interface is defined in BBN
Report 1822 [BBN1822].

The low-order 4 bits of the message-id field are called the sub-link.
Unless explicitly specified otherwise for a particular protocol, there
is no sender to receiver significance to the sub-link. The sender may
use the sub-link in any way he chooses (it is returned in the RFNM by
the destination IMP), the receiver should ignore the sub-link.

Link Assignments:

Decimal Description References
------- ----------- ----------
0-63 BBNCC Monitoring [MB]
64-149 Unassigned [JBP]
150 Xerox NS IDP [ETHERNET,XEROX]
151 Unassigned [JBP]
152 PARC Universal Protocol [PUP,XEROX]
153 TIP Status Reporting [JGH]
154 TIP Accounting [JGH]
155 Internet Protocol [regular] [RFC791,JBP]
156-158 Internet Protocol [experimental] [RFC791,JBP]
159 Figleaf Link [JBW1]
160 Blacker Local Network Protocol [DM28]
161-194 Unassigned [JBP]
195 ISO-IP [RFC926,RXM]
196-247 Experimental Protocols [JBP]
248-255 Network Maintenance [JGH]

MILNET LOGICAL ADDRESSES

The MILNET facility for "logical addressing" is described in [RFC878]
and [RFC1005]. A portion of the possible logical addresses are
reserved for standard uses.

There are 49,152 possible logical host addresses. Of these, 256 are
reserved for assignment to well-known functions. Assignments for
well-known functions are made by the IANA. Assignments for other

logical host addresses are made by the NIC.

Logical Address Assignments:

Decimal Description References
------- ----------- ----------
0 Reserved [JBP]
1 The BBN Core Gateways [MB]
2-254 Unassigned [JBP]
255 Reserved [JBP]

MILNET X.25 ADDRESS MAPPINGS

All MILNET hosts are assigned addresses by the Defense Data Network
(DDN). The address of a MILNET host may be obtained from the Network
Information Center (NIC), represented as an ASCII text string in what
is called "host table format". This section describes the process by
which MILNET X.25 addresses may be derived from addresses in the NIC
host table format.

A NIC host table address consists of the ASCII text string
representations of four decimal numbers separated by periods,
corresponding to the four octeted of a thirty-two bit Internet
address. The four decimal numbers are referred to in this section as
"n", "h' "l", and "i". Thus, a host table address may be represented
as: "n.h.l.i". Each of these four numbers will have either one, two,
or three decimal digits and will never have a value greater than 255.
For example, in the host table, address: "10.2.0.124", n=10, h=2, l=0,
and i=124. To convert a host table address to a MILNET X.25 address:

1. If h < 64, the host table address corresponds to the X.25
physical address:

ZZZZ F IIIHHZZ (SS)

where:

ZZZZ = 0000 as required

F = 0 because the address is a physical address;

III is a three decimal digit respresentation of
"i", right-adjusted and padded with leading

zeros if required;

HH is a two decimal digit representation of "h",
right-adjusted and padded with leading zeros
if required;

ZZ = 00 and

(SS) is optional

In the example given above, the host table address 10.2.0.124
corresponds to the X.25 physical address 000001240200.

2. If h > 64 or h = 64, the host table address corresponds to the
X.25 logical address

ZZZZ F RRRRRZZ (SS)

where:

ZZZZ = 0000 as required

F = 1 because the address is a logical address;

RRRRR is a five decimal digit representation of
the result "r" of the calculation

r = h * 256 + i

(Note that the decimal representation of
"r" will always require five digits);

ZZ = 00 and

(SS) is optional

Thus, the host table address 10.83.0.207 corresponds to the X.25
logical address 000012145500.

In both cases, the "n" and "l" fields of the host table address are
not used.

REFERENCES

[BBN1822] BBN, "Specifications for the Interconnection of a Host and

an IMP", Report 1822, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, revised, December 1981.

[ETHERNET] "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and
Physical Layer Specification", AA-K759B-TK, Digital
Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA. Also as: "The Ethernet
- A Local Area Network", Version 1.0, Digital Equipment
Corporation, Intel Corporation, Xerox Corporation,
September 1980. And: "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network:
Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications",
Digital, Intel and Xerox, November 1982. And: XEROX, "The
Ethernet, A Local Area Network: Data Link Layer and
Physical Layer Specification", X3T51/80-50, Xerox
Corporation, Stamford, CT., October 1980.

[PUP] Boggs, D., J. Shoch, E. Taft, and R. Metcalfe, "PUP: An
Internetwork Architecture", XEROX Palo Alto Research Center,
CSL-79-10, July 1979; also in IEEE Transactions on
Communication, Volume COM-28, Number 4, April 1980.

[RFC791] Postel, J., ed., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 791, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC878] Malis, Andrew, "The ARPANET 1822L Host Access Protocol",
RFC 878, BBN Communications Corp., December 1983.

[RFC926] International Standards Organization, "Protocol for Providing
the Connectionless-Mode Network Services", RFC 926, ISO,
December 1984.

[RFC1005] Khanna, A., and A. Malis, "The ARPANET AHIP-E Host Access
Protocol (Enhanced AHIP)", RFC 1005, BBN Communications
Corp., May 1987.

PEOPLE

[DM28] Dennis Morris <Morrisd@IMO-UVAX.DCA.MIL>

[JBP] Jon Postel <postel@isi.edu>

[JBW1] Joseph Walters, Jr. <JWalters@BBN.COM>

[JGH] Jim Herman <Herman@CCJ.BBN.COM>

[MB] Michael Brescia <Brescia@CCV.BBN.COM>

[RXM] Robert Myhill <Myhill@CCS.BBN.COM>

[XEROX] Fonda Pallone <---none--->

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/milnet-parameters

XNS PROTOCOL TYPES

Assigned well-known socket numbers

Routing Information 1
Echo 2
Router Error 3
Experimental 40-77

Assigned internet packet types

Routing Information 1
Echo 2
Error 3
Packet Exchange 4
Sequenced Packet 5
PUP 12
DoD IP 13
Experimental 20-37

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/xns-protocol-types

INTERNET / XNS PROTOCOL MAPPINGS

Below are two tables describing the arrangement of protocol fields or
type field assignments so that one could send XNS Datagrams on the
MILNET or Internet Datagrams on 10Mb Ethernet, and also protocol and
type fields so one could encapsulate each kind of Datagram in the
other.

upper| DoD IP | PUP | NS IP |
lower | | | |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| Type | Type | Type |
3Mb Ethernet | 1001 | 1000 | 3000 |
| octal | octal | octal |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| Type | Type | Type |
10 Mb Ethernet| 0800 | 0200 | 0600 |
| hex | hex | hex |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| Link | Link | Link |
MILNET | 155 | 152 | 150 |
| decimal| decimal| decimal|
--------------|--------|--------|--------|

upper| DoD IP | PUP | NS IP |
lower | | | |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| |Protocol|Protocol|
DoD IP | X | 12 | 22 |
| | decimal| decimal|
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| | | |
PUP | ? | X | ? |
| | | |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|
| Type | Type | |
NS IP | 13 | 12 | X |
| decimal| decimal| |
--------------|--------|--------|--------|

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ip-xns-mapping

PRONET 80 TYPE NUMBERS

Below is the current list of PRONET 80 Type Numbers. Note: a protocol
that is on this list does not necessarily mean that there is any
implementation of it on ProNET.

Of these, protocols 1, 14, and 20 are the only ones that have ever
been seen in ARP packets.

For reference, the header is (one byte/line):

destination hardware address
source hardware address
data link header version (2)
data link header protocol number
data link header reserved (0)
data link header reserved (0)

Some protocols have been known to tuck stuff in the reserved fields.

Those who need a protocol number on ProNET-10/80 should contact John
Shriver (jas@proteon.com).

1 IP
2 IP with trailing headers
3 Address Resolution Protocol
4 Proteon HDLC
5 VAX Debugging Protocol (MIT)
10 Novell NetWare (IPX and pre-IPX) (old format,
3 byte trailer)
11 Vianetix
12 PUP
13 Watstar protocol (University of Waterloo)
14 XNS
15 Diganostics
16 Echo protocol (link level)
17 Banyan Vines
20 DECnet (DEUNA Emulation)
21 Chaosnet
23 IEEE 802.2 or ISO 8802/2 Data Link
24 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
29 TokenVIEW-10
31 AppleTalk LAP Data Packet
33 Cornell Boot Server Location Protocol
34 Novell NetWare IPX (new format, no trailer,
new XOR checksum)

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/pronet80-type-numbers

NOVELL SAP NUMBERS OF INTEREST

For the convenience of the Internet community the IANA maitains a list
of Novell Service Access Point (SAP) numbers. This list is kept
up-to-date- by contributions from the community. Please send
corrections and additions to IANA@ISI.EDU.

Novell SAPs
====== ====

Decimal Hex SAP Description
======= ==== ===============

0 0000 Unknown
1 0001 User
2 0002 User Group
3 0003 Print Queue or Print Group
4 0004 File Server (SLIST source)
5 0005 Job Server
6 0006 Gateway
7 0007 Print Server or Silent Print Server
8 0008 Archive Queue
9 0009 Archive Server
10 000a Job Queue
11 000b Administration
15 000F Novell TI-RPC
23 0017 Diagnostics
32 0020 NetBIOS
33 0021 NAS SNA Gateway
35 0023 NACS Async Gateway or Asynchronous Gateway
36 0024 Remote Bridge or Routing Service
38 0026 Bridge Server or Asynchronous Bridge Server
39 0027 TCP/IP Gateway Server
40 0028 Point to Point (Eicon) X.25 Bridge Server
41 0029 Eicon 3270 Gateway
42 002a CHI Corp ???
44 002c PC Chalkboard
45 002d Time Synchronization Server or Asynchronous Timer
46 002e SAP Archive Server or SMS Target Service Agent
69 0045 DI3270 Gateway
71 0047 Advertising Print Server
75 004b Btrieve VAP/NLM 5.0
76 004c Netware SQL VAP/NLM Server
77 004d Xtree Network Version Netware XTree
80 0050 Btrieve VAP 4.11
82 0052 QuickLink (Cubix)
83 0053 Print Queue User
88 0058 Multipoint X.25 Eicon Router

96 0060 STLB/NLM ???
100 0064 ARCserve
102 0066 ARCserve 3.0
114 0072 WAN Copy Utility
122 007a TES-Netware for VMS
146 0092 WATCOM Debugger or Emerald Tape Backup Server
149 0095 DDA OBGYN ???
152 0098 Netware Access Server (Asynchronous gateway)
154 009a Netware for VMS II or Named Pipe Server
155 009b Netware Access Server
158 009e Portable Netware Server or SunLink NVT
161 00a1 Powerchute APC UPS NLM
170 00aa LAWserve ???
172 00ac Compaq IDA Status Monitor
256 0100 PIPE STAIL ???
258 0102 LAN Protect Bindery
259 0103 Oracle DataBase Server
263 0107 Netware 386 or RSPX Remote Console
271 010f Novell SNA Gateway
274 0112 Print Server (HP)
276 0114 CSA MUX (f/Communications Executive)
277 0115 CSA LCA (f/Communications Executive)
278 0116 CSA CM (f/Communications Executive)
279 0117 CSA SMA (f/Communications Executive)
280 0118 CSA DBA (f/Communications Executive)
281 0119 CSA NMA (f/Communications Executive)
282 011a CSA SSA (f/Communications Executive)
283 011b CSA STATUS (f/Communications Executive)
286 011e CSA APPC (f/Communications Executive)
294 0126 SNA TEST SSA Profile
298 012a CSA TRACE (f/Communications Executive)
304 0130 Communications Executive
307 0133 NNS Domain Server or Netware Naming Services Domain
309 0135 Netware Naming Services Profile
311 0137 Netware 386 Print Queue or NNS Print Queue
321 0141 LAN Spool Server (Vap, Intel)
338 0152 IRMALAN Gateway
340 0154 Named Pipe Server
360 0168 Intel PICKIT Comm Server or Intel CAS Talk Server
369 171 UNKNOWN???
371 0173 Compaq
372 0174 Compaq SNMP Agent
373 0175 Compaq
384 0180 XTree Server or XTree Tools
394 18A UNKNOWN??? Running on a Novell Server
432 01b0 GARP Gateway (net research)
433 01b1 Binfview (Lan Support Group)
447 01bf Intel LanDesk Manager

458 01ca AXTEC ???
459 01cb Netmode ???
460 1CC UNKNOWN??? Sheva netmodem???
472 01d8 Castelle FAXPress Server
474 01da Castelle LANPress Print Server
476 1DC Castille FAX/Xerox 7033 Fax Server/Excel Lan Fax
496 01f0 LEGATO ???
501 01f5 LEGATO ???
563 0233 NMS Agent or Netware Management Agent
567 0237 NMS IPX Discovery or LANtern Read/Write Channel
568 0238 NMS IP Discovery or LANtern Trap/Alarm Channel
570 023a LABtern
572 023c MAVERICK ???
574 23E UNKNOWN??? Running on a Novell Server
575 023f Used by eleven various Novell Servers
590 024e Remote Something ???
618 026a Network Management (NMS) Service Console
619 026b Time Synchronization Server (Netware 4.x)
632 0278 Directory Server (Netware 4.x)
772 0304 Novell SAA Gateway
776 0308 COM or VERMED 1 ???
778 030a Gallacticom BBS
780 030c Intel Netport 2 or HP JetDirect or HP Quicksilver
800 0320 Attachmate Gateway
807 0327 Microsoft Diagnostiocs ???
821 0335 MultiTech Systems Multisynch Comm Server
853 0355 Arcada Backup Exec
858 0358 MSLCD1 ???
865 0361 NETINELO ???
894 037e Twelve Novell file servers in the PC3M family
895 037f ViruSafe Notify
902 0386 HP Bridge
903 0387 HP Hub
916 0394 NetWare SAA Gateway
923 039b Lotus Notes
951 03b7 Certus Anti Virus NLM
964 03c4 ARCserve 4.0 (Cheyenne)
967 03c7 LANspool 3.5 (Intel)
990 03de Gupta Sequel Base Server or NetWare SQL
993 03e1 Univel Unixware
996 03e4 Univel Unixware
1020 03fc Intel Netport
1021 03fd Print SErver Queue ???
1034 40A ipnServer??? Running on a Novell Server
1035 40B UNKNOWN???
1037 40D LVERRMAN??? Running on a Novell Server
1038 40E LVLIC??? Running on a Novell Server
1040 410 UNKNOWN??? Running on a Novell Server

1044 0414 Kyocera
1065 0429 Site Lock Virus (Brightworks)
1074 0432 UFHELP R ???
1075 433 Sunoptics SNMP Agent???
1100 044c Backup ???
1111 457 Canon GP55??? Running on a Canon GP55 network printer
1115 045b Dell SCSI Array (DSA) Monitor
1200 04b0 CD-Net (Meridian)
1217 4C1 UNKNOWN???
1299 513 Emulux NQA??? Something from Emulex
1312 0520 Site Lock Checks
1321 0529 Site Lock Checks (Brightworks)
1325 052d Citrix OS/2 App Server
1344 536 Milan ???
1408 0580 McAfee's NetShield anti-virus
1569 621 ?? Something from Emulex
1571 623 UNKNOWN??? Running on a Novell Server
1900 076C Xerox
2857 0b29 Site Lock
3113 0c29 Site Lock Applications
3116 0c2c Licensing Server
9088 2380 LAI Site Lock
9100 238c Meeting Maker
18440 4808 Site Lock Server or Site Lock Metering VAP/NLM
21845 5555 Site Lock User
25362 6312 Tapeware
28416 6f00 Rabbit Gateway (3270)
30467 7703 MODEM??
32770 8002 NetPort Printers (Intel) or LANport
32776 8008 WordPerfect Network Version
34238 85BE Cisco Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
34952 8888 WordPerfect Network Version or Quick Network Management
36864 9000 McAfee's NetShield anti-virus
38404 9604 ?? CSA-NT_MON
61727 f11f Site Lock Metering VAP/NLM
61951 f1ff Site Lock
62723 F503 ?? SCA-NT
65535 ffff Any Service or Wildcard

This file is

ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/novell-sap-numbers

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/novell-sap-numbers

POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL FIELD ASSIGNMENTS

PPP DLL PROTOCOL NUMBERS

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Data Link Layer [146,147,175]
contains a 16 bit Protocol field to identify the the encapsulated
protocol. The Protocol field is consistent with the ISO 3309 (HDLC)
extension mechanism for Address fields. All Protocols MUST be
assigned such that the least significant bit of the most significant
octet equals "0", and the least significant bit of the least
significant octet equals "1".

Assigned PPP DLL Protocol Numbers

Value (in hex) Protocol Name

0001 Padding Protocol
0003 to 001f reserved (transparency inefficient)
0021 Internet Protocol
0023 OSI Network Layer
0025 Xerox NS IDP
0027 DECnet Phase IV
0029 Appletalk
002b Novell IPX
002d Van Jacobson Compressed TCP/IP
002f Van Jacobson Uncompressed TCP/IP
0031 Bridging PDU
0033 Stream Protocol (ST-II)
0035 Banyan Vines
0037 reserved (until 1993)
0039 AppleTalk EDDP
003b AppleTalk SmartBuffered
003d Multi-Link
003f NETBIOS Framing
0041 Cisco Systems
0043 Ascom Timeplex
0045 Fujitsu Link Backup and Load Balancing (LBLB)
0047 DCA Remote Lan
0049 Serial Data Transport Protocol (PPP-SDTP)
004b SNA over 802.2
004d SNA
004f IP6 Header Compression
006f Stampede Bridging
007d reserved (Control Escape) [RFC1661]
007f reserved (compression inefficient) [RFC1662]
00cf reserved (PPP NLPID)
00fb compression on single link in multilink group
00fd 1st choice compression

00ff reserved (compression inefficient)

0201 802.1d Hello Packets
0203 IBM Source Routing BPDU
0205 DEC LANBridge100 Spanning Tree
0231 Luxcom
0233 Sigma Network Systems

8001-801f Not Used - reserved [RFC1661]
8021 Internet Protocol Control Protocol
8023 OSI Network Layer Control Protocol
8025 Xerox NS IDP Control Protocol
8027 DECnet Phase IV Control Protocol
8029 Appletalk Control Protocol
802b Novell IPX Control Protocol
802d reserved
802f reserved
8031 Bridging NCP
8033 Stream Protocol Control Protocol
8035 Banyan Vines Control Protocol
8037 reserved till 1993
8039 reserved
803b reserved
803d Multi-Link Control Protocol
803f NETBIOS Framing Control Protocol
807d Not Used - reserved [RFC1661]
8041 Cisco Systems Control Protocol
8043 Ascom Timeplex
8045 Fujitsu LBLB Control Protocol
8047 DCA Remote Lan Network Control Protocol (RLNCP)
8049 Serial Data Control Protocol (PPP-SDCP)
804b SNA over 802.2 Control Protocol
804d SNA Control Protocol
804f IP6 Header Compression Control Protocol
006f Stampede Bridging Control Protocol
80cf Not Used - reserved [RFC1661]
80fb compression on single link in multilink group control
80fd Compression Control Protocol
80ff Not Used - reserved [RFC1661]

c021 Link Control Protocol
c023 Password Authentication Protocol
c025 Link Quality Report
c027 Shiva Password Authentication Protocol
c029 CallBack Control Protocol (CBCP)
c081 Container Control Protocol [KEN]
c223 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
c281 Proprietary Authentication Protocol [KEN]

c26f Stampede Bridging Authorization Protocol
c481 Proprietary Node ID Authentication Protocol [KEN]

Protocol field values in the "0xxx" to "3xxx" range identify the
network-layer protocol of specific datagrams, and values in the "8xxx"
to "bxxx" range identify datagrams belonging to the associated Network
Control Protocol (NCP), if any.

It is recommended that values in the "02xx" to "1exx" and "xx01" to
"xx1f" ranges not be assigned, as they are compression inefficient.

Protocol field values in the "4xxx" to "7xxx" range are used for
protocols with low volume traffic which have no associated NCP.

Protocol field values in the "cxxx" to "exxx" range identify datagrams
as Control Protocols (such as LCP).

PPP LCP AND IPCP CODES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Link Control Protocol (LCP), [146]
the Compression Control Protocol (CCP), Internet Protocol Control
Protocol (IPCP), [147] and other control protocols, contain an 8 bit
Code field which identifies the type of packet. These Codes are
assigned as follows:

Code Packet Type
---- -----------
1 Configure-Request
2 Configure-Ack
3 Configure-Nak
4 Configure-Reject
5 Terminate-Request
6 Terminate-Ack
7 Code-Reject
8 * Protocol-Reject
9 * Echo-Request
10 * Echo-Reply
11 * Discard-Request
12 * Identification
13 * Time-Remaining
14 + Reset-Request
15 + Reset-Reply

* LCP Only
+ CCP Only

PPP LCP CONFIGURATION OPTION TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Link Control Protocol (LCP)
specifies a number of Configuration Options [146] which are
distinguished by an 8 bit Type field. These Types are assigned as
follows:

Type Configuration Option
---- --------------------
1 Maximum-Receive-Unit
2 Async-Control-Character-Map
3 Authentication-Protocol
4 Quality-Protocol
5 Magic-Number
6 RESERVED
7 Protocol-Field-Compression
8 Address-and-Control-Field-Compression
9 FCS-Alternatives
10 Self-Describing-Pad
11 Numbered-Mode
12 Multi-Link-Procedure
13 Callback
14 Connect-Time
15 Compound-Frames
16 Nominal-Data-Encapsulation
17 Multilink-MRRU
18 Multilink-Short-Sequence-Number-Header-Format
19 Multilink-Endpoint-Discriminator
20 Proprietary [KEN]
21 DCE-Identifier [SCHNEIDER]

PPP LCP FCS-ALTERNATIVES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Link Control Protocol (LCP)
FCS-Alternatives Configuration Option contains an 8-bit Options field
which identifies the FCS used. These are assigned as follows:

Bit FCS
---- ----------
1 Null FCS
2 CCITT 16-Bit FCS
4 CCITT 32-bit FCS

PPP LCP CALLBACK OPERATION FIELDS

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Link Control Protocol (LCP) Callback
Configuration Option contains an 8-bit Operations field which
identifies the format of the Message. These are assigned as follows:

Operation Description
--------- ---------------------------
0 Location determined by user authentication.
1 Dialing string.
2 Location identifier.
3 E.164 number.
4 X.500 distinguished name.
5 unassigned
6 Location is determined during CBCP negotiation.

PPP IPCP CONFIGURATION OPTION TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Internet Protocol Control Protocol
(IPCP) specifies a number of Configuration Options [147] which are
distinguished by an 8 bit Type field. These Types are assigned as
follows:

Type Configuration Option
---- --------------------
1 IP-Addresses (deprecated)
2 IP-Compression-Protocol
3 IP-Address

PPP ATCP CONFIGURATION OPTION TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Apple Talk Control Protocol (ATCP)
specifies a number of Configuration Options [RFC-1378] which are
distinguished by an 8 bit Type field. These Types are assigned as
follows:

Type Configuration Option
---- --------------------
1 AppleTalk-Address
2 Routing-Protocol
3 Suppress-Broadcasts
4 AT-Compression-Protocol
5 Reserved
6 Server-information
7 Zone-information
8 Default-Router-Address

PPP OSINLCP CONFIGURATION OPTION TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) OSI Network Layer Control Protocol
(OSINLCP) specifies a number of Configuration Options [RFC-1377] which
are distinguished by an 8 bit Type field. These Types are assigned as
follows:

Type Configuration Option
---- --------------------
1 Align-NPDU

PPP BRIDGING CONFIGURATION OPTION TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
specifies a number of Configuration Options which are distinguished by
an 8 bit Type field. These Types are assigned as follows:

Type Configuration Option
---- --------------------
1 Bridge-Identification
2 Line-Identification
3 MAC-Support
4 Tinygram-Compression
5 LAN-Identification
6 MAC-Address
7 Spanning-Tree-Protocol

PPP BRIDGING MAC TYPES

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
contains an 8 bit MAC Type field which identifies the MAC
encapsulated. These Types are assigned as follows:

Type MAC
---- -----------
0 Reserved
1 IEEE 802.3/Ethernet with cannonical addresses
2 IEEE 802.4 with cannonical addresses
3 IEEE 802.5 with non-cannonical addresses
4 FDDI with non-cannonical addresses
5-10 reserved
11 IEEE 802.5 with cannonical addresses
12 FDDI with cannonical addresses

PPP BRIDGING SPANNING TREE

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
Spanning Tree Configuration Option contains an 8-bit Protocol field
which identifies the spanning tree used. These are assigned as
follows:

Protocol Spanning Tree
-------- ---------------
0 Null - no spanning tree protocol supported
1 IEEE 802.1D spanning tree protocol

2 IEEE 802.1G extended spanning tree protocol
3 IBM source route spanning tree protocol
4 DEC LANbridge 100 spanning tree protocol

REFERENCES

[RFC1661] Simpson, W., Editor, "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)",
STD 51, RFC 1661, Daydreamer, July 1994.

[RFC1662] Simpson, W., Editor, "PPP in HDLC-like Framing", STD 51, RFC
1662, Daydreamer, July 1994.

PEOPLE

[KEN] <ken@funk.com>

[SCHNEIDER] Kevin Schneider <kevin@adtran.com>

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ppp-numbers

MACHINE NAMES

These are the Official Machine Names as they appear in the Domain Name
System HINFO records and the NIC Host Table. Their use is described
in [RFC952].

A machine name or CPU type may be up to 40 characters taken from the
set of uppercase letters, digits, and the two punctuation characters
hyphen and slash. It must start with a letter, and end with a letter
or digit.

AMIGA-500
AMIGA-500/010
AMIGA-500/020
AMIGA-500/EC030
AMIGA-500/030
AMIGA-600
AMIGA-1000
AMIGA-1000/010
AMIGA-1000/020
AMIGA-1000/EC030
AMIGA-1000/030
AMIGA-1200
AMIGA-1200/EC030
AMIGA-1200/030
AMIGA-1200/EC040
AMIGA-1200/LC040
AMIGA-1200/040
AMIGA-2000
AMIGA-2000/010
AMIGA-2000/020
AMIGA-2000/EC030
AMIGA-2000/030
AMIGA-2000/LC040
AMIGA-2000/EC040
AMIGA-2000/040
AMIGA-3000
AMIGA-3000/EC040
AMIGA-3000/LC040
AMIGA-3000/040
AMIGA-3000/060
AMIGA-4000/EC030
AMIGA-4000/030
AMIGA-4000/LC040
AMIGA-4000/040
AMIGA-4000/060
ALTO

ALTOS-6800
AMDAHL-V7
APOLLO
APPLE-MACINTOSH
APPLE-POWERBOOK
ATARI-104ST
ATT-3B1
ATT-3B2
ATT-3B20
ATT-7300
AXP
BBN-C/60
BURROUGHS-B/29
BURROUGHS-B/4800
BUTTERFLY
C/30
C/70
CADLINC
CADR
CDC-170
CDC-170/750
CDC-173
CDTV
CDTV/060
CD32
CELERITY-1200
CLUB-386
COMPAQ-386/20
COMTEN-3690
CP8040
CRAY-1
CRAY-X/MP
CRAY-2
CTIWS-117
DANDELION
DEC-10
DEC-1050
DEC-1077
DEC-1080
DEC-1090
DEC-1090B
DEC-1090T
DEC-2020T
DEC-2040
DEC-2040T
DEC-2050T
DEC-2060
DEC-2060T

DEC-2065
DEC-AXP
DEC-FALCON
DEC-KS10
DECSTATION
DEC-VAX
DEC-VAXCLUSTER
DEC-VAXSTATION
DEC-VAX-11730
DORADO
DPS8/70M
ELXSI-6400
EVEREX-386
FOONLY-F2
FOONLY-F3
FOONLY-F4
GOULD
GOULD-6050
GOULD-6080
GOULD-9050
GOULD-9080
H-316
H-60/68
H-68
H-68/80
H-89
HONEYWELL-DPS-6
HONEYWELL-DPS-8/70
HP3000
HP3000/64
IBM-158
IBM-360/67
IBM-370/3033
IBM-3081
IBM-3084QX
IBM-3101
IBM-4331
IBM-4341
IBM-4361
IBM-4381
IBM-4956
IBM-6152
IBM-PC
IBM-PC/AT
IBM-PC/RT
IBM-PC/XT
IBM-RS/6000
IBM-SERIES/1

IMAGEN
IMAGEN-8/300
IMSAI
INTEGRATED-SOLUTIONS
INTEGRATED-SOLUTIONS-68K
INTEGRATED-SOLUTIONS-CREATOR
INTEGRATED-SOLUTIONS-CREATOR-8
INTEL-386
INTEL-IPSC
IS-1
IS-68010
LMI
LSI-11
LSI-11/2
LSI-11/23
LSI-11/73
M68000
MAC-II
MAC-POWERBOOK
MACINTOSH
MASSCOMP
MC500
MC68000
MICROPORT
MICROVAX
MICROVAX-I
MV/8000
NAS3-5
NCR-COMTEN-3690
NEXT/N1000-316
NOW
ONYX-Z8000
PDP-11
PDP-11/3
PDP-11/23
PDP-11/24
PDP-11/34
PDP-11/40
PDP-11/44
PDP-11/45
PDP-11/50
PDP-11/70
PDP-11/73
PE-7/32
PE-3205
PERQ
PLEXUS-P/60
PLI

PLURIBUS
PRIME-2350
PRIME-2450
PRIME-2755
PRIME-9655
PRIME-9755
PRIME-9955II
PRIME-2250
PRIME-2655
PRIME-9955
PRIME-9950
PRIME-9650
PRIME-9750
PRIME-2250
PRIME-750
PRIME-850
PRIME-550II
PYRAMID-90
PYRAMID-90MX
PYRAMID-90X
RIDGE
RIDGE-32
RIDGE-32C
ROLM-1666
RS/6000
S1-MKIIA
SMI
SEQUENT-BALANCE-8000
SIEMENS
SILICON-GRAPHICS
SILICON-GRAPHICS-IRIS
SGI-IRIS-2400
SGI-IRIS-2500
SGI-IRIS-3010
SGI-IRIS-3020
SGI-IRIS-3030
SGI-IRIS-3110
SGI-IRIS-3115
SGI-IRIS-3120
SGI-IRIS-3130
SGI-IRIS-4D/20
SGI-IRIS-4D/20G
SGI-IRIS-4D/25
SGI-IRIS-4D/25G
SGI-IRIS-4D/25S
SGI-IRIS-4D/50
SGI-IRIS-4D/50G
SGI-IRIS-4D/50GT

SGI-IRIS-4D/60
SGI-IRIS-4D/60G
SGI-IRIS-4D/60T
SGI-IRIS-4D/60GT
SGI-IRIS-4D/70
SGI-IRIS-4D/70G
SGI-IRIS-4D/70GT
SGI-IRIS-4D/80GT
SGI-IRIS-4D/80S
SGI-IRIS-4D/120GTX
SGI-IRIS-4D/120S
SGI-IRIS-4D/210GTX
SGI-IRIS-4D/210S
SGI-IRIS-4D/220GTX
SGI-IRIS-4D/220S
SGI-IRIS-4D/240GTX
SGI-IRIS-4D/240S
SGI-IRIS-4D/280GTX
SGI-IRIS-4D/280S
SGI-IRIS-CS/12
SGI-IRIS-4SERVER-8
SPERRY-DCP/10
SUN
SUN-2
SUN-2/50
SUN-2/100
SUN-2/120
SUN-2/130
SUN-2/140
SUN-2/150
SUN-2/160
SUN-2/170
SUN-3/50
SUN-3/60
SUN-3/75
SUN-3/80
SUN-3/110
SUN-3/140
SUN-3/150
SUN-3/160
SUN-3/180
SUN-3/200
SUN-3/260
SUN-3/280
SUN-3/470
SUN-3/480
SUN-4/60
SUN-4/110

SUN-4/150
SUN-4/200
SUN-4/260
SUN-4/280
SUN-4/330
SUN-4/370
SUN-4/390
SUN-50
SUN-100
SUN-120
SUN-130
SUN-150
SUN-170
SUN-386i/250
SUN-68000
SYMBOLICS-3600
SYMBOLICS-3670
SYMMETRIC-375
SYMULT
TANDEM-TXP
TANDY-6000
TEK-6130
TI-EXPLORER
TP-4000
TRS-80
UNIVAC-1100
UNIVAC-1100/60
UNIVAC-1100/62
UNIVAC-1100/63
UNIVAC-1100/64
UNIVAC-1100/70
UNIVAC-1160
UNKNOWN
VAX
VAX-11/725
VAX-11/730
VAX-11/750
VAX-11/780
VAX-11/785
VAX-11/790
VAX-11/8600
VAX-8600
VAXCLUSTER
VAXSTATION
WANG-PC002
WANG-VS100
WANG-VS400
WYSE-386

WYSE-WN5004
WYSE-WN5008
WYSE-WN5104
WYSE-WN5108
WYSE-WX15C
WYSE-WX17C
WYSE-WX17M
WYSE-WX19C
WYSE-WX19M
WYSE-WYX14M
WYSE-WYX5
XEROX-1108
XEROX-8010
ZENITH-148

REFERENCES

[RFC952] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "DoD Internet
Host Table Specification", RFC 952, SRI, October 1985.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/machine-names

OPERATING SYSTEM NAMES

These are the Official System Names as they appear in the Domain Name
System HINFO records and the NIC Host Table. Their use is described in
[RFC952].

A system name may be up to 40 characters taken from the set of
uppercase letters, digits, and the three punctuation characters
hyphen, period, and slash. It must start with a letter, and end with
a letter or digit.

AEGIS
AMIGA-OS-1.2
AMIGA-OS-1.3
AMIGA-OS-2.0
AMIGA-OS-2.1
AMIGA-OS-3.0
AMIGA-OS-3.1
APOLLO
AIX/370
AIX-PS/2
BS-2000
CEDAR
CGW
CHORUS
CHRYSALIS
CMOS
CMS
COS
CPIX
CTOS
CTSS
DCN
DDNOS
DOMAIN
DOS
EDX
ELF
EMBOS
EMMOS
EPOS
FOONEX
FORTH
FUZZ
GCOS
GPOS

HDOS
IMAGEN
INTERCOM
IMPRESS
INTERLISP
IOS
IRIX
ISI-68020
ITS
LISP
LISPM
LOCUS
MACOS
MINOS
MOS
MPE5
MPE/V
MPE/IX
MSDOS
MULTICS
MUSIC
MUSIC/SP
MVS
MVS/SP
NEXUS
NMS
NONSTOP
NOS-2
NTOS
OPENVMS
OS/DDP
OS/2
OS4
OS86
OSX
PCDOS
PERQ/OS
PLI
PSDOS/MIT
PRIMOS
RMX/RDOS
ROS
RSX11M
RTE-A
SATOPS
SCO-OPEN-DESKTOP-1.0
SCO-OPEN-DESKTOP-1.1
SCO-OPEN-DESKTOP-2.0

SCO-OPEN-DESKTOP-3.0
SCO-OPEN-DESKTOP-LITE-3.0
SCO-OPEN-SERVER-3.0
SCO-UNIX-3.2.0
SCO-UNIX-3.2V2.0
SCO-UNIX-3.2V2.1
SCO-UNIX-3.2V4.0
SCO-UNIX-3.2V4.1
SCO-UNIX-3.2V4.2
SCO-XENIX-386-2.3.2
SCO-XENIX-386-2.3.3
SCO-XENIX-386-2.3.4
SCS
SIMP
SUN
SUN-OS-3.5
SUN-OS-4.0
SWIFT
TAC
TANDEM
TENEX
THE-MAJOR-BBS
TOPS10
TOPS20
TOS
TP3010
TRSDOS
ULTRIX
UNIX
UNIX-BSD
UNIX-V1AT
UNIX-V
UNIX-V.1
UNIX-V.2
UNIX-V.3
UNIX-PC
UNKNOWN
UT2D
V
VM
VM/370
VM/CMS
VM/SP
VMS
VMS/EUNICE
VRTX
WAITS
WANG

WIN32
WYSE-WYXWARE
X11R3
XDE
XENIX

REFERENCES

[RFC952] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "DoD Internet
Host Table Specification", RFC 952, SRI, October 1985.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/operating-system-names

TERMINAL TYPE NAMES

These are the Official Terminal Type Names. Their use is described in
[RFC930]. The maximum length of a name is 40 characters.

A terminal names may be up to 40 characters taken from the set of
uppercase letters, digits, and the two punctuation characters hyphen
and slash. It must start with a letter, and end with a letter or
digit.

ADDS-CONSUL-980
ADDS-REGENT-100
ADDS-REGENT-20
ADDS-REGENT-200
ADDS-REGENT-25
ADDS-REGENT-40
ADDS-REGENT-60
ADDS-VIEWPOINT
ADDS-VIEWPOINT-60
AED-512
AMPEX-DIALOGUE-210
AMPEX-DIALOGUE-80
AMPEX-210
AMPEX-230
ANDERSON-JACOBSON-510
ANDERSON-JACOBSON-630
ANDERSON-JACOBSON-832
ANDERSON-JACOBSON-841
ANN-ARBOR-AMBASSADOR
ANSI
ARDS
BITGRAPH
BUSSIPLEXER
CALCOMP-565
CDC-456
CDI-1030
CDI-1203
C-ITOH-101
C-ITOH-50
C-ITOH-80
CLNZ
COMPUCOLOR-II
CONCEPT-100
CONCEPT-104
CONCEPT-108
DATA-100

DATA-GENERAL-6053
DATAGRAPHIX-132A
DATAMEDIA-1520
DATAMEDIA-1521
DATAMEDIA-2500
DATAMEDIA-3025
DATAMEDIA-3025A
DATAMEDIA-3045
DATAMEDIA-3045A
DATAMEDIA-DT80/1
DATAPOINT-2200
DATAPOINT-3000
DATAPOINT-3300
DATAPOINT-3360
DEC-DECWRITER-I
DEC-DECWRITER-II
DEC-GIGI
DEC-GT40
DEC-GT40A
DEC-GT42
DEC-LA120
DEC-LA30
DEC-LA36
DEC-LA38
DEC-VT05
DEC-VT100
DEC-VT101
DEC-VT102
DEC-VT125
DEC-VT131
DEC-VT132
DEC-VT200
DEC-VT220
DEC-VT240
DEC-VT241
DEC-VT300
DEC-VT320
DEC-VT340
DEC-VT50
DEC-VT50H
DEC-VT52
DEC-VT55
DEC-VT61
DEC-VT62
DELTA-DATA-5000
DELTA-DATA-NIH-7000
DELTA-TELTERM-2
DIABLO-1620

DIABLO-1640
DIGILOG-333
DTC-300S
DTC-382
EDT-1200
ETOS52-APL
ETOS52-CRT
ETOS52-FDW
ETOS52-FUP
ETOS52-GFM
ETOS52-SPR
EXECUPORT-4000
EXECUPORT-4080
FACIT-TWIST-4440
FREEDOM-100
FREEDOM-110
FREEDOM-200
GENERAL-TERMINAL-100A
GENERAL-TERMINAL-101
GIPSI-TX-M
GIPSI-TX-ME
GIPSI-TX-C4
GIPSI-TX-C8
GSI
HAZELTINE-1420
HAZELTINE-1500
HAZELTINE-1510
HAZELTINE-1520
HAZELTINE-1552
HAZELTINE-2000
HAZELTINE-ESPRIT
HITACHI-5601
HITACHI-5603
HITACHI-5603E
HITACHI-5603EA
HITACHI-560X
HITACHI-560XE
HITACHI-560XEA
HITACHI-560PR
HITACHI-HOAP1
HITACHI-HOAP2
HITACHI-HOAP3
HITACHI-HOAP4
HP-2392
HP-2621
HP-2621A
HP-2621P
HP-2623

HP-2626
HP-2626A
HP-2626P
HP-2627
HP-2640
HP-2640A
HP-2640B
HP-2645
HP-2645A
HP-2648
HP-2648A
HP-2649
HP-2649A
IBM-1050
IBM-2741
IBM-3101
IBM-3101-10
IBM-3151
IBM-3179-2
IBM-3180-2
IBM-3196-A1
IBM-3275-2
IBM-3276-2
IBM-3276-3
IBM-3276-4
IBM-3277-2
IBM-3278-2
IBM-3278-3
IBM-3278-4
IBM-3278-5
IBM-3279-2
IBM-3279-3
IBM-3477-FC
IBM-3477-FG
IBM-5081
IBM-5151
IBM-5154
IBM-5251-11
IBM-5291-1
IBM-5292-2
IBM-5555-B01
IBM-5555-C01
IBM-6153
IBM-6154
IBM-6155
IBM-AED
IBM-3278-2-E
IBM-3278-3-E

IBM-3278-4-E
IBM-3278-5-E
IBM-3279-2-E
IBM-3279-3-E
IMLAC
INFOTON-100
INFOTON-400
INFOTONKAS
ISC-8001
LSI-ADM-1
LSI-ADM-11
LSI-ADM-12
LSI-ADM-2
LSI-ADM-20
LSI-ADM-22
LSI-ADM-220
LSI-ADM-3
LSI-ADM-31
LSI-ADM-3A
LSI-ADM-42
LSI-ADM-5
MEMOREX-1240
MICROBEE
MICROTERM-ACT-IV
MICROTERM-ACT-V
MICROTERM-ERGO-301
MICROTERM-MIME-1
MICROTERM-MIME-2
MICROTERM-ACT-5A
MICROTERM-TWIST
NEC-5520
NETRONICS
NETWORK-VIRTUAL-TERMINAL
OMRON-8025AG
PERKIN-ELMER-550
PERKIN-ELMER-1100
PERKIN-ELMER-1200
PERQ
PLASMA-PANEL
QUME-SPRINT-5
QUME-101
QUME-102
SOROC
SOROC-120
SOUTHWEST-TECHNICAL-PRODUCTS-CT82
SUN
SUPERBEE
SUPERBEE-III-M

TEC
TEKTRONIX-4006
TEKTRONIX-4010
TEKTRONIX-4012
TEKTRONIX-4013
TEKTRONIX-4014
TEKTRONIX-4023
TEKTRONIX-4024
TEKTRONIX-4025
TEKTRONIX-4027
TEKTRONIX-4105
TEKTRONIX-4107
TEKTRONIX-4110
TEKTRONIX-4112
TEKTRONIX-4113
TEKTRONIX-4114
TEKTRONIX-4115
TEKTRONIX-4125
TEKTRONIX-4404
TELERAY-1061
TELERAY-3700
TELERAY-3800
TELETEC-DATASCREEN
TELETERM-1030
TELETYPE-33
TELETYPE-35
TELETYPE-37
TELETYPE-38
TELETYPE-40
TELETYPE-43
TELEVIDEO-910
TELEVIDEO-912
TELEVIDEO-920
TELEVIDEO-920B
TELEVIDEO-920C
TELEVIDEO-925
TELEVIDEO-955
TELEVIDEO-950
TELEVIDEO-970
TELEVIDEO-975
TERMINET-1200
TERMINET-300
TI-700
TI-733
TI-735
TI-743
TI-745
TI-800

TYCOM
UNIVAC-DCT-500
VIDEO-SYSTEMS-1200
VIDEO-SYSTEMS-5000
VOLKER-CRAIG-303
VOLKER-CRAIG-303A
VOLKER-CRAIG-404
VISUAL-200
VISUAL-55
WYSE-30
WYSE-50
WYSE-60
WYSE-75
WYSE-85
WYSE-99GT
WYSE-100
WYSE-120
WYSE-120ES
WYSE-150
WYSE-150ES
WYSE-160
WYSE-160ES
WYSE-185
WYSE-185ES
WYSE-285
WYSE-285ES
WYSE-325
WYSE-325ES
WYSE-350
WYSE-370
XEROX-1720
XTERM
ZENITH-H19
ZENITH-Z29
ZENTEC-30

REFERENCES

[RFC930] Solomon, M., and E. Wimmers, "Telnet Terminal Type Option",
RFC 930, University of Wisconsin, Madison, January 1985.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/terminal-type-names

PROTOCOL AND SERVICE NAMES

These are the Official Protocol Names as they appear in the Domain
Name System WKS records and the NIC Host Table. Their use is
described in [RFC952].

A protocol or service may be up to 40 characters taken from the set of
uppercase letters, digits, and the punctuation character hyphen. It
must start with a letter, and end with a letter or digit.

ARGUS - ARGUS Protocol
ARP - Address Resolution Protocol
AUTH - Authentication Service
BBN-RCC-MON - BBN RCC Monitoring
BL-IDM - Britton Lee Intelligent Database Machine
BOOTP - Bootstrap Protocol
BOOTPC - Bootstrap Protocol Client
BOOTPS - Bootstrap Protocol Server
BR-SAT-MON - Backroom SATNET Monitoring
CFTP - CFTP
CHAOS - CHAOS Protocol
CHARGEN - Character Generator Protocol
CISCO-FNA - CISCO FNATIVE
CISCO-TNA - CISCO TNATIVE
CISCO-SYS - CISCO SYSMAINT
CLOCK - DCNET Time Server Protocol
CMOT - Common Mgmnt Info Ser and Prot over TCP/IP
COOKIE-JAR - Authentication Scheme
CSNET-NS - CSNET Mailbox Nameserver Protocol
DAYTIME - Daytime Protocol
DCN-MEAS - DCN Measurement Subsystems Protocol
DCP - Device Control Protocol
DGP - Dissimilar Gateway Protocol
DISCARD - Discard Protocol
DMF-MAIL - Digest Message Format for Mail
DOMAIN - Domain Name System
ECHO - Echo Protocol
EGP - Exterior Gateway Protocol
EHF-MAIL - Encoding Header Field for Mail
EMCON - Emission Control Protocol
EMFIS-CNTL - EMFIS Control Service
EMFIS-DATA - EMFIS Data Service
FCONFIG - Fujitsu Config Protocol
FINGER - Finger Protocol
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
FTP-DATA - File Transfer Protocol Data

GGP - Gateway Gateway Protocol
GRAPHICS - Graphics Protocol
HMP - Host Monitoring Protocol
HOST2-NS - Host2 Name Server
HOSTNAME - Hostname Protocol
ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol
IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
IGP - Interior Gateway Protocol
IMAP2 - Interim Mail Access Protocol version 2
INGRES-NET - INGRES-NET Service
IP - Internet Protocol
IPCU - Internet Packet Core Utility
IPPC - Internet Pluribus Packet Core
IP-ARC - Internet Protocol on ARCNET
IP-ARPA - Internet Protocol on ARPANET
IP-CMPRS - Compressing TCP/IP Headers
IP-DC - Internet Protocol on DC Networks
IP-DVMRP - Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
IP-E - Internet Protocol on Ethernet Networks
IP-EE - Internet Protocol on Exp. Ethernet Nets
IP-FDDI - Transmission of IP over FDDI
IP-HC - Internet Protocol on Hyperchannnel
IP-IEEE - Internet Protocol on IEEE 802
IP-IPX - Transmission of 802.2 over IPX Networks
IP-MTU - IP MTU Discovery Options
IP-NETBIOS - Internet Protocol over NetBIOS Networks
IP-SLIP - Transmission of IP over Serial Lines
IP-WB - Internet Protocol on Wideband Network
IP-X25 - Internet Protocol on X.25 Networks
IRTP - Internet Reliable Transaction Protocol
ISI-GL - ISI Graphics Language Protocol
ISO-TP4 - ISO Transport Protocol Class 4
ISO-TSAP - ISO TSAP
LA-MAINT - IMP Logical Address Maintenance
LARP - Locus Address Resoultion Protocol
LDP - Loader Debugger Protocol
LEAF-1 - Leaf-1 Protocol
LEAF-2 - Leaf-2 Protocol
LINK - Link Protocol
LOC-SRV - Location Service
LOGIN - Login Host Protocol
MAIL - Format of Electronic Mail Messages
MERIT-INP - MERIT Internodal Protocol
METAGRAM - Metagram Relay
MIB - Management Information Base
MIT-ML-DEV - MIT ML Device
MFE-NSP - MFE Network Services Protocol
MIT-SUBNET - MIT Subnet Support

MIT-DOV - MIT Dover Spooler
MPM - Internet Message Protocol (Multimedia Mail)
MPM-FLAGS - MPM Flags Protocol
MPM-SND - MPM Send Protocol
MSG-AUTH - MSG Authentication Protocol
MSG-ICP - MSG ICP Protocol
MUX - Multiplexing Protocol
NAMESERVER - Host Name Server
NETBIOS-DGM - NETBIOS Datagram Service
NETBIOS-NS - NETBIOS Name Service
NETBIOS-SSN - NETBIOS Session Service
NETBLT - Bulk Data Transfer Protocol
NETED - Network Standard Text Editor
NETRJS - Remote Job Service
NI-FTP - NI File Transfer Protocol
NI-MAIL - NI Mail Protocol
NICNAME - Who Is Protocol
NFILE - A File Access Protocol
NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol
NSW-FE - NSW User System Front End
NTP - Network Time Protocol
NVP-II - Network Voice Protocol
OSPF - Open Shortest Path First Interior GW Protocol
PCMAIL - Pcmail Transport Protocol
POP2 - Post Office Protocol - Version 2
POP3 - Post Office Protocol - Version 3
PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol
PRM - Packet Radio Measurement
PUP - PUP Protocol
PWDGEN - Password Generator Protocol
QUOTE - Quote of the Day Protocol
RARP - A Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RATP - Reliable Asynchronous Transfer Protocol
RE-MAIL-CK - Remote Mail Checking Protocol
RDP - Reliable Data Protocol
RIP - Routing Information Protocol
RJE - Remote Job Entry
RLP - Resource Location Protocol
RTELNET - Remote Telnet Service
RVD - Remote Virtual Disk Protocol
SAT-EXPAK - Satnet and Backroom EXPAK
SAT-MON - SATNET Monitoring
SEP - Sequential Exchange Protocol
SFTP - Simple File Transfer Protocol
SGMP - Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SMI - Structure of Management Information
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SQLSRV - SQL Service
ST - Stream Protocol
STATSRV - Statistics Service
SU-MIT-TG - SU/MIT Telnet Gateway Protocol
SUN-RPC - SUN Remote Procedure Call
SUPDUP - SUPDUP Protocol
SUR-MEAS - Survey Measurement
SWIFT-RVF - Remote Virtual File Protocol
TACACS-DS - TACACS-Database Service
TACNEWS - TAC News
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
TCP-ACO - TCP Alternate Checksum Option
TELNET - Telnet Protocol
TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol
THINWIRE - Thinwire Protocol
TIME - Time Server Protocol
TP-TCP - ISO Transport Service on top of the TCP
TRUNK-1 - Trunk-1 Protocol
TRUNK-2 - Trunk-2 Protocol
UCL - University College London Protocol
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol
USERS - Active Users Protocol
UUCP-PATH - UUCP Path Service
VIA-FTP - VIA Systems-File Transfer Protocol
VISA - VISA Protocol
VMTP - Versatile Message Transaction Protocol
WB-EXPAK - Wideband EXPAK
WB-MON - Wideband Monitoring
XNET - Cross Net Debugger
XNS-IDP - Xerox NS IDP

REFERENCES

[RFC952] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "DoD Internet
Host Table Specification", RFC 952, SRI, October 1985.

[]

URL = ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/service-names

Security Considerations

Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

Authors' Addresses

Joyce K. Reynolds
USC/Information Sciences Institute
4676 Admiralty Way
Marina del Rey, California 90292-6695

Phone: +1 310-822-1511
EMail: jkrey@isi.edu

Jon Postel
USC/Information Sciences Institute
4676 Admiralty Way
Marina del Rey, California 90292-6695

Phone: +1 310-822-1511
EMail: postel@isi.edu


RFC 1819 – Internet Stream Protocol Version 2 (ST2) Protocol Specification

 

Network Working Group                                  ST2 Working Group
Request for Comments: 1819           L. Delgrossi and L. Berger, Editors
Obsoletes: 1190, IEN 119                                     August 1995
Category: Experimental
                Internet Stream Protocol Version 2 (ST2)
                 Protocol Specification - Version ST2+
Status of this Memo
   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any
   kind.  Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
IESG NOTE
   This document is a revision of RFC1190. The charter of this effort
   was clarifying, simplifying and removing errors from RFC1190 to
   ensure interoperability of implementations.
   NOTE WELL: Neither the version of the protocol described in this
   document nor the previous version is an Internet Standard or under
   consideration for that status.
   Since the publication of the original version of the protocol, there
   have been significant developments in the state of the art.  Readers
   should note that standards and technology addressing alternative
   approaches to the resource reservation problem are currently under
   development within the IETF.
Abstract
   This memo contains a revised specification of the Internet STream
   Protocol Version 2 (ST2). ST2 is an experimental resource reservation
   protocol intended to provide end-to-end real-time guarantees over an
   internet. It allows applications to build multi-destination simplex
   data streams with a desired quality of service. The revised version
   of ST2 specified in this memo is called ST2+.
   This specification is a product of the STream Protocol Working Group
   of the Internet Engineering Task Force.
Table of Contents
     1  Introduction                                                   6
             1.1  What is ST2?                                         6
             1.2  ST2 and IP                                           8
             1.3  Protocol History                                     8
             1.3.1  RFC1190 ST and ST2+ Major Differences              9
             1.4  Supporting Modules for ST2                          10
             1.4.1  Data Transfer Protocol                            11
             1.4.2  Setup Protocol                                    11
             1.4.3  Flow Specification                                11
             1.4.4  Routing Function                                  12
             1.4.5  Local Resource Manager                            12
             1.5  ST2 Basic Concepts                                  15
             1.5.1  Streams                                           16
             1.5.2  Data Transmission                                 16
             1.5.3  Flow Specification                                17
             1.6  Outline of This Document                            19
     2  ST2 User Service Description                                  19
             2.1  Stream Operations and Primitive Functions           19
             2.2  State Diagrams                                      21
             2.3  State Transition Tables                             25
     3  The ST2 Data Transfer Protocol                                26
             3.1  Data Transfer with ST                               26
             3.2  ST Protocol Functions                               27
             3.2.1  Stream Identification                             27
             3.2.2  Packet Discarding based on Data Priority          27
     4  SCMP Functional Description                                   28
             4.1  Types of Streams                                    29
             4.1.1  Stream Building                                   30
             4.1.2  Knowledge of Receivers                            30
             4.2  Control PDUs                                        31
             4.3  SCMP Reliability                                    32
             4.4  Stream Options                                      33
             4.4.1  No Recovery                                       33
             4.4.2  Join Authorization Level                          34
             4.4.3  Record Route                                      34
             4.4.4  User Data                                         35
             4.5  Stream Setup                                        35
             4.5.1  Information from the Application                  35
             4.5.2  Initial Setup at the Origin                       35
             4.5.2.1  Invoking the Routing Function                   36
             4.5.2.2  Reserving Resources                             36
             4.5.3  Sending CONNECT Messages                          37
             4.5.3.1  Empty Target List                               37
             4.5.4  CONNECT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent    37
             4.5.5  CONNECT Processing at the Targets                 38
             4.5.6  ACCEPT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent     38
             4.5.7  ACCEPT Processing by the Origin                   39
             4.5.8  REFUSE Processing by the Intermediate ST agent    39
             4.5.9  REFUSE Processing by the Origin                   39
             4.5.10  Other Functions during Stream Setup              40
             4.6  Modifying an Existing Stream                        40
             4.6.1  The Origin Adding New Targets                     41
             4.6.2  The Origin Removing a Target                      41
             4.6.3  A Target Joining a Stream                         42
             4.6.3.1  Intermediate Agent (Router) as Origin           43
             4.6.4  A Target Deleting Itself                          43
             4.6.5  Changing a Stream's FlowSpec                      44
             4.7  Stream Tear Down                                    45
     5  Exceptional Cases                                             45
             5.1  Long ST Messages                                    45
             5.1.1  Handling of Long Data Packets                     45
             5.1.2  Handling of Long Control Packets                  46
             5.2  Timeout Failures                                    47
             5.2.1  Failure due to ACCEPT Acknowledgment Timeout      47
             5.2.2  Failure due to CHANGE Acknowledgment Timeout      47
             5.2.3  Failure due to CHANGE Response Timeout            48
             5.2.4  Failure due to CONNECT Acknowledgment Timeout     48
             5.2.5  Failure due to CONNECT Response Timeout           48
             5.2.6  Failure due to DISCONNECT Acknowledgment Timeout  48
             5.2.7  Failure due to JOIN Acknowledgment Timeout        48
             5.2.8  Failure due to JOIN Response Timeout              49
             5.2.9  Failure due to JOIN-REJECT Acknowledgment Timeout 49
             5.2.10  Failure due to NOTIFY Acknowledgment Timeout     49
             5.2.11  Failure due to REFUSE Acknowledgment Timeout     49
             5.2.12  Failure due to STATUS Response Timeout           49
             5.3  Setup Failures due to Routing Failures              50
             5.3.1  Path Convergence                                  50
             5.3.2  Other Cases                                       51
             5.4  Problems due to Routing Inconsistency               52
             5.5  Problems in Reserving Resources                     53
             5.5.1  Mismatched FlowSpecs                              53
             5.5.2  Unknown FlowSpec Version                          53
             5.5.3  LRM Unable to Process FlowSpec                    53
             5.5.4  Insufficient Resources                            53
             5.6  Problems Caused by CHANGE Messages                  54
             5.7  Unknown Targets in DISCONNECT and CHANGE            55
     6  Failure Detection and Recovery                                55
             6.1  Failure Detection                                   55
             6.1.1  Network Failures                                  56
             6.1.2  Detecting ST Agents Failures                      56
             6.2  Failure Recovery                                    58
             6.2.1  Problems in Stream Recovery                       60
             6.3  Stream Preemption                                   62
     7  A Group of Streams                                            63
             7.1  Basic Group Relationships                           63
             7.1.1  Bandwidth Sharing                                 63
             7.1.2  Fate Sharing                                      64
             7.1.3  Route Sharing                                     65
             7.1.4  Subnet Resources Sharing                          65
             7.2  Relationships Orthogonality                         65
     8  Ancillary Functions                                           66
             8.1  Stream ID Generation                                66
             8.2  Group Name Generator                                66
             8.3  Checksum Computation                                67
             8.4  Neighbor ST Agent Identification and
                     Information Collection                           67
             8.5  Round Trip Time Estimation                          68
             8.6  Network MTU Discovery                               68
             8.7  IP Encapsulation of ST                              69
             8.8  IP Multicasting                                     70
     9  The ST2+ Flow Specification                                   71
             9.1  FlowSpec Version #0 - (Null FlowSpec)               72
             9.2  FlowSpec Version #7 - ST2+ FlowSpec                 72
             9.2.1  QoS Classes                                       73
             9.2.2  Precedence                                        74
             9.2.3  Maximum Data Size                                 74
             9.2.4  Message Rate                                      74
             9.2.5  Delay and Delay Jitter                            74
             9.2.6  ST2+ FlowSpec Format                              75
     10  ST2 Protocol Data Units Specification                        77
             10.1  Data PDU                                           77
             10.1.1  ST Data Packets                                  78
             10.2  Control PDUs                                       78
             10.3  Common SCMP Elements                               80
             10.3.1  FlowSpec                                         80
             10.3.2  Group                                            81
             10.3.3  MulticastAddress                                 82
             10.3.4  Origin                                           82
             10.3.5  RecordRoute                                      83
             10.3.6  Target and TargetList                            84
             10.3.7  UserData                                         85
             10.3.8  Handling of Undefined Parameters                 86
             10.4  ST Control Message PDUs                            86
             10.4.1  ACCEPT                                           86
             10.4.2  ACK                                              88
             10.4.3  CHANGE                                           89
             10.4.4  CONNECT                                          89
             10.4.5  DISCONNECT                                       92
             10.4.6  ERROR                                            93
             10.4.7  HELLO                                            94
             10.4.8  JOIN                                             95
             10.4.9  JOIN-REJECT                                      96
             10.4.10  NOTIFY                                          97
             10.4.11  REFUSE                                          98
             10.4.12  STATUS                                         100
             10.4.13  STATUS-RESPONSE                                100
             10.5  Suggested Protocol Constants                      101
             10.5.1  SCMP Messages                                   102
             10.5.2  SCMP Parameters                                 102
             10.5.3  ReasonCode                                      102
             10.5.4  Timeouts and Other Constants                    104
             10.6  Data Notations                                    105
     11  References                                                  106
     12  Security Considerations                                     108
     13  Acknowledgments and Authors' Addresses                      108
1.  Introduction
1.1  What is ST2?
   The Internet Stream Protocol, Version 2 (ST2) is an experimental
   connection-oriented internetworking protocol that operates at the
   same layer as connectionless IP. It has been developed to support the
   efficient delivery of data streams to single or multiple destinations
   in applications that require guaranteed quality of service. ST2 is
   part of the IP protocol family and serves as an adjunct to, not a
   replacement for, IP. The main application areas of the protocol are
   the real-time transport of multimedia data, e.g., digital audio and
   video packet streams, and distributed simulation/gaming, across
   internets.
   ST2 can be used to reserve bandwidth for real-time streams across
   network routes. This reservation, together with appropriate network
   access and packet scheduling mechanisms in all nodes running the
   protocol, guarantees a well-defined Quality of Service (QoS) to ST2
   applications. It ensures that real-time packets are delivered within
   their deadlines, that is, at the time where they need to be
   presented.  This facilitates a smooth delivery of data that is
   essential for time- critical applications, but can typically not be
   provided by best- effort IP communication.
                      DATA PATH                         CONTROL PATH
                      =========                         ============
       Upper     +------------------+                     +---------+
       Layer     | Application data |                     | Control |
                 +------------------+                     +---------+
                          |                                    |
                          |                                    V
                          |                     +-------------------+
       SCMP               |                     |   SCMP  |         |
                          |                     +-------------------+
                          |                             |
                          V                             V
            +-----------------------+      +------------------------+
       ST   | ST |                  |      | ST |         |         |
            +-----------------------+      +------------------------+
            D-bit=1                       D-bit=0
                   Figure 1: ST2 Data and Control Path
   Just like IP, ST2 actually consists of two protocols: ST for the data
   transport and SCMP, the Stream Control Message Protocol, for all
   control functions. ST is simple and contains only a single PDU format
   that is designed for fast and efficient data forwarding in order to
   achieve low communication delays. SCMP, however, is more complex than
   IP's ICMP. As with ICMP and IP, SCMP packets are transferred within
   ST packets as shown in Figure 1.
    +--------------------+
    | Conference Control |
    +--------------------+
   +-------+ +-------+ |
   | Video | | Voice | | +-----+ +------+ +-----+     +-----+ Application
   | Appl  | | Appl  | | | SNMP| |Telnet| | FTP | ... |     |    Layer
   +-------+ +-------+ | +-----+ +------+ +-----+     +-----+
       |        |      |     |        |     |            |
       V        V      |     |        |     |            |   ------------
    +-----+  +-----+   |     |        |     |            |
    | PVP |  | NVP |   |     |        |     |            |
    +-----+  +-----+   +     |        |     |            |
     |   \      | \     \    |        |     |            |
     |    +-----|--+-----+   |        |     |            |
     |     Appl.|control  V  V        V     V            V
     | ST  data |         +-----+    +-------+        +-----+
     | & control|         | UDP |    |  TCP  |    ... | RTP | Transport
     |          |         +-----+    +-------+        +-----+   Layer
     |         /|          / | \       / / |          / /|
     |\       / |  +------+--|--\-----+-/--|--- ... -+ / |
     | \     /  |  |         |   \     /   |          /  |
     |  \   /   |  |         |    \   +----|--- ... -+   |   -----------
     |   \ /    |  |         |     \ /     |             |
     |    V     |  |         |      V      |             |
     | +------+ |  |         |   +------+  |   +------+  |
     | | SCMP | |  |         |   | ICMP |  |   | IGMP |  |    Internet
     | +------+ |  |         |   +------+  |   +------+  |     Layer
     |    |     |  |         |      |      |      |      |
     V    V     V  V         V      V      V      V      V
   +-----------------+  +-----------------------------------+
   | STream protocol |->|      Internet     Protocol        |
   +-----------------+  +-----------------------------------+
                  | \   / |
                  |  \ /  |
                  |   X   |                                  ------------
                  |  / \  |
                  | /   \ |
                  VV     VV
   +----------------+   +----------------+
   | (Sub-) Network |...| (Sub-) Network |                  (Sub-)Network
   |    Protocol    |   |    Protocol    |                     Layer
   +----------------+   +----------------+
                   Figure 2.  Protocol Relationships
1.2  ST2 and IP
   ST2 is designed to coexist with IP on each node. A typical
   distributed multimedia application would use both protocols: IP for
   the transfer of traditional data and control information, and ST2 for
   the transfer of real-time data. Whereas IP typically will be accessed
   from TCP or UDP, ST2 will be accessed via new end-to-end real-time
   protocols. The position of ST2 with respect to the other protocols of
   the Internet family is represented in Figure 2.
   Both ST2 and IP apply the same addressing schemes to identify
   different hosts. ST2 and IP packets differ in the first four bits,
   which contain the internetwork protocol version number: number 5 is
   reserved for ST2 (IP itself has version number 4). As a network layer
   protocol, like IP, ST2 operates independently of its underlying
   subnets. Existing implementations use ARP for address resolution, and
   use the same Layer 2 SAPs as IP.
   As a special function, ST2 messages can be encapsulated in IP
   packets.  This is represented in Figure 2 as a link between ST2 and
   IP. This link allows ST2 messages to pass through routers which do
   not run ST2.  Resource management is typically not available for
   these IP route segments. IP encapsulation is, therefore, suggested
   only for portions of the network which do not constitute a system
   bottleneck.
   In Figure 2, the RTP protocol is shown as an example of transport
   layer on top of ST2. Others include the Packet Video Protocol (PVP)
   [Cole81], the Network Voice Protocol (NVP) [Cohe81], and others such
   as the Heidelberg Transport Protocol (HeiTP) [DHHS92].
1.3  Protocol History
   The first version of ST was published in the late 1970's and was used
   throughout the 1980's for experimental transmission of voice, video,
   and distributed simulation. The experience gained in these
   applications led to the development of the revised protocol version
   ST2. The revision extends the original protocol to make it more
   complete and more applicable to emerging multimedia environments. The
   specification of this protocol version is contained in Internet RFC
   1190 which was published in October 1990 [RFC1190].
   With more and more developments of commercial distributed multimedia
   applications underway and with a growing dissatisfaction at the
   transmission quality for audio and video over IP in the MBONE,
   interest in ST2 has grown over the last years. Companies have
   products available incorporating the protocol. The BERKOM MMTS
   project of the German PTT [DeAl92] uses ST2 as its core protocol for
   the provision of multimedia teleservices such as conferencing and
   mailing. In addition, implementations of ST2 for Digital Equipment,
   IBM, NeXT, Macintosh, PC, Silicon Graphics, and Sun platforms are
   available.
   In 1993, the IETF started a new working group on ST2 as part of
   ongoing efforts to develop protocols that address resource
   reservation issues.  The group's mission was to clean up the existing
   protocol specification to ensure better interoperability between the
   existing and emerging implementations. It was also the goal to
   produce an updated experimental protocol specification that reflected
   the experiences gained with the existing ST2 implementations and
   applications. Which led to the specification of the ST2+ protocol
   contained in this document.
1.3.1  RFC1190 ST and ST2+ Major Differences
   The protocol changes from RFC1190 were motivated by protocol
   simplification and clarification, and codification of extensions in
   existing implementations. This section provides a list of major
   differences, and is probably of interest only to those who have
   knowledge of RFC1190. The major differences between the versions are:
o   Elimination of "Hop IDentifiers" or HIDs. HIDs added much complexity
    to the protocol and was found to be a major impediment to
    interoperability. HIDs have been replaced by globally unique
    identifiers called "Stream IDentifiers" or SIDs.
o   Elimination of a number of stream options. A number of options were
    found to not be used by any implementation, or were thought to add
    more complexity than value. These options were removed. Removed
    options include: point-to-point, full-duplex, reverse charge, and
    source route.
o   Elimination of the concept of "subset" implementations. RFC1190
    permitted subset implementations, to allow for easy implementation
    and experimentation. This led to interoperability problems. Agents
    implementing the protocol specified in this document, MUST implement
    the full protocol. A number of the protocol functions are best-
    effort. It is expected that some implementations will make more
    effort than others in satisfying particular protocol requests.
o   Clarification of the capability of targets to request to join a
    steam. RFC1190 can be interpreted to support target requests, but
    most implementors did not understand this and did not add support
    for this capability. The lack of this capability was found to be a
    significant limitation in the ability to scale the number of
    participants in a single ST stream. This clarification is based on
    work done by IBM Heidelberg.
o   Separation of functions between ST and supporting modules. An effort
    was made to improve the separation of functions provided by ST and
    those provided by other modules. This is reflected in reorganization
    of some text and some PDU formats. ST was also made FlowSpec
    independent, although it does define a FlowSpec for testing and
    interoperability purposes.
o   General reorganization and re-write of the specification. This
    document has been organized with the goal of improved readability
    and clarity. Some sections have been added, and an effort was made
    to improve the introduction of concepts.
1.4  Supporting Modules for ST2
   ST2 is one piece of a larger mosaic. This section presents the
   overall communication architecture and clarifies the role of ST2 with
   respect to its supporting modules.
   ST2 proposes a two-step communication model. In the first step, the
   real-time channels for the subsequent data transfer are built. This
   is called stream setup. It includes selecting the routes to the
   destinations and reserving the correspondent resources. In the second
   step, the data is transmitted over the previously established
   streams.  This is called data transfer. While stream setup does not
   have to be completed in real-time, data transfer has stringent real-
   time requirements. The architecture used to describe the ST2
   communication model includes:
o   a data transfer protocol for the transmission of real-time data
    over the established streams,
o   a setup protocol to establish real-time streams based on the flow
    specification,
o   a flow specification to express user real-time requirements,
o   a routing function to select routes in the Internet,
o   a local resource manager to appropriately handle resources involved
    in the communication.
   This document defines a data protocol (ST), a setup protocol (SCMP),
   and a flow specification (ST2+ FlowSpec). It does not define a
   routing function and a local resource manager. However, ST2 assumes
   their existence.
   Alternative architectures are possible, see [RFC1633] for an example
   alternative architecture that could be used when implementing ST2.
1.4.1  Data Transfer Protocol
   The data transfer protocol defines the format of the data packets
   belonging to the stream. Data packets are delivered to the targets
   along the stream paths previously established by the setup protocol.
   Data packets are delivered with the quality of service associated
   with the stream.
   Data packets contain a globally unique stream identifier that
   indicates which stream they belong to. The stream identifier is also
   known by the setup protocol, which uses it during stream
   establishment. The data transfer protocol for ST2, known simply as
   ST, is completely defined by this document.
1.4.2  Setup Protocol
   The setup protocol is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and
   releasing real-time streams. It relies on the routing function to
   select the paths from the source to the destinations. At each
   host/router on these paths, it presents the flow specification
   associated with the stream to the local resource manager. This causes
   the resource managers to reserve appropriate resources for the
   stream.  The setup protocol for ST2 is called Stream Control Message
   Protocol, or SCMP, and is completely defined by this document.
1.4.3  Flow Specification
   The flow specification is a data structure including the ST2
   applications' QoS requirements. At each host/router, it is used by
   the local resource manager to appropriately handle resources so that
   such requirements are met. Distributing the flow specification to all
   resource managers along the communication paths is the task of the
   setup protocol. However, the contents of the flow specification are
   transparent to the setup protocol, which simply carries the flow
   specification. Any operations on the flow specification, including
   updating internal fields and comparing flow specifications are
   performed by the resource managers.
   This document defines a specific flow specification format that
   allows for interoperability among ST2 implementations. This flow
   specification is intended to support a flow with a single
   transmission rate for all destinations in the stream. Implementations
   may support more than one flow specification format and the means are
   provided to add new formats as they are defined in the future.
   However, the flow specification format has to be consistent
   throughout the stream, i.e., it is not possible to use different flow
   specification formats for different parts of the same stream.
1.4.4  Routing Function
   The routing function is an external unicast route generation
   capability. It provides the setup protocol with the path to reach
   each of the desired destinations. The routing function is called on a
   hop-by-hop basis and provides next-hop information. Once a route is
   selected by the routing function, it persists for the whole stream
   lifetime. The routing function may try to optimize based on the
   number of targets, the requested resources, or use of local network
   multicast or bandwidth capabilities. Alternatively, the routing
   function may even be based on simple connectivity information.
   The setup protocol is not necessarily aware of the criteria used by
   the routing function to select routes. It works with any routing
   function algorithm. The algorithm adopted is a local matter at each
   host/router and different hosts/routers may use different algorithms.
   The interface between setup protocol and routing function is also a
   local matter and therefore it is not specified by this document.
   This version of ST does not support source routing. It does support
   route recording. It does include provisions that allow identification
   of ST capable neighbors. Identification of remote ST hosts/routers is
   not specifically addressed.
1.4.5  Local Resource Manager
   At each host/router traversed by a stream, the Local Resource Manager
   (LRM) is responsible for handling local resources. The LRM knows
   which resources are on the system and what capacity they can provide.
   Resources include:
o   CPUs on end systems and routers to execute the application and
    protocol software,
o   main memory space for this software (as in all real-time systems,
    code should be pinned in main memory, as swapping it out would have
    detrimental effects on system performance),
o   buffer space to store the data, e.g., communication packets, passing
    through the nodes,
o   network adapters, and
o   transmission networks between the nodes. Networks may be as simple
    as point-to-point links or as complex as switched networks such as
    Frame Relay and ATM networks.
   During stream setup and modification, the LRM is presented by the
   setup protocol with the flow specification associated to the stream.
   For each resource it handles, the LRM is expected to perform the
   following functions:
o   Stream Admission Control: it checks whether, given the flow
    specification, there are sufficient resources left to handle the new
    data stream. If the available resources are insufficient, the new
    data stream must be rejected.
o   QoS Computation: it calculates the best possible performance the
    resource can provide for the new data stream under the current
    traffic conditions, e.g., throughput and delay values are computed.
o   Resource Reservation: it reserves the resource capacities required
    to meet the desired QoS.
   During data transfer, the LRM is responsible for:
o   QoS Enforcement: it enforces the QoS requirements by appropriate
    scheduling of resource access. For example, data packets from an
    application with a short guaranteed delay must be served prior to
    data from an application with a less strict delay bound.
   The LRM may also provide the following additional functions:
o   Data Regulation: to smooth a stream's data traffic, e.g., as with the
    leaky bucket algorithm.
o   Policing: to prevent applications exceed their negotiated QoS, e.g.,
    to send data at a higher rate than indicated in the flow
    specification.
o   Stream Preemption: to free up resources for other streams with
    higher priority or importance.
   The strategies adopted by the LRMs to handle resources are resource-
   dependent and may vary at every host/router. However, it is necessary
   that all LRMs have the same understanding of the flow specification.
   The interface between setup protocol and LRM is a local matter at
   every host and therefore it is not specified by this document. An
   example of LRM is the Heidelberg Resource Administration Technique
   (HeiRAT) [VoHN93].
   It is also assumed that the LRM provides functions to compare flow
   specifications, i.e., to decide whether a flow specification requires
   a greater, equal, or smaller amount of resource capacities to be
   reserved.
1.5  ST2 Basic Concepts
   The following sections present at an introductory level some of the
   fundamental ST2 concepts including streams, data transfer, and flow
   specification.
            Hosts Connections...                :      ...and Streams
            ====================                :      ==============
        data       Origin                       :          Origin
       packets +-----------+                    :          +----+
          +----|Application|                    :          |    |
          |    |-----------|                    :          +----+
          +--->| ST Agent  |                    :           |  |
               +-----------+                    :           |  |
                     |                          :           |  |
                     V                          :           |  |
              +-------------+                   :           |  |
              |             |                   :           |  |
+-------------|  Network A  |                   :   +-------+  +--+
|             |             |                   :   |             |
|             +-------------+                   :   |     Target 2|
|                    |     Target 2             :   |     & Router|
|     Target 1       |    and Router            :   |             |
|  +-----------+     |  +-----------+           :   V             V
|  |Application|<-+  |  |Application|<-+        : +----+        +----+
|  |-----------|  |  |  |-----------|  |        : |    |        |    |
+->| ST Agent  |--+  +->| ST Agent  |--+        : +----+        +----+
   +-----------+        +-----------+           :Target 1         |  |
                              |                 :                 |  |
                              V                 :                 |  |
                    +-------------+             :                 |  |
                    |             |             :                 |  |
      +-------------|  Network B  |             :           +-----+  |
      |             |             |             :           |        |
      |             +-------------+             :           |        |
      |    Target 3        |    Target 4        :           |        |
      |  +-----------+     |  +-----------+     :           V        V
      |  |Application|<-+  |  |Application|<-+  :         +----+ +----+
      |  |-----------|  |  |  |-----------|  |  :         |    | |    |
      +->| ST Agent  |--+  +->| ST Agent  |--+  :         +----+ +----+
         +-----------+        +-----------+     :      Target 3 Target 4
                                                :
                         Figure 3: The Stream Concept
1.5.1  Streams
   Streams form the core concepts of ST2. They are established between a
   sending origin and one or more receiving targets in the form of a
   routing tree. Streams are uni-directional from the origin to the
   targets. Nodes in the tree represent so-called ST agents, entities
   executing the ST2 protocol; links in the tree are called hops. Any
   node in the middle of the tree is called an intermediate agent, or
   router. An agent may have any combination of origin, target, or
   intermediate capabilities.
   Figure 3 illustrates a stream from an origin to four targets, where
   the ST agent on Target 2 also functions as an intermediate agent. Let
   us use this Target 2/Router node to explain some basic ST2
   terminology: the direction of the stream from this node to Target 3
   and 4 is called downstream, the direction towards the Origin node
   upstream. ST agents that are one hop away from a given node are
   called previous-hops in the upstream, and next-hops in the downstream
   direction.
   Streams are maintained using SCMP messages. Typical SCMP messages are
   CONNECT and ACCEPT to build a stream, DISCONNECT and REFUSE to close
   a stream, CHANGE to modify the quality of service associated with a
   stream, and JOIN to request to be added to a stream.
   Each ST agent maintains state information describing the streams
   flowing through it. It can actively gather and distribute such
   information. It can recognize failed neighbor ST agents through the
   use of periodic HELLO message exchanges. It can ask other ST agents
   about a particular stream via a STATUS message. These ST agents then
   send back a STATUS-RESPONSE message. NOTIFY messages can be used to
   inform other ST agents of significant events.
   ST2 offers a wealth of functionalities for stream management. Streams
   can be grouped together to minimize allocated resources or to process
   them in the same way in case of failures. During audio conferences,
   for example, only a limited set of participants may talk at once.
   Using the group mechanism, resources for only a portion of the audio
   streams of the group need to be reserved. Using the same concept, an
   entire group of related audio and video streams can be dropped if one
   of them is preempted.
1.5.2  Data Transmission
   Data transfer in ST2 is simplex in the downstream direction. Data
   transport through streams is very simple. ST2 puts only a small
   header in front of the user data. The header contains a protocol
   identification that distinguishes ST2 from IP packets, an ST2 version
   number, a priority field (specifying a relative importance of streams
   in cases of conflict), a length counter, a stream identification, and
   a checksum. These elements form a 12-byte header.
   Efficiency is also achieved by avoiding fragmentation and reassembly
   on all agents. Stream establishment yields a maximum message size for
   data packets on a stream. This maximum message size is communicated
   to the upper layers, so that they provide data packets of suitable
   size to ST2.
   Communication with multiple next-hops can be made even more efficient
   using MAC Layer multicast when it is available. If a subnet supports
   multicast, a single multicast packet is sufficient to reach all
   next-hops connected to this subnet. This leads to a significant
   reduction of the bandwidth requirements of a stream. If multicast is
   not provided, separate packets need to be sent to each next-hop.
   As ST2 relies on reservation, it does not contain error correction
   mechanisms features for data exchange such as those found in TCP. It
   is assumed that real-time data, such as digital audio and video,
   require partially correct delivery only. In many cases, retransmitted
   packets would arrive too late to meet their real-time delivery
   requirements. Also, depending on the data encoding and the particular
   application, a small number of errors in stream data are acceptable.
   In any case, reliability can be provided by layers on top of ST2 when
   needed.
1.5.3  Flow Specification
   As part of establishing a connection, SCMP handles the negotiation of
   quality-of-service parameters for a stream. In ST2 terminology, these
   parameters form a flow specification (FlowSpec) which is associated
   with the stream. Different versions of FlowSpecs exist, see
   [RFC1190], [DHHS92] and [RFC1363], and can be distinguished by a
   version number.  Typically, they contain parameters such as average
   and maximum throughput, end-to-end delay, and delay variance of a
   stream. SCMP itself only provides the mechanism for relaying the
   quality-of-service parameters.
   Three kinds of entities participate in the quality-of-service
   negotiation: application entities on the origin and target sites as
   the service users, ST agents, and local resource managers (LRM). The
   origin application supplies the initial FlowSpec requesting a
   particular service quality. Each ST agent which obtains the FlowSpec
   as part of a connection establishment message, it presents the local
   resource manager with it. ST2 does not determine how resource
   managers make reservations and how resources are scheduled according
   to these reservations; ST2, however, assumes these mechanisms as its
   basis.
   An example of the FlowSpec negotiation procedure is illustrated in
   Figure 4. Depending on the success of its local reservations, the LRM
   updates the FlowSpec fields and returns the FlowSpec to the ST agent,
   which passes it downstream as part of the connection message.
   Eventually, the FlowSpec is communicated to the application at the
   target which may base its accept/reject decision for establishing the
   connection on it and may finally also modify the FlowSpec. If a
   target accepts the connection, the (possibly modified) FlowSpec is
   propagated back to the origin which can then calculate an overall
   service quality for all targets. The application entity at the origin
   may later request a CHANGE to adjust reservations.
                 Origin                 Router               Target 1
                +------+      1a       +------+      1b      +------+
                |      |-------------->|      |------------->|      |
                +------+               +------+              +------+
                 ^  | ^                                          |
                 |  | |                    2                     |
                 |  | +------------------------------------------+
                 +  +
 +-------------+  \  \             +-------------+       +-------------+
 |Max Delay: 12|   \  \            |Max Delay: 12|       |Max Delay: 12|
 |-------------|    \  \           |-------------|       |-------------|
 |Min Delay:  2|     \  \          |Min Delay:  5|       |Min Delay:  9|
 |-------------|      \  \         |-------------|       |-------------|
 |Max Size:4096|       +  +        |Max Size:2048|       |Max Size:2048|
 +-------------+       |  |        +-------------+       +-------------+
    FlowSpec           |  | 1
                       |  +---------------+
                       |                  |
                       |                  V
                     2 |               +------+
                       +---------------|      |
                                       +------+
                                       Target 2
                                   +-------------+
                                   |Max Delay: 12|
                                   |-------------|
                                   |Min Delay:  4|
                                   |-------------|
                                   |Max Size:4096|
                                   +-------------+
        Figure 4:  Quality-of-Service Negotiation with FlowSpecs
1.6  Outline of This Document
   This document contains the specification of the ST2+ version of the
   ST2 protocol. In the rest of the document, whenever the terms "ST" or
   "ST2" are used, they refer to the ST2+ version of ST2.
   The document is organized as follows:
o   Section 2 describes the ST2 user service from an application point
    of view.
o   Section 3 illustrates the ST2 data transfer protocol, ST.
o   Section 4 through Section 8 specify the ST2 setup protocol, SCMP.
o   the ST2 flow specification is presented in Section 9.
o   the formats of protocol elements and PDUs are defined in Section 10.
2.  ST2 User Service Description
   This section describes the ST user service from the high-level point
   of view of an application. It defines the ST stream operations and
   primitive functions. It specifies which operations on streams can be
   invoked by the applications built on top of ST and when the ST
   primitive functions can be legally executed. Note that the presented
   ST primitives do not specify an API. They are used here with the only
   purpose of illustrating the service model for ST.
2.1  Stream Operations and Primitive Functions
   An ST application at the origin may create, expand, reduce, change,
   send data to, and delete a stream. When a stream is expanded, new
   targets are added to the stream; when a stream is reduced, some of
   the current targets are dropped from it. When a stream is changed,
   the associated quality of service is modified.
   An ST application at the target may join, receive data from, and
   leave a stream. This translates into the following stream operations:
o   OPEN: create new stream [origin], CLOSE: delete stream [origin],
o   ADD: expand stream, i.e., add new targets to it [origin],
o   DROP: reduce stream, i.e., drop targets from it [origin],
o   JOIN: join a stream [target], LEAVE: leave a stream [target],
o   DATA: send data through stream [origin],
o   CHG: change a stream's QoS [origin],
   Each stream operation may require the execution of several primitive
   functions to be completed. For instance, to open a new stream, a
   request is first issued by the sender and an indication is generated
   at one or more receivers; then, the receivers may each accept or
   refuse the request and the correspondent indications are generated at
   the sender. A single receiver case is shown in Figure 5 below.
                Sender             Network             Receiver
                  |                   |                   |
     OPEN.req     |                   |                   |
                  |-----------------> |                   |
                  |                   |-----------------> |
                  |                   |                   | OPEN.ind
                  |                   |                   | OPEN.accept
                  |                   |<----------------- |
                  |<----------------- |                   |
  OPEN.accept-ind |                   |                   |
                  |                   |                   |
           Figure 5: Primitives for the OPEN Stream Operation
   Table 1 defines the ST service primitive functions associated to each
   stream operation. The column labelled "O/T" indicates whether the
   primitive is executed at the origin or at the target.
           +===================================================+
           |Primitive      | Descriptive                   |O/T|
           |===================================================|
           |OPEN.req       | open a stream                 | O |
           |OPEN.ind       | connection request indication | T |
           |OPEN.accept    | accept stream                 | T |
           |OPEN.refuse    | refuse stream                 | T |
           |OPEN.accept-ind| connection accept indication  | O |
           |OPEN.refuse-ind| connection refuse indication  | O |
           |ADD.req        | add targets to stream         | O |
           |ADD.ind        | add request indication        | T |
           |ADD.accept     | accept stream                 | T |
           |ADD.refuse     | refuse stream                 | T |
           |ADD.accept-ind | add accept indication         | O |
           |ADD.refuse-ind | add refuse indication         | O |
           |JOIN.req       | join a stream                 | T |
           |JOIN.ind       | join request indication       | O |
           |JOIN.reject    | reject a join                 | O |
           |JOIN.reject-ind| join reject indication        | T |
           |DATA.req       | send data                     | O |
           |DATA.ind       | receive data indication       | T |
           |CHG.req        | change stream QoS             | O |
           |CHG.ind        | change request indication     | T |
           |CHG.accept     | accept change                 | T |
           |CHG.refuse     | refuse change                 | T |
           |CHG.accept-ind | change accept indication      | O |
           |CHG.refuse-ind | change refuse indication      | O |
           |DROP.req       | drop targets                  | O |
           |DROP.ind       | disconnect indication         | T |
           |LEAVE.req      | leave stream                  | T |
           |LEAVE.ind      | leave stream indication       | O |
           |CLOSE.req      | close stream                  | O |
           |CLOSE.ind      | close stream indication       | T |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
                              Table 1: ST Primitives
2.2  State Diagrams
   It is not sufficient to define the set of ST stream operations. It is
   also necessary to specify when the operations can be legally
   executed.  For this reason, a set of states is now introduced and the
   transitions from one state to the others are specified. States are
   defined with respect to a single stream. The previously defined
   stream operations can be legally executed only from an appropriate
   state.
   An ST agent may, with respect to an ST stream, be in one of the
   following states:
o   IDLE: the stream has not been created yet.
o   PENDING: the stream is in the process of being established.
o   ACTIVE: the stream is established and active.
o   ADDING: the stream is established. A stream expansion is underway.
o   CHGING: the stream is established. A stream change is underway.
   Previous experience with ST has lead to limits on stream operations
   that can be executed simultaneously. These restrictions are:
   1.  A single ADD or CHG operation can be processed at one time. If
       an ADD or CHG is already underway, further requests are queued
       by the ST agent and handled only after the previous operation
       has been completed. This also applies to two subsequent
       requests of the same kind, e.g., two ADD or two CHG operations.
       The second operation is not executed until the first one has
       been completed.
   2.  Deleting a stream, leaving a stream, or dropping targets from a
       stream is possible only after stream establishment has been
       completed. A stream is considered to be established when all
       the next-hops of the origin have either accepted or refused the
       stream.  Note that stream refuse is automatically forced after
       timeout if no reply comes from a next-hop.
   3.  An ST agent forwards data only along already established paths
       to the targets, see also Section 3.1. A path is considered to
       be established when the next-hop on the path has explicitly
       accepted the stream. This implies that the target and all other
       intermediate ST agents are ready to handle the incoming data
       packets. In no cases an ST agent will forward data to a
       next-hop ST agent that has not explicitly accepted the stream.
       To be sure that all targets receive the data, an application
       should send the data only after all paths have been
       established, i.e., the stream is established.
   4.  It is allowed to send data from the CHGING and ADDING states.
       While sending data from the CHGING state, the quality of
       service to the targets affected by the change should be assumed
       to be the more restrictive quality of service. When sending
       data from the ADDING state, the targets that receive the data
       include at least all the targets that were already part of the
       stream at the time the ADD operation was invoked.
   The rules introduced above require ST agents to queue incoming
   requests when the current state does not allow to process them
   immediately. In order to preserve the semantics, ST agents have to
   maintain the order of the requests, i.e., implement FIFO queuing.
   Exceptionally, the CLOSE request at the origin and the LEAVE request
   at the target may be immediately processed: in these cases, the queue
   is deleted and it is possible that requests in the queue are not
   processed.
   The following state diagrams define the ST service. Separate diagrams
   are presented for the origin and the targets.
   The symbol (a/r)* indicates that all targets in the target list have
   explicitly accepted or refused the stream, or refuse has been forced
   after timeout. If the target list is empty, i.e., it contains no
   targets, the (a/r)* condition is immediately satisfied, so the empty
   stream is created and state ESTBL is entered.
   The separate OPEN and ADD primitives at the target are for conceptual
   purposes only. The target is actually unable to distinguish between
   an OPEN and an ADD. This is reflected in Figure 7 and Table 3 through
   the notation OPEN/ADD.
                        +------------+
                        |            |<-------------------+
            +---------->|    IDLE    |-------------+      |
            |           |            |    OPEN.req |      |
            |           +------------+             |      |
 CLOSE.req  |      CLOSE.req ^   ^ CLOSE.req       V      | CLOSE.req
            |                |   |            +---------+ |
            |                |   |            | PENDING |-|-+ JOIN.reject
            |                |   -------------|         |<|-+
            |    JOIN.reject |                +---------+ |
            |    DROP.req +----------+             |      |
            |       +-----|          |             |      |
            |       |     |  ESTDL   | OPEN.(a/r)* |      |
            |       +---->|          |<------------+      |
            |             +----------+                    |
            |              |  ^  |  ^                     |
            |              |  |  |  |                     |
       +----------+ CHG.req|  |  |  | Add.(a/r)*    +----------+
       |          |<-------+  |  |  +-------------- |          |
       |  CHGING  |           |  |                  |  ADDING  |
       |          |-----------+  +----------------->|          |
       +----------+ CHG.(a/r)*         JOIN.ind     +----------+
           |   ^                         ADD.req        |   ^
           |   |                                        |   |
           +---+                                        +---+
           DROP.req                                    DROP.req
           JOIN.reject                                 JOIN.reject
                  Figure 6: ST Service at the Origin
                 +--------+
                 |        |-----------------------+
                 |  IDLE  |                       |
                 |        |<---+                  | OPEN/ADD.ind
                 +--------+    | CLOSE.ind        | JOIN.req
                     ^         | OPEN/ADD.refuse  |
                     |         | JOIN.refect-ind  |
         CLOSE.ind   |         |                  V
         DROP.ind    |         |             +---------+
         LEAVE.req   |         +-------------|         |
                     |                       | PENDING |
                 +-------+                   |         |
                 |       |                   +---------+
                 | ESTBL |    OPEN/ADD.accept     |
                 |       |<-----------------------+
                 +-------+
                     Figure 7: ST Service at the Target
2.3  State Transition Tables
   Table 2 and Table 3 define which primitives can be processed from
   which states and the possible state transitions.
+======================================================================+
|Primitive      |IDLE|    PENDING    |  ESTBL |    CHGING  |    ADDING |
|======================================================================|
|OPEN.req       | ok | -             | -      | -          | -         |
|OPEN.accept-ind| -  |if(a,r)*->ESTBL| -      | -          | -         |
|OPEN.refuse-ind| -  |if(a,r)*->ESTBL| -      | -          | -         |
|ADD.req        | -  | queued        |->ADDING| queued     | queued    |
|ADD.accept-ind | -  | -             | -      | -          |if(a,r)*   |
|               | -  | -             | -      | -          |->ESTBL    |
|ADD.refuse-ind | -  | -             | -      | -          |if(a,r)*   |
|               | -  | -             | -      | -          |->ESTBL    |
|JOIN.ind       | -  | queued        |->ADDING| queued     |queued     |
|JOIN.reject    | -  | OK            | ok     | ok         | ok        |
|DATA.req       | -  | -             | ok     | ok         | ok        |
|CHG.req        | -  | queued        |->CHGING| queued     |queued     |
|CHG.accept-ind | -  | -             | -      |if(a,r)*    | -         |
|               | -  | -             | -      |->ESTBL     | -         |
|CHG.refuse.ind | -  | -             | -      |if(a,r)*    | -         |
|               | -  | -             | -      |->ESTBL     | -         |
|DROP.req       | -  | -             | ok     | ok         | ok        |
|LEAVE.ind      | -  | OK            | ok     | ok         | ok        |
|CLOSE.req      | -  | OK            | ok     | ok         | ok        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
                Table 2: Primitives and States at the Origin
             +======================================================+
             | Primitive       |   IDLE    |  PENDING   |   ESTBL   |
             |======================================================|
             | OPEN/ADD.ind    | ->PENDING | -          | -         |
             | OPEN/ADD.accept | -         | ->ESTBL    | -         |
             | OPEN/ADD.refuse | -         | ->IDLE     | -         |
             | JOIN.req        | ->PENDING | -          | -         |
             | JOIN.reject-ind |-          | ->IDLE     | -         |
             | DATA.ind        | -         | -          | ok        |
             | CHG.ind         | -         | -          | ok        |
             | CHG.accept      | -         | -          | ok        |
             | DROP.ind        | -         | ok         | ok        |
             | LEAVE.req       | -         | ok         | ok        |
             | CLOSE.ind       | -         | ok         | ok        |
             | CHG.ind         | -         | -          | ok        |
             +------------------------------------------------------+
                Table 3: Primitives and States at the Target
3.  The ST2 Data Transfer Protocol
   This section presents the ST2 data transfer protocol, ST. First, data
   transfer is described in Section 3.1, then, the data transfer
   protocol functions are illustrated in Section 3.2.
3.1  Data Transfer with ST
   Data transmission with ST is unreliable. An application is not
   guaranteed that the data reaches its destinations and ST makes no
   attempts to recover from packet loss, e.g., due to the underlying
   network. However, if the data reaches its destination, it should do
   so according to the quality of service associated with the stream.
   Additionally, ST may deliver data corrupted in transmission. Many
   types of real-time data, such as digital audio and video, require
   partially correct delivery only. In many cases, retransmitted packets
   would arrive too late to meet their real-time delivery requirements.
   On the other hand, depending on the data encoding and the particular
   application, a small number of errors in stream data are acceptable.
   In any case, reliability can be provided by layers on top of ST2 if
   needed.
   Also, no data fragmentation is supported during the data transfer
   phase. The application is expected to segment its data PDUs according
   to the minimum MTU over all paths in the stream. The application
   receives information on the MTUs relative to the paths to the targets
   as part of the ACCEPT message, see Section 8.6. The minimum MTU over
   all paths can be calculated from the MTUs relative to the single
   paths. ST agents silently discard too long data packets, see also
   Section 5.1.1.
   An ST agent forwards the data only along already established paths to
   targets. A path is considered to be established once the next-hop ST
   agent on the path sends an ACCEPT message, see Section 2.2. This
   implies that the target and all other intermediate ST agents on the
   path to the target are ready to handle the incoming data packets. In
   no cases will an ST agent forward data to a next-hop ST agent that
   has not explicitly accepted the stream.
   To be reasonably sure that all targets receive the data with the
   desired quality of service, an application should send the data only
   after the whole stream has been established. Depending on the local
   API, an application may not be prevented from sending data before the
   completion of stream setup, but it should be aware that the data
   could be lost or not reach all intended targets. This behavior may
   actually be desirable to applications, such as those application that
   have multiple targets which can each process data as soon as it is
   available (e.g., a lecture or distributed gaming).
   It is desirable for implementations to take advantage of networks
   that support multicast. If a network does not support multicast, or
   for the case where the next-hops are on different networks, multiple
   copies of the data packet must be sent.
3.2  ST Protocol Functions
   The ST protocol provides two functions:
   o   stream identification
   o   data priority
3.2.1  Stream Identification
   ST data packets are encapsulated by an ST header containing the
   Stream IDentifier (SID). This SID is selected at the origin so that
   it is globally unique over the Internet. The SID must be known by the
   setup protocol as well. At stream establishment time, the setup
   protocol builds, at each agent traversed by the stream, an entry into
   its local database containing stream information. The SID can be used
   as a reference into this database, to obtain quickly the necessary
   replication and forwarding information.
   Stream IDentifiers are intended to be used to make the packet
   forwarding task most efficient. The time-critical operation is an
   intermediate ST agent receiving a packet from the previous-hop ST
   agent and forwarding it to the next-hop ST agents.
   The format of data PDUs including the SID is defined in Section 10.1.
   Stream IDentifier generation is discussed in Section 8.1.
3.2.2  Packet Discarding based on Data Priority
   ST provides a well defined quality of service to its applications.
   However, there may be cases where the network is temporarily
   congested and the ST agents have to discard certain packets to
   minimize the overall impact to other streams. The ST protocol
   provides a mechanism to discard data packets based on the Priority
   field in the data PDU, see Section 10.1. The application assigns each
   data packet with a discard-priority level, carried into the Priority
   field. ST agents will attempt to discard lower priority packets first
   during periods of network congestion. Applications may choose to send
   data at multiple priority levels so that less important data may be
   discarded first.
4.  SCMP Functional Description
   ST agents create and manage streams using the ST Control Message
   Protocol (SCMP). Conceptually, SCMP resides immediately above ST (as
   does ICMP above IP). SCMP follows a request-response model. SCMP
   messages are made reliable through the use of retransmission after
   timeout.
   This section contains a functional description of stream management
   with SCMP. To help clarify the SCMP exchanges used to setup and
   maintain ST streams, we include an example of a simple network
   topology, represented in Figure 8. Using the SCMP messages described
   in this section it will be possible for an ST application to:
   o   Create a stream from A to the peers at B, C and D,
   o   Add a peer at E,
   o   Drop peers B and C, and
   o   Let F join the stream
   o   Delete the stream.
                                               +---------+    +---+
                                               |         |----| B |
               +---------+      +----------+   |         |    +---+
               |         |------| Router 1 |---| Subnet2 |
               |         |      +----------+   |         |
               |         |                     |         |
               |         |                     +---------+
               |         |                         |
               | Subnet1 |                         |
               |         |                     +----------+
               |         |                     | Router 3 |
       +---+   |         |                     +----------+
       | A |---|         |    +----------+           |
       +---+   |         |----| Router 2 |           |
               |         |    +----------+           |
               +---------+         |                 |
                                   |                 |
                                   |          +----------+    +---+
                                   +----------|          |----| C |
                                              |          |    +---+
                         +---------+          |  Subnet3 |
                 +---+   |         |   +---+  |          |    +---+
                 | F |---| Subnet4 |---| E |--|          |----| D |
                 +---+   |         |   +---+  +----------+    +---+
                         +---------+
                Figure 8:  Sample Topology for an ST Stream
   We first describe the possible types of stream in Section 4.1;
   Section 4.2 introduces SCMP control message types; SCMP reliability
   is discussed in Section 4.3; stream options are covered in Section
   4.4; stream setup is presented in Section 4.5; Section 4.6
   illustrates stream modification including stream expansion,
   reduction, changes of the quality of service associated to a stream.
   Finally, stream deletion is handled in Section 4.7.
4.1  Types of Streams
   SCMP allows for the setup and management of different types of
   streams. Streams differ in the way they are built and the information
   maintained on connected targets.
4.1.1  Stream Building
   Streams may be built in a sender-oriented fashion, receiver-oriented
   fashion, or with a mixed approach:
o   in the sender-oriented fashion, the application at the origin
    provides the ST agent with the list of receivers for the stream. New
    targets, if any, are also added from the origin.
o   in the receiver-oriented approach, the application at the origin
    creates an empty stream that contains no targets. Each target then
    joins the stream autonomously.
o   in the mixed approach, the application at the origin creates a
    stream that contains some targets and other targets join the stream
    autonomously.
   ST2 provides stream options to support sender-oriented and mixed
   approach steams. Receiver-oriented streams can be emulated through
   the use of mixed streams. The fashion by which targets may be added
   to a particular stream is controlled via join authorization levels.
   Join authorization levels are described in Section 4.4.2.
4.1.2  Knowledge of Receivers
   When streams are built in the sender-oriented fashion, all ST agents
   will have full information on all targets down stream of a particular
   agent. In this case, target information is relayed down stream from
   agent-to-agent during stream set-up.
   When targets add themselves to mixed approach streams, upstream ST
   agents may or may not be informed. Propagation of information on
   targets that "join" a stream is also controlled via join
   authorization levels. As previously mentioned, join authorization
   levels are described in Section 4.4.2.
   This leads to two types of streams:
o   full target information is propagated in a full-state stream. For
    such streams, all agents are aware of all downstream targets
    connected to the stream. This results in target information being
    maintained at the origin and at intermediate agents. Operations on
    single targets are always possible, i.e., change a certain target,
    or, drop that target from the stream. It is also always possible for
    any ST agent to attempt recovery of all downstream targets.
o   in light-weight streams, it is possible that the origin and other
    upstream agents have no knowledge about some targets. This results
    in less maintained state and easier stream management, but it limits
    operations on specific targets. Special actions may be required to
    support change and drop operations on unknown targets, see Section
    5.7. Also, stream recovery may not be possible. Of course, generic
    functions such as deleting the whole stream, are still possible. It
    is expected that applications that will have a large number of
    targets will use light-weight streams in order to limit state in
    agents and the number of targets per control message.
   Full-state streams serve well applications as video conferencing or
   distributed gaming, where it is important to have knowledge on the
   connected receivers, e.g., to limit who participates. Light-weight
   streams may be exploited by applications such as remote lecturing or
   playback applications of radio and TV broadcast where the receivers
   do not need to be known by the sender. Section 4.4.2 defines join
   authorization levels, which support two types of full-state streams
   and one type of light-weight stream.
4.2  Control PDUs
   SCMP defines the following PDUs (the main purpose of each PDU is also
   indicated):
1.      ACCEPT          to accept a new stream
2.      ACK             to acknowledge an incoming message
3.      CHANGE          to change the quality of service associated with
                                a stream
4.      CONNECT         to establish a new stream or add new targets to
                                an existing stream
5.      DISCONNECT      to remove some or all of the stream's targets
6.      ERROR           to indicate an error contained in an incoming
                                message
7.      HELLO           to detect failures of neighbor ST agents
8.      JOIN            to request stream joining from a target
9.      JOIN-REJECT     to reject a stream joining request from a target
10.     NOTIFY          to inform an ST agent of a significant event
11.     REFUSE          to refuse the establishment of a new stream
12.     STATUS          to query an ST agent on a specific stream
13.     STATUS-RESPONSE to reply queries on a specific stream
   SCMP follows a request-response model with all requests expecting
   responses. Retransmission after timeout is used to allow for lost or
   ignored messages. Control messages do not extend across packet
   boundaries; if a control message is too large for the MTU of a hop,
   its information is partitioned and a control message per partition is
   sent, as described in Section 5.1.2.
   CONNECT and CHANGE request messages are answered with ACCEPT messages
   which indicate success, and with REFUSE messages which indicate
   failure. JOIN messages are answered with either a CONNECT message
   indicating success, or with a JOIN-REJECT message indicating failure.
   Targets may be removed from a stream by either the origin or the
   target via the DISCONNECT and REFUSE messages.
   The ACCEPT, CHANGE, CONNECT, DISCONNECT, JOIN, JOIN-REJECT, NOTIFY
   and REFUSE messages must always be explicitly acknowledged:
o   with an ACK message, if the message was received correctly and it
    was possible to parse and correctly extract and interpret its
    header, fields and parameters,
o   with an ERROR message, if a syntax error was detected in the header,
    fields, or parameters included in the message. The errored PDU may
    be optionally returned as part of the ERROR message. An ERROR
    message indicates a syntax error only. If any other errors are
    detected, it is necessary to first acknowledge with ACK and then
    take appropriate actions. For instance, suppose a CHANGE message
    contains an unknown SID: first, an ACK message has to be sent, then
    a REFUSE message with ReasonCode (SIDUnknown) follows.
   If no ACK or ERROR message are received before the correspondent
   timer expires, a timeout failure occurs. The way an ST agent should
   handle timeout failures is described in Section 5.2.
   ACK, ERROR, and STATUS-RESPONSE messages are never acknowledged.
   HELLO messages are a special case. If they contain a syntax error, an
   ERROR message should be generated in response. Otherwise, no
   acknowledgment or response should be generated. Use of HELLO messages
   is discussed in Section 6.1.2.
   STATUS messages containing a syntax error should be answered with an
   ERROR message. Otherwise, a STATUS-RESPONSE message should be sent
   back in response. Use of STATUS and STATUS-RESPONSE are discussed in
   Section 8.4.
4.3  SCMP Reliability
   SCMP is made reliable through the use of retransmission when a
   response is not received in a timely manner. The ACCEPT, CHANGE,
   CONNECT, DISCONNECT, JOIN, JOIN-REJECT, NOTIFY, and REFUSE messages
   all must be answered with an ACK message, see Section 4.2. In
   general, when sending a SCMP message which requires an ACK response,
   the sending ST agent needs to set the Toxxxx timer (where xxxx is the
   SCMP message type, e.g., ToConnect). If it does not receive an ACK
   before the Toxxxx timer expires, the ST agent should retransmit the
   SCMP message. If no ACK has been received within Nxxxx
   retransmissions, then a SCMP timeout condition occurs and the ST
   agent enters its SCMP timeout recovery state. The actions performed
   by the ST agent as the result of the SCMP timeout condition differ
   for different SCMP messages and are described in Section 5.2.
   For some SCMP messages (CONNECT, CHANGE, JOIN, and STATUS) the
   sending ST agent also expects a response back (ACCEPT/REFUSE,
   CONNECT/JOIN- REJECT) after ACK has been received. For these cases,
   the ST agent needs to set the ToxxxxResp timer after it receives the
   ACK. (As before, xxxx is the initiating SCMP message type, e.g.,
   ToConnectResp).  If it does not receive the appropriate response back
   when ToxxxxResp expires, the ST agent updates its state and performs
   appropriate recovery action as described in Section 5.2. Suggested
   constants are given in Section 10.5.4.
   The timeout and retransmission algorithm is implementation dependent
   and it is outside the scope of this document. Most existing
   algorithms are based on an estimation of the Round Trip Time (RTT)
   between two agents. Therefore, SCMP contains a mechanism, see Section
   8.5, to estimate this RTT. Note that the timeout related variable
   names described above are for reference purposes only, implementors
   may choose to combine certain variables.
4.4  Stream Options
   An application may select among some stream options. The desired
   options are indicated to the ST agent at the origin when a new stream
   is created. Options apply to single streams and are valid during the
   whole stream's lifetime. The options chosen by the application at the
   origin are included into the initial CONNECT message, see Section
   4.5.3. When a CONNECT message reaches a target, the application at
   the target is notified of the stream options that have been selected,
   see Section 4.5.5.
4.4.1  No Recovery
   When a stream failure is detected, an ST agent would normally attempt
   stream recovery, as described in Section 6.2. The NoRecovery option
   is used to indicate that ST agents should not attempt recovery for
   the stream. The protocol behavior in the case that the NoRecovery
   option has been selected is illustrated in Section 6.2. The
   NoRecovery option is specified by setting the S-bit in the CONNECT
   message, see Section 10.4.4. The S-bit can be set only by the origin
   and it is never modified by intermediate and target ST agents.
4.4.2  Join Authorization Level
   When a new stream is created, it is necessary to define the join
   authorization level associated with the stream. This level determines
   the protocol behavior in case of stream joining, see Section 4.1 and
   Section 4.6.3. The join authorization level for a stream is defined
   by the J-bit and N-bit in the CONNECT message header, see Section
   10.4.4.  One of the following authorization levels has to be
   selected:
   o   Level 0 - Refuse Join (JN = 00): No targets are allowed to join this
       stream.
   o   Level 1 - OK, Notify Origin (JN = 01): Targets are allowed to join
       the stream. The origin is notified that the target has joined.
   o   Level 2 - OK (JN = 10): Targets are allowed to join the stream. No
       notification is sent to the stream origin.
   Some applications may choose to maintain tight control on their
   streams and will not permit any connections without the origin's
   permission. For such streams, target applications may request to be
   added by sending an out-of-band, i.e., via regular IP, request to the
   origin. The origin, if it so chooses, can then add the target
   following the process described in Section 4.6.1.
   The selected authorization level impacts stream handling and the
   state that is maintained for the stream, as described in Section 4.1.
4.4.3  Record Route
   The RecordRoute option can be used to request the route between the
   origin and a target be recorded and delivered to the application.
   This option may be used while connecting, accepting, changing, or
   refusing a stream. The results of a RecordRoute option requested by
   the origin, i.e., as part of the CONNECT or CHANGE messages, are
   delivered to the target. The results of a RecordRoute option
   requested by the target, i.e., as part of the ACCEPT or REFUSE
   messages, are delivered to the origin.
   The RecordRoute option is specified by adding the RecordRoute
   parameter to the mentioned SCMP messages. The format of the
   RecordRoute parameter is shown in Section 10.3.5. When adding this
   parameter, the ST agent at the origin must determine the number of
   entries that may be recorded as explained in Section 10.3.5.
4.4.4  User Data
   The UserData option can be used by applications to transport
   application specific data along with some SCMP control messages. This
   option can be included with ACCEPT, CHANGE, CONNECT, DISCONNECT, and
   REFUSE messages. The format of the UserData parameter is shown in
   Section 10.3.7. This option may be included by the origin, or the
   target, by adding the UserData parameter to the mentioned SCMP
   messages. This option may only be included once per SCMP message.
4.5  Stream Setup
   This section presents a description of stream setup. For simplicity,
   we assume that everything succeeds, e.g., any required resources are
   available, messages are properly delivered, and the routing is
   correct. Possible failures in the setup phase are handled in Section
   5.2.
4.5.1  Information from the Application
   Before stream setup can be started, the application has to collect
   the necessary information to determine the characteristics for the
   connection. This includes identifying the participants and selecting
   the QoS parameters of the data flow. Information passed to the ST
   agent by the application includes:
o   the list of the stream's targets (Section 10.3.6). The list may be
    empty (Section 4.5.3.1),
o   the flow specification containing the desired quality of service for
    the stream (Section 9),
o   information on the groups in which the stream is a member, if any
    (Section 7),
o   information on the options selected for the stream (Section 4.4).
4.5.2  Initial Setup at the Origin
   The ST agent at the origin then performs the following operations:
o   allocates a stream ID (SID) for the stream (Section 8.1),
o   invokes the routing function to determine the set of next-hops for
    the stream (Section 4.5.2.1),
o   invokes the Local Resource Manager (LRM) to reserve resources
    (Section 4.5.2.2),
o   creates local database entries to store information on the new
    stream,
o   propagates the stream creation request to the next-hops determined
    by the routing function (Section 4.5.3).
4.5.2.1  Invoking the Routing Function
   An ST agent that is setting up a stream invokes the routing function
   to find the next-hop to reach each of the targets specified by the
   target list provided by the application. This is similar to the
   routing decision in IP. However, in this case the route is to a
   multitude of targets with QoS requirements rather than to a single
   destination.
   The result of the routing function is a set of next-hop ST agents.
   The set of next-hops selected by the routing function is not
   necessarily the same as the set of next-hops that IP would select
   given a number of independent IP datagrams to the same destinations.
   The routing algorithm may attempt to optimize parameters other than
   the number of hops that the packets will take, such as delay, local
   network bandwidth consumption, or total internet bandwidth
   consumption.  Alternatively, the routing algorithm may use a simple
   route lookup for each target.
   Once a next-hop is selected by the routing function, it persists for
   the whole stream lifetime, unless a network failure occurs.
4.5.2.2  Reserving Resources
   The ST agent invokes the Local Resource Manager (LRM) to perform the
   appropriate reservations. The ST agent presents the LRM with
   information including:
o   the flow specification with the desired quality of service for the
    stream (Section 9),
o   the version number associated with the flow specification
    (Section 9).
o   information on the groups the stream is member in, if any
    (Section 7),
   The flow specification contains information needed by the LRM to
   allocate resources. The LRM updates the flow specification contents
   information before returning it to the ST agent. Section 9.2.3
   defines the fields of the flow specification to be updated by the
   LRM.
   The membership of a stream in a group may affect the amount of
   resources that have to be allocated by the LRM, see Section 7.
4.5.3  Sending CONNECT Messages
   The ST agent sends a CONNECT message to each of the next-hop ST
   agents identified by the routing function. Each CONNECT message
   contains the SID, the selected stream options, the FlowSpec, and a
   TargetList. The format of the CONNECT message is defined by Section
   10.4.4. In general, the FlowSpec and TargetList depend on both the
   next-hop and the intervening network. Each TargetList is a subset of
   the original TargetList, identifying the targets that are to be
   reached through the next-hop to which the CONNECT message is being
   sent.
   The TargetList may be empty, see Section 4.5.3.1; if the TargetList
   causes a too long CONNECT message to be generated, the CONNECT
   message is partitioned as explained in Section 5.1.2. If multiple
   next-hops are to be reached through a network that supports network
   level multicast, a different CONNECT message must nevertheless be
   sent to each next-hop since each will have a different TargetList.
4.5.3.1  Empty Target List
   An application at the origin may request the local ST agent to create
   an empty stream. It does so by passing an empty TargetList to the
   local ST agent during the initial stream setup. When the local ST
   agent receives a request to create an empty stream, it allocates the
   stream ID (SID), updates its local database entries to store
   information on the new stream and notifies the application that
   stream setup is complete. The local ST agent does not generate any
   CONNECT message for streams with an empty TargetList. Targets may be
   later added by the origin, see Section 4.6.1, or they may
   autonomously join the stream, see Section 4.6.3.
4.5.4  CONNECT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent
   An ST agent receiving a CONNECT message, assuming no errors, responds
   to the previous-hop with an ACK. The ACK message must identify the
   CONNECT message to which it corresponds by including the reference
   number indicated by the Reference field of the CONNECT message. The
   intermediate ST agent calls the routing function, invokes the LRM to
   reserve resources, and then propagates the CONNECT messages to its
   next-hops, as described in the previous sections.
4.5.5  CONNECT Processing at the Targets
   An ST agent that is the target of a CONNECT message, assuming no
   errors, responds to the previous-hop with an ACK. The ST agent
   invokes the LRM to reserve local resources and then queries the
   specified application process whether or not it is willing to accept
   the connection.
   The application is presented with parameters from the CONNECT message
   including the SID, the selected stream options, Origin, FlowSpec,
   TargetList, and Group, if any, to be used as a basis for its
   decision.  The application is identified by a combination of the
   NextPcol field, from the Origin parameter, and the service access
   point, or SAP, field included in the correspondent (usually single
   remaining) Target of the TargetList. The contents of the SAP field
   may specify the port or other local identifier for use by the
   protocol layer above the host ST layer. Subsequently received data
   packets will carry the SID, that can be mapped into this information
   and be used for their delivery.
   Finally, based on the application's decision, the ST agent sends to
   the previous-hop from which the CONNECT message was received either
   an ACCEPT or REFUSE message. Since the ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message has
   to be acknowledged by the previous-hop, it is assigned a new
   Reference number that will be returned in the ACK. The CONNECT
   message to which ACCEPT (or REFUSE) is a reply is identified by
   placing the CONNECT's Reference number in the LnkReference field of
   ACCEPT (or REFUSE). The ACCEPT message contains the FlowSpec as
   accepted by the application at the target.
4.5.6  ACCEPT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent
   When an intermediate ST agent receives an ACCEPT, it first verifies
   that the message is a response to an earlier CONNECT. If not, it
   responds to the next-hop ST agent with an ERROR message, with
   ReasonCode (LnkRefUnknown). Otherwise, it responds to the next-hop ST
   agent with an ACK, and propagates the individual ACCEPT message to
   the previous-hop along the same path traced by the CONNECT but in the
   reverse direction toward the origin.
   The FlowSpec is included in the ACCEPT message so that the origin and
   intermediate ST agents can gain access to the information that was
   accumulated as the CONNECT traversed the internet. Note that the
   resources, as specified in the FlowSpec in the ACCEPT message, may
   differ from the resources that were reserved when the CONNECT was
   originally processed. Therefore, the ST agent presents the LRM with
   the FlowSpec included in the ACCEPT message. It is expected that each
   LRM adjusts local reservations releasing any excess resources. The
   LRM may choose not to adjust local reservations when that adjustment
   may result in the loss of needed resources. It may also choose to
   wait to adjust allocated resources until all targets in transition
   have been accepted or refused.
   In the case where the intermediate ST agent is acting as the origin
   with respect to this target, see Section 4.6.3.1, the ACCEPT message
   is not propagated upstream.
4.5.7  ACCEPT Processing by the Origin
   The origin will eventually receive an ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message from
   each of the targets. As each ACCEPT is received, the application is
   notified of the target and the resources that were successfully
   allocated along the path to it, as specified in the FlowSpec
   contained in the ACCEPT message. The application may then use the
   information to either adopt or terminate the portion of the stream to
   each target.
   When an ACCEPT is received by the origin, the path to the target is
   considered to be established and the ST agent is allowed to forward
   the data along this path as explained in Section 2 and in Section
   3.1.
4.5.8  REFUSE Processing by the Intermediate ST agent
   If an application at a target does not wish to participate in the
   stream, it sends a REFUSE message back to the origin with ReasonCode
   (ApplDisconnect). An intermediate ST agent that receives a REFUSE
   message with ReasonCode (ApplDisconnect) acknowledges it by sending
   an ACK to the next-hop, invokes the LRM to adjusts reservations as
   appropriate, deletes the target entry from the internal database, and
   propagates the REFUSE message back to the previous-hop ST agent.
   In the case where the intermediate ST agent is acting as the origin
   with respect to this target, see Section 4.6.3.1, the REFUSE message
   is only propagated upstream when there are no more downstream agents
   participating in the stream. In this case, the agent indicates that
   the agent is to be removed from the stream propagating the REFUSE
   message with the G-bit set (1).
4.5.9  REFUSE Processing by the Origin
   When the REFUSE message reaches the origin, the ST agent at the
   origin sends an ACK and notifies the application that the target is
   no longer part of the stream and also if the stream has no remaining
   targets. If there are no remaining targets, the application may wish
   to terminate the stream, or keep the stream active to allow addition
   of targets or stream joining as described in Section 4.6.3.
4.5.10  Other Functions during Stream Setup
   Some other functions have to be accomplished by an ST agent as
   CONNECT messages travel downstream and ACCEPT (or REFUSE) messages
   travel upstream during the stream setup phase. They were not
   mentioned in the previous sections to keep the discussion as simple
   as possible. These functions include:
   o   computing the smallest Maximum Transmission Unit size over the path
       to the targets, as part of the MTU discovery mechanism presented in
       Section 8.6. This is done by updating the MaxMsgSize field of the
       CONNECT message, see Section 10.4.4. This value is carried back to
       origin in the MaxMsgSize field of the ACCEPT message, see Section
       10.4.1.
   o   counting the number of IP clouds to be traversed to reach the
       targets, if any. IP clouds are traversed when the IP encapsulation
       mechanism is used. This mechanism described in Section 8.7.
       Encapsulating agents update the IPHops field of the CONNECT message,
       see Section 10.4.4. The resulting value is carried back to origin in
       the IPHops field of the ACCEPT message, see Section 10.4.1.
   o   updating the RecoveryTimeout value for the stream based on what can
       the agent can support. This is part of the stream recovery
       mechanism, in Section 6.2. This is done by updating the
       RecoveryTimeout field of the CONNECT message, see Section 10.4.4.
       This value is carried back to origin in the RecoveryTimeout field of
       the ACCEPT message, see Section 10.4.1.
4.6  Modifying an Existing Stream
   Some applications may wish to modify a stream after it has been
   created. Possible changes include expanding a stream, reducing it,
   and changing its FlowSpec. The origin may add or remove targets as
   described in Section 4.6.1 and Section 4.6.2. Targets may request to
   join the stream as described in Section 4.6.3 or, they may decide to
   leave a stream as described in Section 4.6.4. Section 4.6.5 explains
   how to change a stream's FlowSpec.
   As defined by Section 2, an ST agent can handle only one stream
   modification at a time. If a stream modification operation is already
   underway, further requests are queued and handled when the previous
   operation has been completed. This also applies to two subsequent
   requests of the same kind, e.g., two subsequent changes to the
   FlowSpec.
4.6.1  The Origin Adding New Targets
   It is possible for an application at the origin to add new targets to
   an existing stream any time after the stream has been established.
   Before new targets are added, the application has to collect the
   necessary information on the new targets. Such information is passed
   to the ST agent at the origin.
   The ST agent at the origin issues a CONNECT message that contains the
   SID, the FlowSpec, and the TargetList specifying the new targets.
   This is similar to sending a CONNECT message during stream
   establishment, with the following exceptions: the origin checks that
   a) the SID is valid, b) the targets are not already members of the
   stream, c) that the LRM evaluates the FlowSpec of the new target to
   be the same as the FlowSpec of the existing stream, i.e., it requires
   an equal or smaller amount of resources to be allocated. If the
   FlowSpec of the new target does not match the FlowSpec of the
   existing stream, an error is generated with ReasonCode
   (FlowSpecMismatch). Functions to compare flow specifications are
   provided by the LRM, see Section 1.4.5.
   An intermediate ST agent that is already a participant in the stream
   looks at the SID and StreamCreationTime, and verifies that the stream
   is the same. It then checks if the intersection of the TargetList and
   the targets of the established stream is empty. If this is not the
   case, it responds with a REFUSE message with ReasonCode
   (TargetExists) that contains a TargetList of those targets that were
   duplicates. To indicate that the stream exists, and includes the
   listed targets, the ST agent sets to one (1) the E-bit of the REFUSE
   message, see Section 10.4.11.  The agent then proceeds processing
   each new target in the TargetList.
   For each new target in the TargetList, processing is much the same as
   for the original CONNECT. The CONNECT is acknowledged, propagated,
   and network resources are reserved. Intermediate or target ST agents
   that are not already participants in the stream behave as in the case
   of stream setup (see Section 4.5.4 and Section 4.5.5).
4.6.2  The Origin Removing a Target
   It is possible for an application at the origin to remove existing
   targets of a stream any time after the targets have accepted the
   stream. The application at the origin specifies the set of targets
   that are to be removed and informs the local ST agent. Based on this
   information, the ST agent sends DISCONNECT messages with the
   ReasonCode (ApplDisconnect) to the next-hops relative to the targets.
   An ST agent that receives a DISCONNECT message must acknowledge it by
   sending an ACK to the previous-hop. The ST agent updates its state
   and notifies the LRM of the target deletion so that the LRM can
   modify reservations as appropriate. When the DISCONNECT message
   reaches the target, the ST agent also notifies the application that
   the target is no longer part of the stream. When there are no
   remaining targets that can be reached through a particular next-hop,
   the ST agent informs the LRM and it deletes the next-hop from its
   next-hops set.
   SCMP also provides a flooding mechanism to delete targets that joined
   the stream without notifying the origin. The special case of target
   deletion via flooding is described in Section 5.7.
4.6.3  A Target Joining a Stream
   An application may request to join an existing stream. It has to
   collect information on the stream including the stream ID (SID) and
   the IP address of the stream's origin. This can be done out-of-band,
   e.g., via regular IP. The information is then passed to the local ST
   agent. The ST agent generates a JOIN message containing the
   application's request to join the stream and sends it toward the
   stream origin.
   An ST agent receiving a JOIN message, assuming no errors, responds
   with an ACK. The ACK message must identify the JOIN message to which
   it corresponds by including the Reference number indicated by the
   Reference field of the JOIN message. If the ST agent is not traversed
   by the stream that has to be joined, it propagates the JOIN message
   toward the stream's origin. Once a JOIN message has been
   acknowledged, ST agents do not retain any state information related
   to the JOIN message.
   Eventually, an ST agent traversed by the stream or the stream's
   origin itself is reached. This agent must respond to a received JOIN
   first with an ACK to the ST agent from which the message was
   received, then, it issues either a CONNECT or a JOIN-REJECT message
   and sends it toward the target. The response to the join request is
   based on the join authorization level associated with the stream, see
   Section 4.4.2:
o   If the stream has authorization level #0 (refuse join):
    The ST agent sends a JOIN-REJECT message toward the target with
    ReasonCode (JoinAuthFailure).
o   If the stream has authorization level #1 (ok, notify origin):
    The ST agent sends a CONNECT message toward the target with a
    TargetList including the target that requested to join the stream.
    This eventually results in adding the target to the stream. When
    the ST agent receives the ACCEPT message indicating that the new
    target has been added, it does not propagate the ACCEPT message
    backwards (Section 4.5.6). Instead, it issues a NOTIFY message
    with ReasonCode (TargetJoined) so that upstream agents, including
    the origin, may add the new target to maintained state
    information. The NOTIFY message includes all target specific
    information.
o   If the stream has authorization level #2 (ok):
    The ST agent sends a CONNECT message toward the target with a
    TargetList including the target that requested to join the stream.
    This eventually results in adding the target to the stream. When
    the ST agent receives the ACCEPT message indicating that the new
    target has been added, it does not propagate the ACCEPT message
    backwards (Section 4.5.6), nor does it notify the origin. A NOTIFY
    message is generated with ReasonCode (TargetJoined) if the target
    specific information needs to be propagated back to the origin. An
    example of such information is change in MTU, see Section 8.6.
4.6.3.1  Intermediate Agent (Router) as Origin
   When a stream has join authorization level #2, see Section 4.4.2, it
   is possible that the stream origin is unaware of some targets
   participating in the stream. In this case, the ST intermediate agent
   that first sent a CONNECT message to this target has to act as the
   stream origin for the given target. This includes:
o   if the whole stream is deleted, the intermediate agent must
    disconnect the target.
o   if the stream FlowSpec is changed, the intermediate agent must
    change the FlowSpec for the target as appropriate.
o   proper handling of ACCEPT and REFUSE messages, without propagation
    to upstream ST agents.
o   generation of NOTIFY messages when needed. (As described above.)
   The intermediate agent behaves normally for all other targets added
   to the stream as a consequence of a CONNECT message issued by the
   origin.
4.6.4  A Target Deleting Itself
   The application at the target may inform the local ST agent that it
   wants to be removed from the stream. The ST agent then forms a REFUSE
   message with the target itself as the only entry in the TargetList
   and with ReasonCode (ApplDisconnect). The REFUSE message is sent back
   to the origin via the previous-hop. If a stream has multiple targets
   and one target leaves the stream using this REFUSE mechanism, the
   stream to the other targets is not affected; the stream continues to
   exist.
   An ST agent that receives a REFUSE message acknowledges it by sending
   an ACK to the next-hop. The target is deleted and the LRM is notified
   so that it adjusts reservations as appropriate. The REFUSE message is
   also propagated back to the previous-hop ST agent except in the case
   where the agent is acting as the origin. In this case a NOTIFY may be
   propagated instead, see Section 4.6.3.
   When the REFUSE reaches the origin, the origin sends an ACK and
   notifies the application that the target is no longer part of the
   stream.
4.6.5  Changing a Stream's FlowSpec
   The application at the origin may wish to change the FlowSpec of an
   established stream. Changing the FlowSpec is a critical operation and
   it may even lead in some cases to the deletion of the affected
   targets. Possible problems with FlowSpec changes are discussed in
   Section 5.6.
   To change the stream's FlowSpec, the application informs the ST agent
   at the origin of the new FlowSpec and of the list of targets relative
   to the change. The ST agent at the origin then issues one CHANGE
   message per next-hop including the new FlowSpec and sends it to the
   relevant next-hop ST agents. If the G-bit field of the CHANGE message
   is set (1), the change affects all targets in the stream.
   The CHANGE message contains a bit called I-bit, see Section 10.4.3.
   By default, the I-bit is set to zero (0) to indicate that the LRM is
   expected to try and perform the requested FlowSpec change without
   risking to tear down the stream. Applications that desire a higher
   probability of success and are willing to take the risk of breaking
   the stream can indicate this by setting the I-bit to one (1).
   Applications that require the requested modification in order to
   continue operating are expected to set this bit.
   An intermediate ST agent that receives a CHANGE message first sends
   an ACK to the previous-hop and then provides the FlowSpec to the LRM.
   If the LRM can perform the change, the ST agent propagates the CHANGE
   messages along the established paths.
   If the whole process succeeds, the CHANGE messages will eventually
   reach the targets. Targets respond with an ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message
   that is propagated back to the origin. In processing the ACCEPT
   message on the way back to the origin, excess resources may be
   released by the LRM as described in Section 4.5.6. The REFUSE message
   must have the ReasonCode (ApplRefused).
   SCMP also provides a flooding mechanism to change targets that joined
   the stream without notifying the origin. The special case of target
   change via flooding is described in Section 5.7.
4.7  Stream Tear Down
   A stream is usually terminated by the origin when it has no further
   data to send. A stream is also torn down if the application should
   terminate abnormally or if certain network failures are encountered.
   Processing in this case is identical to the previous descriptions
   except that the ReasonCode (ApplAbort, NetworkFailure, etc.) is
   different.
   When all targets have left a stream, the origin notifies the
   application of that fact, and the application is then responsible for
   terminating the stream. Note, however, that the application may
   decide to add targets to the stream instead of terminating it, or may
   just leave the stream open with no targets in order to permit stream
   joins.
5.  Exceptional Cases
   The previous descriptions covered the simple cases where everything
   worked. We now discuss what happens when things do not succeed.
   Included are situations where messages exceed a network MTU, are
   lost, the requested resources are not available, the routing fails or
   is inconsistent.
5.1  Long ST Messages
   It is possible that an ST agent, or an application, will need to send
   a message that exceeds a network's Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).
   This case must be handled but not via generic fragmentation, since
   ST2 does not support generic fragmentation of either data or control
   messages.
5.1.1  Handling of Long Data Packets
   ST agents discard data packets that exceed the MTU of the next-hop
   network. No error message is generated. Applications should avoid
   sending data packets larger than the minimum MTU supported by a given
   stream. The application, both at the origin and targets, can learn
   the stream minimum MTU through the MTU discovery mechanism described
   in Section 8.6.
5.1.2  Handling of Long Control Packets
   Each ST agent knows the MTU of the networks to which it is connected,
   and those MTUs restrict the size of the SCMP message it can send. An
   SCMP message size can exceed the MTU of a given network for a number
   of reasons:
o   the TargetList parameter (Section 10.3.6) may be too long;
o   the RecordRoute parameter (Section 10.3.5) may be too long.
o   the UserData parameter (Section 10.3.7) may be too long;
o   the PDUInError field of the ERROR message (Section 10.4.6) may be
    too long;
   An ST agent receiving or generating a too long SCMP message should:
o   break the message into multiple messages, each carrying part of the
    TargetList. Any RecordRoute and UserData parameters are replicated
    in each message for delivery to all targets. Applications that
    support a large number of targets may avoid using long TargetList
    parameters, and are expected to do so, by exploiting the stream
    joining functions, see Section 4.6.3. One exception to this rule
    exists. In the case of a long TargetList parameter to be included in
    a STATUS-RESPONSE message, the TargetList parameter is just
    truncated to the point where the list can fit in a single message,
    see Section 8.4.
o   for down stream agents: if the TargetList parameter contains a
    single Target element and the message size is still too long, the ST
    agent should issue a REFUSE message with ReasonCode
    (RecordRouteSize) if the size of the RecordRoute parameter causes
    the SCMP message size to exceed the network MTU, or with ReasonCode
    (UserDataSize) if the size of the UserData parameter causes the SCMP
    message size to exceed the network MTU. If both RecordRoute and
    UserData parameters are present the ReasonCode (UserDataSize) should
    be sent. For messages generated at the target: the target ST agent
    must check for SCMP messages that may exceed the MTU on the complete
    target-to-origin path, and inform the application that a too long
    SCMP messages has been generated. The format for the error reporting
    is a local implementation issue. The error codes are the same as
    previously stated.
   ST agents generating too long ERROR messages, simply truncate the
   PDUInError field to the point where the message is smaller than the
   network MTU.
5.2  Timeout Failures
   As described in Section 4.3, SCMP message delivery is made reliable
   through the use of acknowledgments, timeouts, and retransmission. The
   ACCEPT, CHANGE, CONNECT, DISCONNECT, JOIN, JOIN-REJECT, NOTIFY, and
   REFUSE messages must always be acknowledged, see Section 4.2. In
   addition, for some SCMP messages (CHANGE, CONNECT, JOIN) the sending
   ST agent also expects a response back (ACCEPT/REFUSE, CONNECT/JOIN-
   REJECT) after an ACK has been received. Also, the STATUS message must
   be answered with a STATUS-RESPONSE message.
   The following sections describe the handling of each of the possible
   failure cases due to timeout situations while waiting for an
   acknowledgment or a response. The timeout related variables, and
   their names, used in the next sections are for reference purposes
   only. They may be implementation specific. Different implementations
   are not required to share variable names, or even the mechanism by
   which the timeout and retransmission behavior is implemented.
5.2.1  Failure due to ACCEPT Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends an ACCEPT message upstream expects an ACK from
   the previous-hop ST agent. If no ACK is received before the ToAccept
   timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the ACCEPT
   message again. After NAccept unsuccessful retries, the ST agent sends
   a REFUSE message toward the origin, and a DISCONNECT message toward
   the targets. Both REFUSE and DISCONNECT must identify the affected
   targets and specify the ReasonCode (RetransTimeout).
5.2.2  Failure due to CHANGE Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a CHANGE message downstream expects an ACK
   from the next-hop ST agent. If no ACK is received before the ToChange
   timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the CHANGE
   message again. After NChange unsuccessful retries, the ST agent
   aborts the change attempt by sending a REFUSE message toward the
   origin, and a DISCONNECT message toward the targets. Both REFUSE and
   DISCONNECT must identify the affected targets and specify the
   ReasonCode (RetransTimeout).
5.2.3  Failure due to CHANGE Response Timeout
   Only the origin ST agent implements this timeout. After correctly
   receiving the ACK to a CHANGE message, an ST agent expects to receive
   an ACCEPT, or REFUSE message in response. If one of these messages is
   not received before the ToChangeResp timer expires, the ST agent at
   the origin aborts the change attempt, and behaves as if a REFUSE
   message with the E-bit set and with ReasonCode (ResponseTimeout) is
   received.
5.2.4  Failure due to CONNECT Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a CONNECT message downstream expects an ACK
   from the next-hop ST agent. If no ACK is received before the
   ToConnect timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the
   CONNECT message again. After NConnect unsuccessful retries, the ST
   agent sends a REFUSE message toward the origin, and a DISCONNECT
   message toward the targets. Both REFUSE and DISCONNECT must identify
   the affected targets and specify the ReasonCode (RetransTimeout).
5.2.5  Failure due to CONNECT Response Timeout
   Only the origin ST agent implements this timeout. After correctly
   receiving the ACK to a CONNECT message, an ST agent expects to
   receive an ACCEPT or REFUSE message in response. If one of these
   messages is not received before the ToConnectResp timer expires, the
   origin ST agent aborts the connection setup attempt, acts as if a
   REFUSE message is received, and it sends a DISCONNECT message toward
   the targets.  Both REFUSE and DISCONNECT must identify the affected
   targets and specify the ReasonCode (ResponseTimeout).
5.2.6  Failure due to DISCONNECT Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a DISCONNECT message downstream expects an ACK
   from the next-hop ST agent. If no ACK is received before the
   ToDisconnect timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the
   DISCONNECT message again. After NDisconnect unsuccessful retries, the
   ST agent simply gives up and it assumes the next-hop ST agent is not
   part in the stream any more.
5.2.7  Failure due to JOIN Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a JOIN message toward the origin expects an
   ACK from a neighbor ST agent. If no ACK is received before the ToJoin
   timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the JOIN message
   again. After NJoin unsuccessful retries, the ST agent sends a JOIN-
   REJECT message back in the direction of the target with ReasonCode
   (RetransTimeout).
5.2.8  Failure due to JOIN Response Timeout
   Only the target agent implements this timeout. After correctly
   receiving the ACK to a JOIN message, the ST agent at the target
   expects to receive a CONNECT or JOIN-REJECT message in response. If
   one of these message is not received before the ToJoinResp timer
   expires, the ST agent aborts the stream join attempt and returns an
   error corresponding with ReasonCode (RetransTimeout) to the
   application.
   Note that, after correctly receiving the ACK to a JOIN message,
   intermediate ST agents do not maintain any state on the stream
   joining attempt. As a consequence, they do not set the ToJoinResp
   timer and do not wait for a CONNECT or JOIN-REJECT message. This is
   described in Section 4.6.3.
5.2.9  Failure due to JOIN-REJECT Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a JOIN-REJECT message toward the target
   expects an ACK from a neighbor ST agent. If no ACK is received before
   the ToJoinReject timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send
   the JOIN-REJECT message again. After NJoinReject unsuccessful
   retries, the ST agent simply gives up.
5.2.10  Failure due to NOTIFY Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a NOTIFY message to a neighbor ST agent
   expects an ACK from that neighbor ST agent. If no ACK is received
   before the ToNotify timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and
   send the NOTIFY message again. After NNotify unsuccessful retries,
   the ST agent simply gives up and behaves as if the ACK message was
   received.
5.2.11  Failure due to REFUSE Acknowledgment Timeout
   An ST agent that sends a REFUSE message upstream expects an ACK from
   the previous-hop ST agent. If no ACK is received before the ToRefuse
   timeout expires, the ST agent should retry and send the REFUSE
   message again. After NRefuse unsuccessful retries, the ST agent gives
   up and it assumes it is not part in the stream any more.
5.2.12  Failure due to STATUS Response Timeout
   After sending a STATUS message to a neighbor ST agent, an ST agent
   expects to receive a STATUS-RESPONSE message in response. If this
   message is not received before the ToStatusResp timer expires, the ST
   agent sends the STATUS message again. After NStatus unsuccessful
   retries, the ST agent gives up and assumes that the neighbor ST agent
   is not active.
5.3  Setup Failures due to Routing Failures
   It is possible for an ST agent to receive a CONNECT message that
   contains a known SID, but from an ST agent other than the previous-
   hop ST agent of the stream with that SID. This may be:
   1.  that two branches of the tree forming the stream have joined
       back together,
   2.  the result of an attempted recovery of a partially failed
       stream, or
   3.  a routing loop.
   The TargetList contained in the CONNECT is used to distinguish the
   different cases by comparing each newly received target with those of
   the previously existing stream:
o   if the IP address of the target(s) differ, it is case #1;
o   if the target matches a target in the existing stream, it may be
    case #2 or #3.
   Case #1 is handled in Section 5.3.1, while the other cases are
   handled in Section 5.3.2.
5.3.1  Path Convergence
   It is possible for an ST agent to receive a CONNECT message that
   contains a known SID, but from an ST agent other than the previous-
   hop ST agent of the stream with that SID. This might be the result of
   two branches of the tree forming the stream have joined back
   together.  Detection of this case and other possible sources was
   discussed in Section 5.2.
   SCMP does not allow for streams which have converged paths, i.e.,
   streams are always tree-shaped and not graph-like. At the point of
   convergence, the ST agent which detects the condition generates a
   REFUSE message with ReasonCode (PathConvergence). Also, as a help to
   the upstream ST agent, the detecting agent places the IP address of
   one of the stream's connected targets in the ValidTargetIPAddress
   field of the REFUSE message. This IP address will be used by upstream
   ST agents to avoid splitting the stream.
   An upstream ST agent that receives the REFUSE with ReasonCode
   (PathConvergence) will check to see if the listed IP address is one
   of the known stream targets. If it is not, the REFUSE is propagated
   to the previous-hop agent. If the listed IP address is known by the
   upstream ST agent, this ST agent is the ST agent that caused the
   split in the stream. (This agent may even be the origin.) This agent
   then avoids splitting the stream by using the next-hop of that known
   target as the next-hop for the refused targets. It sends a CONNECT
   with the affected targets to the existing valid next-hop.
   The above process will proceed, hop by hop, until the
   ValidTargetIPAddress matches the IP address of a known target. The
   only case where this process will fail is when the known target is
   deleted prior to the REFUSE propagating to the origin. In this case
   the origin can just reissue the CONNECT and start the whole process
   over again.
5.3.2  Other Cases
   The remaining cases including a partially failed stream and a routing
   loop, are not easily distinguishable. In attempting recovery of a
   failed stream, an ST agent may issue new CONNECT messages to the
   affected targets. Such a CONNECT may reach an ST agent downstream of
   the failure before that ST agent has received a DISCONNECT from the
   neighborhood of the failure. Until that ST agent receives the
   DISCONNECT, it cannot distinguish between a failure recovery and an
   erroneous routing loop. That ST agent must therefore respond to the
   CONNECT with a REFUSE message with the affected targets specified in
   the TargetList and an appropriate ReasonCode (StreamExists).
   The ST agent immediately preceding that point, i.e., the latest ST
   agent to send the CONNECT message, will receive the REFUSE message.
   It must release any resources reserved exclusively for traffic to the
   listed targets. If this ST agent was not the one attempting the
   stream recovery, then it cannot distinguish between a failure
   recovery and an erroneous routing loop. It should repeat the CONNECT
   after a ToConnect timeout, see Section 5.2.4. If after NConnect
   retransmissions it continues to receive REFUSE messages, it should
   propagate the REFUSE message toward the origin, with the TargetList
   that specifies the affected targets, but with a different ReasonCode
   (RouteLoop).
   The REFUSE message with this ReasonCode (RouteLoop) is propagated by
   each ST agent without retransmitting any CONNECT messages. At each ST
   agent, it causes any resources reserved exclusively for the listed
   targets to be released. The REFUSE will be propagated to the origin
   in the case of an erroneous routing loop. In the case of stream
   recovery, it will be propagated to the ST agent that is attempting
   the recovery, which may be an intermediate ST agent or the origin
   itself. In the case of a stream recovery, the ST agent attempting the
   recovery may issue new CONNECT messages to the same or to different
   next-hops.
   If an ST agent receives both a REFUSE message and a DISCONNECT
   message with a target in common then it can, for the each target in
   common, release the relevant resources and propagate neither the
   REFUSE nor the DISCONNECT.
   If the origin receives such a REFUSE message, it should attempt to
   send a new CONNECT to all the affected targets. Since routing errors
   in an internet are assumed to be temporary, the new CONNECTs will
   eventually find acceptable routes to the targets, if one exists. If
   no further routes exist after NRetryRoute tries, the application
   should be informed so that it may take whatever action it seems
   necessary.
5.4  Problems due to Routing Inconsistency
   When an intermediate ST agent receives a CONNECT, it invokes the
   routing algorithm to select the next-hop ST agents based on the
   TargetList and the networks to which it is connected. If the
   resulting next-hop to any of the targets is across the same network
   from which it received the CONNECT (but not the previous-hop itself),
   there may be a routing problem. However, the routing algorithm at the
   previous- hop may be optimizing differently than the local algorithm
   would in the same situation. Since the local ST agent cannot
   distinguish the two cases, it should permit the setup but send back
   to the previous- hop ST agent an informative NOTIFY message with the
   appropriate ReasonCode (RouteBack), pertinent TargetList, and in the
   NextHopIPAddress element the address of the next-hop ST agent
   returned by its routing algorithm.
   The ST agent that receives such a NOTIFY should ACK it. If the ST
   agent is using an algorithm that would produce such behavior, no
   further action is taken; if not, the ST agent should send a
   DISCONNECT to the next-hop ST agent to correct the problem.
   Alternatively, if the next-hop returned by the routing function is in
   fact the previous-hop, a routing inconsistency has been detected. In
   this case, a REFUSE is sent back to the previous-hop ST agent
   containing an appropriate ReasonCode (RouteInconsist), pertinent
   TargetList, and in the NextHopIPAddress element the address of the
   previous-hop. When the previous-hop receives the REFUSE, it will
   recompute the next-hop for the affected targets. If there is a
   difference in the routing databases in the two ST agents, they may
   exchange CONNECT and REFUSE messages again. Since such routing errors
   in the internet are assumed to be temporary, the situation should
   eventually stabilize.
5.5  Problems in Reserving Resources
   As mentioned in Section 1.4.5, resource reservation is handled by the
   LRM. The LRM may not be able to satisfy a particular request during
   stream setup or modification for a number of reasons, including a
   mismatched FlowSpec, an unknown FlowSpec version, an error in
   processing a FlowSpec, and an inability to allocate the requested
   resource. This section discusses these cases and specifies the
   ReasonCodes that should be used when these error cases are
   encountered.
5.5.1  Mismatched FlowSpecs
   In some cases the LRM may require a requested FlowSpec to match an
   existing FlowSpec, e.g., when adding new targets to an existing
   stream, see Section 4.6.1. In case of FlowSpec mismatch the LRM
   notifies the processing ST agent which should respond with ReasonCode
   (FlowSpecMismatch).
5.5.2  Unknown FlowSpec Version
   When the LRM is invoked, it is passed information including the
   version of the FlowSpec, see Section 4.5.2.2. If this version is not
   known by the LRM, the LRM notifies the ST agent. The ST agent should
   respond with a REFUSE message with ReasonCode (FlowVerUnknown).
5.5.3  LRM Unable to Process FlowSpec
   The LRM may encounter an LRM or FlowSpec specific error while
   attempting to satisfy a request. An example of such an error is given
   in Section 9.2.1. These errors are implementation specific and will
   not be enumerated with ST ReasonCodes. They are covered by a single,
   generic ReasonCode. When an LRM encounters such an error, it should
   notify the ST agent which should respond with the generic ReasonCode
   (FlowSpecError).
5.5.4  Insufficient Resources
   If the LRM cannot make the necessary reservations because sufficient
   resources are not available, an ST agent may:
o   try alternative paths to the targets: the ST agent calls the routing
    function to find a different path to the targets. If an alternative
    path is found, stream connection setup continues in the usual way,
    as described in Section 4.5.
o   refuse to establish the stream along this path: the origin ST agent
    informs the application of the stream setup failure; intermediate
    and target ST agents issue a REFUSE message (as described in Section
    4.5.8) with ReasonCode (CantGetResrc).
   It depends on the local implementations whether an ST agent tries
   alternative paths or refuses to establish the stream. In any case, if
   enough resources cannot be found over different paths, the ST agent
   has to explicitly refuse to establish the stream.
5.6  Problems Caused by CHANGE Messages
   A CHANGE might fail for several reasons, including:
o   insufficient resources: the request may be for a larger amount of
    network resources when those resources are not available, ReasonCode
    (CantGetResrc);
o   a target application not agreeing to the change, ReasonCode
    (ApplRefused);
   The affected stream can be left in one of two states as a result of
   change failures: a) the stream can revert back to the state it was in
   prior to the CHANGE message being processed, or b) the stream may be
   torn down.
   The expected common case of failure will be when the requested change
   cannot be satisfied, but the pre-change resources remain allocated
   and available for use by the stream. In this case, the ST agent at
   the point where the failure occurred must inform upstream ST agents
   of the failure. (In the case where this ST agent is the target, there
   may not actually be a failure, the application may merely have not
   agreed to the change). The ST agent informs upstream ST agents by
   sending a REFUSE message with ReasonCode (CantGetResrc or
   ApplRefused). To indicate that the pre-change FlowSpec is still
   available and that the stream still exists, the ST agent sets the E-
   bit of the REFUSE message to one (1), see Section 10.4.11. Upstream
   ST agents receiving the REFUSE message inform the LRM so that it can
   attempt to revert back to the pre-change FlowSpec. It is permissible,
   but not desirable, for excess resources to remain allocated.
   For the case when the attempt to change the stream results in the
   loss of previously reserved resources, the stream is torn down. This
   can happen, for instance, when the I-bit is set (Section 4.6.5) and
   the LRM releases pre-change stream resources before the new ones are
   reserved, and neither new nor former resources are available. In this
   case, the ST agent where the failure occurs must inform other ST
   agents of the break in the affected portion of the stream. This is
   done by the ST agent by sending a REFUSE message upstream and a
   DISCONNECT message downstream, both with the ReasonCode
   (CantGetResrc). To indicate that pre-change stream resources have
   been lost, the E-bit of the REFUSE message is set to zero (0).
   Note that a failure to change the resources requested for specific
   targets should not cause other targets in the stream to be deleted.
5.7  Unknown Targets in DISCONNECT and CHANGE
   The handling of unknown targets listed in a DISCONNECT or CHANGE
   message is dependent on a stream's join authorization level, see
   Section 4.4.2. For streams with join authorization levels #0 and #1,
   see Section 4.4.2, all targets must be known. In this case, when
   processing a CHANGE message, the agent should generate a REFUSE
   message with ReasonCode (TargetUnknown). When processing a DISCONNECT
   message, it is possible that the DISCONNECT is a duplicate of an old
   request so the agent should respond as if it has successfully
   disconnected the target. That is, it should respond with an ACK
   message.
   For streams with join authorization level #2, it is possible that the
   origin is not aware of some targets that participate in the stream.
   The origin may delete or change these targets via the following
   flooding mechanism.
   If no next-hop ST agent can be associated with a target, the CHANGE/
   DISCONNECT message including the target is replicated to all known
   next-hop ST agents. This has the effect of propagating the CHANGE/
   DISCONNECT message to all downstream ST agents. Eventually, the ST
   agent that acts as the origin for the target (Section 4.6.3.1) is
   reached and the target is deleted.
   Target deletion/change via flooding is not expected to be the normal
   case. It is included to present the applications with uniform
   capabilities for all stream types. Flooding only applies to streams
   with join authorization level #2.
6.  Failure Detection and Recovery
6.1  Failure Detection
   The SCMP failure detection mechanism is based on two assumptions:
1.  If a neighbor of an ST agent is up, and has been up without a
    disruption, and has not notified the ST agent of a problem with
    streams that pass through both, then the ST agent can assume that
    there has not been any problem with those streams.
2.  A network through which an ST agent has routed a stream will notify
    the ST agent if there is a problem that affects the stream data
    packets but does not affect the control packets.
   The purpose of the robustness protocol defined here is for ST agents
   to determine that the streams through a neighbor have been broken by
   the failure of the neighbor or the intervening network. This protocol
   should detect the overwhelming majority of failures that can occur.
   Once a failure is detected, the recovery procedures described in
   Section 6.2 are initiated by the ST agents.
6.1.1  Network Failures
   An ST agent can detect network failures by two mechanisms:
   o   the network can report a failure, or
   o   the ST agent can discover a failure by itself.
   They differ in the amount of information that an ST agent has
   available to it in order to make a recovery decision. For example, a
   network may be able to report that reserved bandwidth has been lost
   and the reason for the loss and may also report that connectivity to
   the neighboring ST agent remains intact. On the other hand, an ST
   agent may discover that communication with a neighboring ST agent has
   ceased because it has not received any traffic from that neighbor in
   some time period. If an ST agent detects a failure, it may not be
   able to determine if the failure was in the network while the
   neighbor remains available, or the neighbor has failed while the
   network remains intact.
6.1.2  Detecting ST Agents Failures
   Each ST agent periodically sends each neighbor with which it shares
   one or more streams a HELLO message. This message exchange is between
   ST agents, not entities representing streams or applications. That
   is, an ST agent need only send a single HELLO message to a neighbor
   regardless of the number of streams that flow between them. All ST
   agents (host as well as intermediate) must participate in this
   exchange. However, only ST agents that share active streams can
   participate in this exchange and it is an error to send a HELLO
   message to a neighbor ST agent with no streams in common, e.g., to
   check whether it is active. STATUS messages can be used to poll the
   status of neighbor ST agents, see Section 8.4.
   For the purpose of HELLO message exchange, stream existence is
   bounded by ACCEPT and DISCONNECT/REFUSE processing and is defined for
   both the upstream and downstream case. A stream to a previous-hop is
   defined to start once an ACCEPT message has been forwarded upstream.
   A stream to a next-hop is defined to start once the received ACCEPT
   message has been acknowledged. A stream is defined to terminate once
   an acknowledgment is sent for a received DISCONNECT or REFUSE
   message, and an acknowledgment for a sent DISCONNECT or REFUSE
   message has been received.
   The HELLO message has two fields:
   o   a HelloTimer field that is in units of milliseconds modulo the
       maximum for the field size, and
   o   a Restarted-bit specifying that the ST agent has been restarted
       recently.
   The HelloTimer must appear to be incremented every millisecond
   whether a HELLO message is sent or not. The HelloTimer wraps around
   to zero after reaching the maximum value. Whenever an ST agent
   suffers a catastrophic event that may result in it losing ST state
   information, it must reset its HelloTimer to zero and must set the
   Restarted-bit in all HELLO messages sent in the following
   HelloTimerHoldDown seconds.
   If an ST agent receives a HELLO message that contains the Restarted-
   bit set, it must assume that the sending ST agent has lost its state.
   If it shares streams with that neighbor, it must initiate stream
   recovery activity, see Section 6.2. If it does not share streams with
   that neighbor, it should not attempt to create one until that bit is
   no longer set. If an ST agent receives a CONNECT message from a
   neighbor whose Restarted-bit is still set, the agent must respond
   with an ERROR message with the appropriate ReasonCode
   (RestartRemote). If an agent receives a CONNECT message while the
   agent's own Restarted- bit is set, the agent must respond with an
   ERROR message with the appropriate ReasonCode (RestartLocal).
   Each ST stream has an associated RecoveryTimeout value. This value is
   assigned by the origin and carried in the CONNECT message, see
   Section 4.5.10. Each agent checks to see if it can support the
   requested value. If it can not, it updates the value to the smallest
   timeout interval it can support. The RecoveryTimeout used by a
   particular stream is obtained from the ACCEPT message, see Section
   4.5.10, and is the smallest value seen across all ACCEPT messages
   from participating targets.
   An ST agent must send HELLO messages to its neighbor with a period
   shorter than the smallest RecoveryTimeout of all the active streams
   that pass between the two ST agents, regardless of direction. This
   period must be smaller by a factor, called HelloLossFactor, which is
   at least as large as the greatest number of consecutive HELLO
   messages that could credibly be lost while the communication between
   the two ST agents is still viable.
   An ST agent may send simultaneous HELLO messages to all its neighbors
   at the rate necessary to support the smallest RecoveryTimeout of any
   active stream. Alternately, it may send HELLO messages to different
   neighbors independently at different rates corresponding to
   RecoveryTimeouts of individual streams.
   An ST agent must expect to receive at least one new HELLO message
   from each neighbor at least as frequently as the smallest
   RecoveryTimeout of any active stream in common with that neighbor.
   The agent can detect duplicate or delayed HELLO messages by comparing
   the HelloTimer field of the most recent valid HELLO message from that
   neighbor with the HelloTimer field of an incoming HELLO message.
   Valid incoming HELLO messages will have a HelloTimer field that is
   greater than the field contained in the previously received valid
   HELLO message by the time elapsed since the previous message was
   received. Actual evaluation of the elapsed time interval should take
   into account the maximum likely delay variance from that neighbor.
   If the ST agent does not receive a valid HELLO message within the
   RecoveryTimeout period of a stream, it must assume that the
   neighboring ST agent or the communication link between the two has
   failed and it must initiate stream recovery activity, as described
   below in Section 6.2.
6.2  Failure Recovery
   If an intermediate ST agent fails or a network or part of a network
   fails, the previous-hop ST agent and the various next-hop ST agents
   will discover the fact by the failure detection mechanism described
   in Section 6.1.
   The recovery of an ST stream is a relatively complex and time
   consuming effort because it is designed in a general manner to
   operate across a large number of networks with diverse
   characteristics.  Therefore, it may require information to be
   distributed widely, and may require relatively long timers. On the
   other hand, since a network is typically a homogeneous system,
   failure recovery in the network may be a relatively faster and
   simpler operation. Therefore an ST agent that detects a failure
   should attempt to fix the network failure before attempting recovery
   of the ST stream. If the stream that existed between two ST agents
   before the failure cannot be reconstructed by network recovery
   mechanisms alone, then the ST stream recovery mechanism must be
   invoked.
   If stream recovery is necessary, the different ST agents will need to
   perform different functions, depending on their relation to the
   failure:
o   An ST agent that is a next-hop from a failure should first verify
    that there was a failure. It can do this using STATUS messages to
    query its upstream neighbor. If it cannot communicate with that
    neighbor, then for each active stream from that neighbor it should
    first send a REFUSE message upstream with the appropriate ReasonCode
    (STAgentFailure). This is done to the neighbor to speed up the
    failure recovery in case the hop is unidirectional, i.e., the
    neighbor can hear the ST agent but the ST agent cannot hear the
    neighbor. The ST agent detecting the failure must then, for each
    active stream from that neighbor, send DISCONNECT messages with the
    same ReasonCode toward the targets. All downstream ST agents process
    this DISCONNECT message just like the DISCONNECT that tears down the
    stream. If recovery is successful, targets will receive new CONNECT
    messages.
o   An ST agent that is the previous-hop before the failed component
    first verifies that there was a failure by querying the downstream
    neighbor using STATUS messages. If the neighbor has lost its state
    but is available, then the ST agent may try and reconstruct
    (explained below) the affected streams, for those streams that do
    not have the NoRecovery option selected. If it cannot communicate
    with the next-hop, then the ST agent detecting the failure sends a
    DISCONNECT message, for each affected stream, with the appropriate
    ReasonCode (STAgentFailure) toward the affected targets. It does so
    to speed up failure recovery in case the communication may be
    unidirectional and this message might be delivered successfully.
   Based on the NoRecovery option, the ST agent that is the previous-hop
   before the failed component takes the following actions:
o   If the NoRecovery option is selected, then the ST agent sends, per
    affected stream, a REFUSE message with the appropriate ReasonCode
    (STAgentFailure) to the previous-hop. The TargetList in these
    messages contains all the targets that were reached through the
    broken branch. As discussed in Section 5.1.2, multiple REFUSE
    messages may be required if the PDU is too long for the MTU of the
    intervening network. The REFUSE message is propagated all the way to
    the origin. The application at the origin can attempt recovery of
    the stream by sending a new CONNECT to the affected targets. For
    established streams, the new CONNECT will be treated by intermediate
    ST agents as an addition of new targets into the established stream.
o   If the NoRecovery option is not selected, the ST agent can attempt
    recovery of the affected streams. It does so one a stream by stream
    basis by issuing a new CONNECT message to the affected targets. If
    the ST agent cannot find new routes to some targets, or if the only
    route to some targets is through the previous-hop, then it sends one
    or more REFUSE messages to the previous-hop with the appropriate
    ReasonCode (CantRecover) specifying the affected targets in the
    TargetList. The previous-hop can then attempt recovery of the stream
    by issuing a CONNECT to those targets. If it cannot find an
    appropriate route, it will propagate the REFUSE message toward the
    origin.
   Regardless of which ST agent attempts recovery of a damaged stream,
   it will issue one or more CONNECT messages to the affected targets.
   These CONNECT messages are treated by intermediate ST agents as
   additions of new targets into the established stream. The FlowSpecs
   of the new CONNECT messages are the same as the ones contained in the
   most recent CONNECT or CHANGE messages that the ST agent had sent
   toward the affected targets when the stream was operational.
   Upon receiving an ACCEPT during the a stream recovery, the agent
   reconstructing the stream must ensure that the FlowSpec and other
   stream attributes (e.g., MaxMsgSize and RecoveryTimeout) of the re-
   established stream are equal to, or are less restrictive, than the
   pre-failure stream. If they are more restrictive, the recovery
   attempt must be aborted. If they are equal, or are less restrictive,
   then the recovery attempt is successful. When the attempt is a
   success, failure recovery related ACCEPTs are not forwarded upstream
   by the recovering agent.
   Any ST agent that decides that enough recovery attempts have been
   made, or that recovery attempts have no chance of succeeding, may
   indicate that no further attempts at recovery should be made. This is
   done by setting the N-bit in the REFUSE message, see Section 10.4.11.
   This bit must be set by agents, including the target, that know that
   there is no chance of recovery succeeding. An ST agent that receives
   a REFUSE message with the N-bit set (1) will not attempt recovery,
   regardless of the NoRecovery option, and it will set the N-bit when
   propagating the REFUSE message upstream.
6.2.1  Problems in Stream Recovery
   The reconstruction of a broken stream may not proceed smoothly. Since
   there may be some delay while the information concerning the failure
   is propagated throughout an internet, routing errors may occur for
   some time after a failure. As a result, the ST agent attempting the
   recovery may receive ERROR messages for the new CONNECTs that are
   caused by internet routing errors. The ST agent attempting the
   recovery should be prepared to resend CONNECTs before it succeeds in
   reconstructing the stream. If the failure partitions the internet and
   a new set of routes cannot be found to the targets, the REFUSE
   messages will eventually be propagated to the origin, which can then
   inform the application so it can decide whether to terminate or to
   continue to attempt recovery of the stream.
   The new CONNECT may at some point reach an ST agent downstream of the
   failure before the DISCONNECT does. In this case, the ST agent that
   receives the CONNECT is not yet aware that the stream has suffered a
   failure, and will interpret the new CONNECT as resulting from a
   routing failure. It will respond with an ERROR message with the
   appropriate ReasonCode (StreamExists). Since the timeout that the ST
   agents immediately preceding the failure and immediately following
   the failure are approximately the same, it is very likely that the
   remnants of the broken stream will soon be torn down by a DISCONNECT
   message. Therefore, the ST agent that receives the ERROR message with
   ReasonCode (StreamExists) should retransmit the CONNECT message after
   the ToConnect timeout expires. If this fails again, the request will
   be retried for NConnect times. Only if it still fails will the ST
   agent send a REFUSE message with the appropriate ReasonCode
   (RouteLoop) to its previous-hop. This message will be propagated back
   to the ST agent that is attempting recovery of the damaged stream.
   That ST agent can issue a new CONNECT message if it so chooses. The
   REFUSE is matched to a CONNECT message created by a recovery
   operation through the LnkReference field in the CONNECT.
   ST agents that have propagated a CONNECT message and have received a
   REFUSE message should maintain this information for some period of
   time. If an ST agent receives a second CONNECT message for a target
   that recently resulted in a REFUSE, that ST agent may respond with a
   REFUSE immediately rather than attempting to propagate the CONNECT.
   This has the effect of pruning the tree that is formed by the
   propagation of CONNECT messages to a target that is not reachable by
   the routes that are selected first. The tree will pass through any
   given ST agent only once, and the stream setup phase will be
   completed faster.
   If a CONNECT message reaches a target, the target should as
   efficiently as possible use the state that it has saved from before
   the stream failed during recovery of the stream. It will then issue
   an ACCEPT message toward the origin. The ACCEPT message will be
   intercepted by the ST agent that is attempting recovery of the
   damaged stream, if not the origin. If the FlowSpec contained in the
   ACCEPT specifies the same selection of parameters as were in effect
   before the failure, then the ST agent that is attempting recovery
   will not propagate the ACCEPT. FlowSpec comparison is done by the
   LRM. If the selections of the parameters are different, then the ST
   agent that is attempting recovery will send the origin a NOTIFY
   message with the appropriate ReasonCode (FailureRecovery) that
   contains a FlowSpec that specifies the new parameter values. The
   origin may then have to change its data generation characteristics
   and the stream's parameters with a CHANGE message to use the newly
   recovered subtree.
6.3  Stream Preemption
   As mentioned in Section 1.4.5, it is possible that the LRM decides to
   break a stream intentionally. This is called stream preemption.
   Streams are expected to be preempted in order to free resources for a
   new stream which has a higher priority.
   If the LRM decides that it is necessary to preempt one or more of the
   stream traversing it, the decision on which streams have to be
   preempted has to be made. There are two ways for an application to
   influence such decision:
   1.  based on FlowSpec information. For instance, with the ST2+
       FlowSpec, streams can be assigned a precedence value from 0
       (least important) to 256 (most important). This value is
       carried in the FlowSpec when the stream is setup, see Section
       9.2, so that the LRM is informed about it.
   2.  with the group mechanism. An application may specify that a set
       of streams are related to each other and that they are all
       candidate for preemption if one of them gets preempted. It can
       be done by using the fate-sharing relationship defined in
       Section 7.1.2. This helps the LRM making a good choice when
       more than one stream have to be preempted, because it leads to
       breaking a single application as opposed to as many
       applications as the number of preempted streams.
   If the LRM preempts a stream, it must notify the local ST agent. The
   following actions are performed by the ST agent:
o   The ST agent at the host where the stream was preempted sends
    DISCONNECT messages with the appropriate ReasonCode
    (StreamPreempted) toward the affected targets. It sends a REFUSE
    message with the appropriate ReasonCode (StreamPreempted) to the
    previous-hop.
o   A previous-hop ST agent of the preempted stream acts as in case of
    failure recovery, see Section 6.2.
o   A next-hop ST agent of the preempted stream acts as in case of
    failure recovery, see Section 6.2.
   Note that, as opposite to failure recovery, there is no need to
   verify that the failure actually occurred, because this is explicitly
   indicated by the ReasonCode (StreamPreempted).
7.  A Group of Streams
   There may be need to associate related streams. The group mechanism
   is simply an association technique that allows ST agents to identify
   the different streams that are to be associated.
   A group consists of a set of streams and a relationship. The set of
   streams may be empty. The relationship applies to all group members.
   Each group is identified by a group name. The group name must be
   globally unique.
   Streams belong to the same group if they have the same GroupName in
   the GroupName field of the Group parameter, see Section 10.3.2. The
   relationship is defined by the Relationship field. Group membership
   must be specified at stream creation time and persists for the whole
   stream lifetime. A single stream may belong to multiple groups.
   The ST agent that creates a new group is called group initiator. Any
   ST agent can be a group initiator. The initiator allocates the
   GroupName and the Relationship among group members. The initiator may
   or may not be the origin of a stream belonging to the group.
   GroupName generation is described in Section 8.2.
7.1  Basic Group Relationships
   This version of ST defines four basic group relationships. An ST2+
   implementation must support all four basic relationships. Adherence
   to specified relationships are usually best effort. The basic
   relationships are described in detail below in Section 7.1.1 -
   Section 7.1.4.
7.1.1  Bandwidth Sharing
   Streams associated with the same group share the same network
   bandwidth. The intent is to support applications such as audio
   conferences where, of all participants, only some are allowed to
   speak at one time. In such a scenario, global bandwidth utilization
   can be lowered by allocating only those resources that can be used at
   once, e.g., it is sufficient to reserve bandwidth for a small set of
   audio streams.
   The basic concept of a shared bandwidth group is that the LRM will
   allocate up to some specified multiplier of the most demanding stream
   that it knows about in the group. The LRM will allocate resources
   incrementally, as stream setup requests are received, until the total
   group requirements are satisfied. Subsequent setup requests will
   share the group's resources and will not need any additional
   resources allocated. The procedure will result in standard allocation
   where only one stream in a group traverses an agent, and shared
   allocations where multiple streams traverse an agent.
   To illustrate, let's call the multiplier mentioned above "N", and the
   most demanding stream that an agent knows about in a group Bmax. For
   an application that intends to allow three participants to speak at
   the same time, N has a value of three and each LRM will allocate for
   the group an amount of bandwidth up to 3*Bmax even when there are
   many more steams in the group. The LRM will reserve resources
   incrementally, per stream request, until N*Bmax resources are
   allocated. Each agent may be traversed by a different set and number
   of streams all belonging to the same group.
   An ST agent receiving a stream request presents the LRM with all
   necessary group information, see Section 4.5.2.2. If maximum
   bandwidth, N*Bmax, for the group has already been allocated and a new
   stream with a bandwidth demand less than Bmax is being established,
   the LRM won't allocate any further bandwidth.
   If there is less than N*Bmax resources allocated, the LRM will expand
   the resources allocated to the group by the amount requested in the
   new FlowSpec, up to N*Bmax resources. The LRM will update the
   FlowSpec based on what resources are available to the stream, but not
   the total resources allocated for the group.
   It should be noted that ST agents and LRMs become aware of a group's
   requirements only when the streams belonging to the group are
   created.  In case of the bandwidth sharing relationship, an
   application should attempt to establish the most demanding streams
   first to minimize stream setup efforts. If on the contrary the less
   demanding streams are built first, it will be always necessary to
   allocate additional bandwidth in consecutive steps as the most
   demanding streams are built. It is also up to the applications to
   coordinate their different FlowSpecs and decide upon an appropriate
   value for N.
7.1.2  Fate Sharing
   Streams belonging to this group share the same fate. If a stream is
   deleted, the other members of the group are also deleted. This is
   intended to support stream preemption by indicating which streams are
   mutually related. If preemption of multiple streams is necessary,
   this information can be used by the LRM to delete a set of related
   streams, e.g., with impact on a single application, instead of making
   a random choice with the possible effect of interrupting several
   different applications. This attribute does not apply to normal
   stream shut down, i.e., ReasonCode (ApplDisconnect). On normal
   disconnect, other streams belonging to such groups remain active.
   This relationship provides a hint on which streams should be
   preempted. Still, the LRM responsible for the preemption is not
   forced to behave accordingly, and other streams could be preempted
   first based on different criteria.
7.1.3  Route Sharing
   Streams belonging to this group share the same paths as much as is
   possible. This can be desirable for several reasons, e.g., to exploit
   the same allocated resources or in the attempt to maintain the
   transmission order. An ST agent attempts to select the same path
   although the way this is implemented depends heavily on the routing
   algorithm which is used.
   If the routing algorithm is sophisticated enough, an ST agent can
   suggest that a stream is routed over an already established path.
   Otherwise, it can ask the routing algorithm for a set of legal routes
   to the destination and check whether the desired path is included in
   those feasible.
   Route sharing is a hint to the routing algorithm used by ST. Failing
   to route a stream through a shared path should not prevent the
   creation of a new stream or result in the deletion of an existing
   stream.
7.1.4  Subnet Resources Sharing
   This relationship provides a hint to the data link layer functions.
   Streams belonging to this group may share the same MAC layer
   resources. As an example, the same MAC layer multicast address may be
   used for all the streams in a given group. This mechanism allows for
   a better utilization of MAC layer multicast addresses and it is
   especially useful when used with network adapters that offer a very
   small number of MAC layer multicast addresses.
7.2  Relationships Orthogonality
   The four basic relationships, as they have been defined, are
   orthogonal. This means, any combinations of the basic relationships
   are allowed. For instance, let's consider an application that
   requires full-duplex service for a stream with multiple targets.
   Also, let's suppose that only N targets are allowed to send data back
   to the origin at the same time. In this scenario, all the reverse
   streams could belong to the same group. They could be sharing both
   the paths and the bandwidth attributes. The Path&Bandwidth sharing
   relationship is obtained from the basic set of relationships. This
   example is important because it shows how full-duplex service can be
   efficiently obtained in ST.
8.  Ancillary Functions
   Certain functions are required by ST host and intermediate agent
   implementations. Such functions are described in this section.
8.1  Stream ID Generation
   The stream ID, or SID, is composed of 16-bit unique identifier and
   the stream origin's 32-bit IP address. Stream IDs must be globally
   unique.  The specific definition and format of the 16 -bit field is
   left to the implementor. This field is expected to have only local
   significance.
   An ST implementation has to provide a stream ID generator facility,
   so that an application or higher layer protocol can obtain a unique
   IDs from the ST layer. This is a mechanism for the application to
   request the allocation of stream ID that is independent of the
   request to create a stream. The Stream ID is used by the application
   or higher layer protocol when creating the streams.
   For instance, the following two functions could be made available:
   o   AllocateStreamID() -> result, StreamID
   o   ReleaseStreamID(StreamID) -> result
   An implementation may also provide a StreamID deletion function.
8.2  Group Name Generator
   GroupName generation is similar to Stream ID generation. The
   GroupName includes a 16-bit unique identifier, a 32-bit creation
   timestamp, and a 32-bit IP address. Group names are globally unique.
   A GroupName includes the creator's IP address, so this reduces a
   global uniqueness problem to a simple local problem. The specific
   definitions and formats of the 16-bit field and the 32-bit creation
   timestamp are left to the implementor. These fields must be locally
   unique, and only have local significance.
   An ST implementation has to provide a group name generator facility,
   so that an application or higher layer protocol can obtain a unique
   GroupName from the ST layer. This is a mechanism for the application
   to request the allocation of a GroupName that is independent of the
   request to create a stream. The GroupName is used by the application
   or higher layer protocol when creating the streams that are to be
   part of the group.
   For instance, the following two functions could be made available:
   o   AllocateGroupName() -> result, GroupName
   o   ReleaseGroupName(GroupName) -> result
   An implementation may also provide a GroupName deletion function.
8.3  Checksum Computation
   The standard Internet checksum algorithm is used for ST: "The
   checksum field is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement
   sum of all 16-bit words in the header. For purposes of computing the
   checksum, the value of the checksum field is zero (0)." See
   [RFC1071], [RFC1141], and [RFC791] for suggestions for efficient
   checksum algorithms.
8.4  Neighbor ST Agent Identification and Information Collection
   The STATUS message can be used to collect information about neighbor
   ST agents, streams the neighbor supports, and specific targets of
   streams the neighbor supports. An agent receiving a STATUS message
   provides the requested information via a STATUS-RESPONSE message.
   The STATUS message can be used to collect different information from
   a neighbor. It can be used to:
o   identify ST capable neighbors. If an ST agent wishes to check if
    a neighbor is ST capable, it should generate a STATUS message with
    an SID which has all its fields set to zero. An agent receiving a
    STATUS message with such SID should answer with a STATUS-RESPONSE
    containing the same SID, and no other stream information. The
    receiving ST agent must answer as soon as possible to aid in Round
    Trip Time estimation, see Section 8.5;
o   obtain information on a particular stream. If an ST agent wishes to
    check a neighbor's general information related to a specific
    stream, it should generate a STATUS message containing the stream's
    SID. An ST agent receiving such a message, will first check to see
    if the stream is known. If not known, the receiving ST agent sends a
    STATUS-RESPONSE containing the same SID, and no other stream
    information. If the stream is known, the receiving ST agent sends a
    STATUS-RESPONSE containing the stream's SID, IPHops, FlowSpec, group
    membership (if any), and as many targets as can be included in a
    single message as limited by MTU, see Section 5.1.2. Note that all
    targets may not be included in a response to a request for general
    stream information. If information on a specific target in a stream
    is desired, the mechanism described next should be used.
o   obtain information on particular targets in a stream. If an ST agent
    wishes to check a neighbor's information related to one or more
    specific targets of a specific stream, it should generate a STATUS
    message containing the stream's SID and a TargetList parameter
    listing the relevant targets. An ST agent receiving such a message,
    will first check to see if the stream and target are known. If the
    stream is not known, the agent follows the process described above.
    If both the stream and targets are known, the agent responds with
    STATUS-RESPONSE containing the stream's SID, IPHops, FlowSpec, group
    membership (if any), and the requested targets that are known. If
    the stream is known but the target is not, the agent responds with a
    STATUS-RESPONSE containing the stream's SID, IPHops, FlowSpec, group
    membership (if any), but no targets.
   The specific formats for STATUS and STATUS-RESPONSE messages are
   defined in Section 10.4.12 and Section 10.4.13.
8.5  Round Trip Time Estimation
   SCMP is made reliable through use of retransmission when an expected
   acknowledgment is not received in a timely manner. Timeout and
   retransmission algorithms are implementation dependent and are
   outside the scope of this document. However, it must be reasonable
   enough not to cause excessive retransmission of SCMP messages while
   maintaining the robustness of the protocol. Algorithms on this
   subject are described in [WoHD95], [Jaco88], [KaPa87].
   Most existing algorithms are based on an estimation of the Round Trip
   Time (RTT) between two hosts. With SCMP, if an ST agent wishes to
   have an estimate of the RTT to and from a neighbor, it should
   generate a STATUS message with an SID which has all its fields set to
   zero. An ST agent receiving a STATUS message with such SID should
   answer as rapidly as possible with a STATUS-RESPONSE message
   containing the same SID, and no other stream information. The time
   interval between the send and receive operations can be used as an
   estimate of the RTT to and from the neighbor.
8.6  Network MTU Discovery
   At connection setup, the application at the origin asks the local ST
   agent to create streams with certain QoS requirements. The local ST
   agent fills out its network MTU value in the MaxMsgSize parameter in
   the CONNECT message and forwards it to the next-hop ST agents. Each
   ST agent in the path checks to see if it's network MTU is smaller
   than the one specified in the CONNECT message and, if it is, the ST
   agent updates the MaxMsgSize in the CONNECT message to it's network
   MTU. If the target application decides to accept the stream, the ST
   agent at the target copies the MTU value in the CONNECT message to
   the MaxMsgSize field in the ACCEPT message and sends it back to the
   application at the origin. The MaxMsgSize field in the ACCEPT message
   is the minimum MTU of the intervening networks to that target. If the
   application has multiple targets then the minimum MTU of the stream
   is the smallest MaxMsgSize received from all the ACCEPT messages. It
   is the responsibility of the application to segment its PDUs
   according to the minimum MaxMsgSize of the stream since no data
   fragmentation is supported during the data transfer phase. If a
   particular target's MaxMsgSize is unacceptable to an application, it
   may disconnect the target from the stream and assume that the target
   cannot be supported.  When evaluating a particular target's
   MaxMsgSize, the application or the application interface will need to
   take into account the size of the ST data header.
8.7  IP Encapsulation of ST
   ST packets may be encapsulated in IP to allow them to pass through
   routers that don't support the ST Protocol. Of course, ST resource
   management is precluded over such a path, and packet overhead is
   increased by encapsulation, but if the performance is reasonably
   predictable this may be better than not communicating at all.
   IP-encapsulated ST packets begin with a normal IP header. Most fields
   of the IP header should be filled in according to the same rules that
   apply to any other IP packet. Three fields of special interest are:
o   Protocol is 5, see [RFC1700], to indicate an ST packet is enclosed,
    as opposed to TCP or UDP, for example.
o   Destination Address is that of the next-hop ST agent. This may or
    may not be the target of the ST stream. There may be an intermediate
    ST agent to which the packet should be routed to take advantage of
    service guarantees on the path past that agent. Such an intermediate
    agent would not be on a directly-connected network (or else IP
    encapsulation wouldn't be needed), so it would probably not be
    listed in the normal routing table. Additional routing mechanisms,
    not defined here, will be required to learn about such agents.
o   Type-of-Service may be set to an appropriate value for the service
    being requested, see [RFC1700]. This feature is not implemented
    uniformly in the Internet, so its use can't be precisely defined
    here.
   IP encapsulation adds little difficulty for the ST agent that
   receives the packet. However, when IP encapsulation is performed it
   must be done in both directions. To process the encapsulated IP
   message, the ST agents simply remove the IP header and proceed with
   ST header as usual.
   The more difficult part is during setup, when the ST agent must
   decide whether or not to encapsulate. If the next-hop ST agent is on
   a remote network and the route to that network is through a router
   that supports IP but not ST, then encapsulation is required. The
   routing function provides ST agents with the route and capability
   information needed to support encapsulation.
   On forwarding, the (mostly constant) IP Header must be inserted and
   the IP checksum appropriately updated.
   Applications are informed about the number of IP hops traversed on
   the path to each target. The IPHops field of the CONNECT message, see
   Section 10.4.4, carries the number of traversed IP hops to the target
   application. The field is incremented by each ST agent when IP
   encapsulation will be used to reach the next-hop ST agent. The number
   of IP hops traversed is returned to the origin in the IPHops field of
   the ACCEPT message, Section 10.4.1.
   When using IP Encapsulation, the MaxMsgSize field will not reflect
   the MTU of the IP encapsulated segments. This means that IP
   fragmentation and reassembly may be needed in the IP cloud to support
   a message of MaxMsgSize. IP fragmentation can only occur when the MTU
   of the IP cloud, less IP header length, is the smallest MTU in a
   stream's network path.
8.8  IP Multicasting
   If an ST agent must use IP encapsulation to reach multiple next-hops
   toward different targets, then either the packet must be replicated
   for transmission to each next-hop, or IP multicasting may be used if
   it is implemented in the next-hop ST agents and in the intervening IP
   routers.
   When the stream is established, the collection of next-hop ST agents
   must be set up as an IP multicast group. The ST agent must allocate
   an appropriate IP multicast address (see Section 10.3.3) and fill
   that address in the IPMulticastAddress field of the CONNECT message.
   The IP multicast address in the CONNECT message is used to inform the
   next-hop ST agents that they should join the multicast group to
   receive subsequent PDUs. Obviously, the CONNECT message itself must
   be sent using unicast. The next-hop ST agents must be able to receive
   on the specified multicast address in order to accept the connection.
   If the next-hop ST agent can not receive on the specified multicast
   address, it sends a REFUSE message with ReasonCode (BadMcastAddress).
   Upon receiving the REFUSE, the upstream agent can choose to retry
   with a different multicast address. Alternatively, it can choose to
   lose the efficiency of multicast and use unicast delivery.
   The following permanent IP multicast addresses have been assigned to
   ST:
           224.0.0.7 All ST routers (intermediate agents)
           224.0.0.8 All ST hosts (agents)
   In addition, a block of transient IP multicast addresses, 224.1.0.0 -
   224.1.255.255, has been allocated for ST multicast groups. For
   instance, the following two functions could be made available:
   o   AllocateMcastAddr() -> result, McastAddr
   o   ListenMcastAddr(McastAddr) -> result
   o   ReleaseMcastAddr(McastAddr) -> result
9.  The ST2+ Flow Specification
   This section defines the ST2+ flow specification. The flow
   specification contains the user application requirements in terms of
   quality of service. Its contents are LRM dependent and are
   transparent to the ST2 setup protocol. ST2 carries the flow
   specification as part of the FlowSpec parameter, which is described
   in Section 10.3.1. The required ST2+ flow specification is included
   in the protocol only to support interoperability. ST2+ also defines a
   "null" flow specification to be used only to support testing.
   ST2 is not dependent on a particular flow specification format and it
   is expected that other versions of the flow specification will be
   needed in the future. Different flow specification formats are
   distinguished by the value of the Version field of the FlowSpec
   parameter, see Section 10.3.1. A single stream is always associated
   with a single flow specification format, i.e., the Version field is
   consistent throughout the whole stream. The following Version field
   values are defined:
   0 - Null FlowSpec       /* must be supported */
   1 - ST Version 1
   2 - ST Version 1.5
   3 - RFC 1190 FlowSpec
   4 - HeiTS FlowSpec
   5 - BerKom FlowSpec
   6 - RFC 1363 FlowSpec
   7 - ST2+ FlowSpec       /* must be supported */
   FlowSpecs version #0 and #7 must be supported by ST2+
   implementations.  Version numbers in the range 1-6 indicate flow
   specifications are currently used in existing ST2 implementations.
   Values in the 128-255 range are reserved for private and experimental
   use.
   In general, a flow specification may support sophisticated flow
   descriptions. For example, a flow specification could represent sub-
   flows of a particular stream. This could then be used to by a
   cooperating application and LRM to forward designated packets to
   specific targets based on the different sub-flows. The reserved bits
   in the ST2 Data PDU, see Section 10.1, may be used with such a flow
   specification to designate packets associated with different sub-
   flows. The ST2+ FlowSpec is not so sophisticated, and is intended for
   use with applications that generate traffic at a single rate for
   uniform delivery to all targets.
9.1  FlowSpec Version #0 - (Null FlowSpec)
   The flow specification identified by a #0 value of the Version field
   is called the Null FlowSpec. This flow specification causes no
   resources to be allocated. It is ignored by the LRMs. Its contents
   are never updated. Stream setup takes place in the usual way leading
   to successful stream establishment, but no resources are actually
   reserved.
   The purpose of the Null FlowSpec is that of facilitating
   interoperability tests by allowing streams to be built without
   actually allocating the correspondent amount of resources. The Null
   FlowSpec may also be used for testing and debugging purposes.
   The Null FlowSpec comprises the 4-byte FlowSpec parameter only, see
   Section 10.3.1. The third byte (Version field) must be set to 0.
9.2  FlowSpec Version #7 - ST2+ FlowSpec
   The flow specification identified by a #7 value of the Version field
   is the ST2+ FlowSpec, to be used by all ST2+ implementations. It
   allows the user applications to express their real-time requirements
   in the form of a QoS class, precedence, and three basic QoS
   parameters:
   o   message size,
   o   message rate,
   o   end-to-end delay.
   The QoS class indicates what kind of QoS guarantees are expected by
   the application, e.g., strict guarantees or predictive, see Section
   9.2.1. QoS parameters are expressed via a set of values:
o   the "desired" values indicate the QoS desired by the application.
    These values are assigned by the application and never modified by
    the LRM.
o   the "limit" values indicate the lowest QoS the application is
    willing to accept. These values are also assigned by the application
    and never modified by the LRM.
o   the "actual" values indicate the QoS that the system is able to
    provide. They are updated by the LRM at each node. The "actual"
    values are always bounded by the "limit" and "desired" values.
9.2.1  QoS Classes
   Two QoS classes are defined:
   1 - QOS_PREDICTIVE      /* QoSClass field value = 0x01, must be
                              supported*/
   2 - QOS_GUARANTEED      /* QoSClass field value = 0x10, optional */
o   The QOS_PREDICTIVE class implies that the negotiated QoS may be
    violated for short time intervals during the data transfer. An
    application has to provide values that take into account the
    "normal" case, e.g., the "desired" message rate is the allocated rate
    for the transmission. Reservations are done for the "normal" case as
    opposite to the peak case required by the QOS_GUARANTEED service
    class. This QoS class must be supported by all implementations.
o   The QOS_GUARANTEED class implies that the negotiated QoS for the
    stream is never violated during the data transfer. An application
    has to provide values that take into account the worst possible
    case, e.g., the "desired" message rate is the peak rate for the
    transmission. As a result, sufficient resources to handle the peak
    rate are reserved. This strategy may lead to overbooking of
    resources, but it provides strict real-time guarantees. Support of
    this QoS class is optional.
   If a LRM that doesn't support class QOS_GUARANTEED receives a
   FlowSpec containing QOS_GUARANTEED class, it informs the local ST
   agent. The ST agent may try different paths or delete the
   correspondent portion of the stream as described in Section 5.5.3,
   i.e., ReasonCode (FlowSpecError).
9.2.2  Precedence
   Precedence is the importance of the connection being established.
   Zero represents the lowest precedence. The lowest level is expected
   to be used by default. In general, the distinction between precedence
   and priority is that precedence specifies streams that are permitted
   to take previously committed resources from another stream, while
   priority identifies those PDUs that a stream is most willing to have
   dropped.
9.2.3  Maximum Data Size
   This parameter is expressed in bytes. It represents the maximum
   amount of data, excluding ST and other headers, allowed to be sent in
   a messages as part of the stream. The LRM first checks whether it is
   possible to get the value desired by the application (DesMaxSize). If
   not, it updates the actual value (ActMaxSize) with the available size
   unless this value is inferior to the minimum allowed by the
   application (LimitMaxSize), in which case it informs the local ST
   agent that it is not possible to build the stream along this path.
9.2.4  Message Rate
   This parameter is expressed in messages/second. It represents the
   transmission rate for the stream. The LRM first checks whether it is
   possible to get the value desired by the application (DesRate). If
   not, it updates the actual value (ActRate) with the available rate
   unless this value is inferior to the minimum allowed by the
   application (LimitRate), in which case it informs the local ST agent
   that it is not possible to build the stream along this path.
9.2.5  Delay and Delay Jitter
   The delay parameter is expressed in milliseconds. It represents the
   maximum end-to-end delay for the stream. The LRM first checks whether
   it is possible to get the value desired by the application
   (DesMaxDelay). If not, it updates the actual value (ActMaxDelay) with
   the available delay unless this value is greater than the maximum
   delay allowed by the application (LimitMaxDelay), in which case it
   informs the local ST agent that it is not possible to build the
   stream along this path.
   The LRM also updates at each node the MinDelay field by incrementing
   it by the minimum possible delay to the next-hop. Information on the
   minimum possible delay allows to calculate the maximum end-to-end
   delay range, i.e., the time interval in which a data packet can be
   received. This interval should not exceed the DesMaxDelayRange value
   indicated by the application. The maximum end-to-end delay range is
   an upper bound of the delay jitter.
9.2.6  ST2+ FlowSpec Format
   The ST2+ FlowSpec has the following format:
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    QosClass   |  Precedence   |            0(unused)          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                             DesRate                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                            LimitRate                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                             ActRate                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            DesMaxSize         |           LimitMaxSize        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            ActMaxSize         |           DesMaxDelay         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            LimitMaxDelay      |           ActMaxDelay         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            DesMaxDelayRange   |           ActMinDelay         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                        Figure 9: The ST2+ FlowSpec.
   The LRM modifies only "actual" fields, i.e., those beginning with
   "Act". The user application assigns values to all other fields.
o   QoSClass indicates which of the two defined classes of service
    applies. The two classes are: QOS_PREDICTIVE (QoSClass = 1) and
    QOS_GUARANTEED (QoSClass = 2).
o   Precedence indicates the stream's precedence. Zero represents the
    lowest precedence, and should be the default value.
o   DesRate is the desired transmission rate for the stream in messages/
    second. This field is set by the origin and is not modified by
    intermediate agents.
o   LimitRate is the minimum acceptable transmission rate in messages/
    second. This field is set by the origin and is not modified by
    intermediate agents.
o   ActRate is the actual transmission rate allocated for the stream in
    messages/second. Each agent updates this field with the available
    rate unless this value is less than LimitRate, in which case a
    REFUSE is generated.
o   DesMaxSize is the desired maximum data size in bytes that will be
    sent in a message in the stream. This field is set by the origin.
o   LimitMaxSize is the minimum acceptable data size in bytes. This
    field is set by the origin
o   ActMaxSize is the actual maximum data size that may be sent in a
    message in the stream. This field is updated by each agent based on
    MTU and available resources. If available maximum size is less than
    LimitMaxSize, the connection must be refused with ReasonCode
    (CantGetResrc).
o   DesMaxDelay is the desired maximum end-to-end delay for the stream
    in milliseconds. This field is set by the origin.
o   LimitMaxDelay is the upper-bound of acceptable end-to-end delay for
    the stream in milliseconds. This field is set by the origin.
o   ActMaxDelay is the maximum end-to-end delay that will be seen by
    data in the stream. Each ST agent adds to this field the maximum
    delay that will be introduced by the agent, including transmission
    time to the next-hop ST agent. If the actual maximum exceeds
    LimitMaxDelay, then the connection is refused with ReasonCode
    (CantGetResrc).
o   DesMaxDelayRange is the desired maximum delay range that may be
    encountered end-to-end by stream data in milliseconds. This value is
    set by the application at the origin.
o   ActMinDelay is the actual minimum end-to-end delay that will be
    encountered by stream data in milliseconds. Each ST agent adds to
    this field the minimum delay that will be introduced by the agent,
    including transmission time to the next-hop ST agent. Each agent
    must add at least 1 millisecond. The delay range for the stream can
    be calculated from the actual maximum and minimum delay fields. It
    is expected that the range will be important to some applications.
10.  ST2 Protocol Data Units Specification
10.1  Data PDU
   IP and ST packets can be distinguished by the IP Version Number
   field, i.e., the first four (4) bits of the packet; ST has been
   assigned the value 5 (see [RFC1700]). There is no requirement for
   compatibility between IP and ST packet headers beyond the first four
   bits. (IP uses value 4.)
   The ST PDUs sent between ST agents consist of an ST Header
   encapsulating either a higher layer PDU or an ST Control Message.
   Data packets are distinguished from control messages via the D-bit
   (bit 8) in the ST header.
   The ST Header also includes an ST Version Number, a total length
   field, a header checksum, a unique id, and the stream origin 32-bit
   IP address. The unique id and the stream origin 32-bit IP address
   form the stream id (SID). This is shown in Figure 10. Please refer to
   Section 10.6 for an explanation of the notation.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  ST=5 | Ver=3 |D| Pri |   0   |            TotalBytes         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |          HeaderChecksum       |            UniqueID           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         OriginIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            Figure 10: ST Header
o   ST is the IP Version Number assigned to identify ST packets. The
    value for ST is 5.
o   Ver is the ST Version Number. The value for the current ST2+ version
    is 3.
o   D (bit 8) is set to 1 in all ST data packets and to 0 in all SCMP
    control messages.
o   Pri (bits 9-11) is the packet-drop priority field with zero (0)
    being lowest priority and seven the highest. The field is to be used
    as described in Section 3.2.2.
o   TotalBytes is the length, in bytes, of the entire ST packet, it
    includes the ST Header but does not include any local network
    headers or trailers. In general, all length fields in the ST
    Protocol are in units of bytes.
o   HeaderChecksum covers only the ST Header (12 bytes). The ST Protocol
    uses 16-bit checksums here in the ST Header and in each Control
    Message. For checksum computation, see Section 8.3.
o   UniqueID is the first element of the stream ID (SID). It is locally
    unique at the stream origin, see Section 8.1.
o   OriginIPAddress is the second element of the SID. It is the 32-bit
    IP address of the stream origin, see Section 8.1.
   Bits 12-15 must be set to zero (0) when using the flow specifications
   defined in this document, see Section 9. They may be set accordingly
   when other flow specifications are used, e.g., as described in
   [WoHD95].
10.1.1  ST Data Packets
   ST packets whose D-bit is non-zero are data packets. Their
   interpretation is a matter for the higher layer protocols and
   consequently is not specified here. The data packets are not
   protected by an ST checksum and will be delivered to the higher layer
   protocol even with errors. ST agents will not pass data packets over
   a new hop whose setup is not complete.
10.2  Control PDUs
   SCMP control messages are exchanged between neighbor ST agents using
   a D-bit of zero (0). The control protocol follows a request-response
   model with all requests expecting responses. Retransmission after
   timeout (see Section 4.3) is used to allow for lost or ignored
   messages. Control messages do not extend across packet boundaries; if
   a control message is too large for the MTU of a hop, its information
   is partitioned and a control message per partition is sent (see
   Section 5.1.2). All control messages have the following format
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode       |     Options   |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |          Reference            |          LnkReference         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |            ReasonCode         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                      OpCodeSpecificData                       :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                    Figure 11: ST Control Message Format
o   OpCode identifies the type of control message.
o   Options is used to convey OpCode-specific variations for a control
    message.
o   TotalBytes is the length of the control message, in bytes, including
    all OpCode specific fields and optional parameters. The value is
    always divisible by four (4).
o   Reference is a transaction number. Each sender of a request control
    message assigns a Reference number to the message that is unique
    with respect to the stream. The Reference number is used by the
    receiver to detect and discard duplicates. Each acknowledgment
    carries the Reference number of the request being acknowledged.
    Reference zero (0) is never used, and Reference numbers are assumed
    to be monotonically increasing with wraparound so that the older-
    than and more-recent-than relations are well defined.
o   LnkReference contains the Reference field of the request control
    message that caused this request control message to be created. It
    is used in situations where a single request leads to multiple
    responses from the same ST agent. Examples are CONNECT and CHANGE
    messages that are first acknowledged hop-by-hop and then lead to an
    ACCEPT or REFUSE response from each target.
o   SenderIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the network interface
    that the ST agent used to send the control message. This value
    changes each time the packet is forwarded by an ST agent (hop-by-
    hop).
o   Checksum is the checksum of the control message. Because the control
    messages are sent in packets that may be delivered with bits in
    error, each control message must be checked to be error free before
    it is acted upon.
o   ReasonCode is set to zero (0 = NoError) in most SCMP messages.
    Otherwise, it can be set to an appropriate value to indicate an
    error situation as defined in Section 10.5.3.
o   OpCodeSpecificData contains any additional information that is
    associated with the control message. It depends on the specific
    control message and is explained further below. In some response
    control messages, fields of zero (0) are included to allow the
    format to match that of the corresponding request message. The
    OpCodeSpecificData may also contain optional parameters. The
    specifics of OpCodeSpecificData are defined in Section 10.3.
10.3  Common SCMP Elements
   Several fields and parameters (referred to generically as elements)
   are common to two or more PDUs. They are described in detail here
   instead of repeating their description several times. In many cases,
   the presence of a parameter is optional. To permit the parameters to
   be easily defined and parsed, each is identified with a PCode byte
   that is followed by a PBytes byte indicating the length of the
   parameter in bytes (including the PCode, PByte, and any padding
   bytes). If the length of the information is not a multiple of four
   (4) bytes, the parameter is padded with one to three zero (0) bytes.
   PBytes is thus always a multiple of four (4). Parameters can be
   present in any order.
10.3.1  FlowSpec
   The FlowSpec parameter (PCode = 1) is used in several SCMP messages
   to convey the ST2 flow specification. The FlowSpec parameter has the
   following format:
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   PCode = 1   |    PBytes     |   Version     |       0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                        FlowSpec detail                        :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       Figure 12: FlowSpec Parameter
o   the Version field contains the FlowSpec version.
o   the FlowSpec detail field contains the flow specification and is
    transparent to the ST agent. It is the data structure to be passed
    to the LRM. It must be 4-byte aligned.
   The Null FlowSpec, see Section 9.1, has no FlowSpec detail field.
   PBytes is set to four (4), and Version is set to zero (0). The ST2+
   FlowSpec, see Section 9.2, is a 32-byte data structure. PBytes is set
   to 36, and Version is set to seven (7).
10.3.2  Group
   The Group parameter (PCode = 2) is an optional argument used to
   indicate that the stream is a member in the specified group.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  PCode = 2    |   PBytes = 16 |           GroupUniqueID       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        GroupCreationTime                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                     GroupInitiatorIPAddress                   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Relationship       |                 N             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                         Figure 13: Group Parameter
o   GroupUniqueID, GroupInitiatorIPAddress, and GroupCreationTime
    together form the GroupName field. They are allocated by the group
    name generator function, see Section 8.2. GroupUniqueID and
    GroupCreationTime are implementation specific and have only local
    definitions.
o   Relationship has the following format:
                                            0
                        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       |    0 (unused)         |S|P|F|B|
                       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       Figure 14: Relationship Field
   The B, F, P, S bits correspond to Bandwidth, Fate, Path, and Subnet
   resources sharing, see Section 7. A value of 1 indicates that the
   relationship exists for this group. All combinations of the four bits
   are allowed. Bits 0-11 of the Relationship field are reserved for
   future use and must be set to 0.
o   N contains a legal value only if the B-bit is set. It is the value
    of the N parameter to be used as explained in Section 7.1.1.
10.3.3  MulticastAddress
   The MulticastAddress parameter (PCode = 3) is an optional parameter
   that is used when using IP encapsulation and setting up an IP
   multicast group. This parameter is used to communicate the desired IP
   multicast address to next-hop ST agents that should become members of
   the group, see Section 8.8.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  PCode = 3    |   PBytes = 8  |                0              |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        IPMulticastAddress                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                        Figure 15:  MulticastAddress
o   IPMulticastAddress is the 32-bit IP multicast address to be used to
    receive data packets for the stream.
10.3.4  Origin
   The Origin parameter (PCode = 4) is used to identify the next higher
   protocol, and the SAP being used in conjunction with that protocol.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  PCode = 5    |   PBytes      | NextPcol      |OriginSAPBytes |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                OriginSAP                      :     Padding   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                             Figure 16: Origin
o   NextPcol is an 8-bit field used in demultiplexing operations to
    identify the protocol to be used above ST. The values of NextPcol
    are in the same number space as the IP header's Protocol field and
    are consequently defined in the Assigned Numbers RFC [RFC1700].
o   OriginSAPBytes specifies the length of the OriginSAP, exclusive of
    any padding required to maintain 32-bit alignment.
o   OriginSAP identifies the origin's SAP associated with the NextPcol
    protocol.
   Note that the 32-bit IP address of the stream origin is not included
   in this parameter because it is always available as part of the ST
   header.
10.3.5  RecordRoute
   The RecordRoute parameter (PCode = 5) is used to request that the
   route between the origin and a target be recorded and delivered to
   the user application. The ST agent at the origin (or target)
   including this parameter, has to determine the parameter's length,
   indicated by the PBytes field. ST agents processing messages
   containing this parameter add their receiving IP address in the
   position indicated by the FreeOffset field, space permitting. If no
   space is available, the parameter is passed unchanged. When included
   by the origin, all agents between the origin and the target add their
   IP addresses and this information is made available to the
   application at the target. When included by the target, all agents
   between the target and the origin, inclusive, add their IP addresses
   and this information is made available to the application at the
   origin.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   PCode = 5   |     PBytes    |       0       |  FreeOffset   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                          IP Address 1                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                              ...                              :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                          IP Address N                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                           Figure 17: RecordRoute
o   PBytes is the length of the parameter in bytes. Length is determined
    by the agent (target or origin) that first introduces the parameter.
    Once set, the length of the parameter remains unchanged.
o   FreeOffset indicates the offset, relative to the start of the
    parameter, for the next IP address to be recorded. When the
    FreeOffset is greater than, or equal to, PBytes the RecordRoute
    parameter is full.
o   IP Address is filled in, space permitting, by each ST agent
    processing this parameter.
10.3.6  Target and TargetList
   Several control messages use a parameter called TargetList (PCode =
   6), which contains information about the targets to which the message
   pertains. For each Target in the TargetList, the information includes
   the 32-bit IP address of the target, the SAP applicable to the next
   higher layer protocol, and the length of the SAP (SAPBytes).
   Consequently, a Target structure can be of variable length. Each
   entry has the format shown in Figure 18.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Target IP Address                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  TargetBytes  |  SAPBytes     |     SAP       :    Padding    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                             Figure 18: Target
o   TargetIPAddress is the 32-bit IP Address of the Target.
o   TargetBytes is the length of the Target structure, beginning with
    the TargetIPAddress.
o   SAPBytes is the length of the SAP, excluding any padding required to
    maintain 32-bit alignment.
o   SAP may be longer than 2 bytes and it includes a padding when
    required. There would be no padding required for SAPs with lengths
    of 2, 6, 10, etc., bytes.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  PCode = 6    |   PBytes      |           TargetCount = N     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           Target 1                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                               :                               :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           Target N                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                           Figure 19: TargetList
10.3.7  UserData
   The UserData parameter (PCode = 7) is an optional parameter that may
   be used by the next higher protocol or an application to convey
   arbitrary information to its peers. This parameter is propagated in
   some control messages and its contents have no significance to ST
   agents. Note that since the size of control messages is limited by
   the smallest MTU in the path to the targets, the maximum size of this
   parameter cannot be specified a priori. If the size of this parameter
   causes a message to exceed the network MTU, an ST agent behaves as
   described in Section 5.1.2. The parameter must be padded to a
   multiple of 32 bits.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  PCode = 7    |   PBytes      |           UserBytes           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                      UserInfo                 :   Padding     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            Figure 20:  UserData
o   UserBytes specifies the number of valid UserInfo bytes.
o   UserInfo is arbitrary data meaningful to the next higher protocol
    layer or application.
10.3.8  Handling of Undefined Parameters
   An ST agent must be able to handle all parameters listed above. To
   support possible future uses, parameters with unknown PCodes must
   also be supported. If an agent receives a message containing a
   parameter with an unknown Pcode value, the agent should handle the
   parameter as if it was a UserData parameter. That is, the contents of
   the parameter should be ignored, and the message should be
   propagated, as appropriate, along with the related control message.
10.4  ST Control Message PDUs
   ST Control messages are described in the following section. Please
   refer to Section 10.6 for an explanation of the notation.
10.4.1  ACCEPT
   ACCEPT (OpCode = 1) is issued by a target as a positive response to a
   CONNECT message. It implies that the target is prepared to accept
   data from the origin along the stream that was established by the
   CONNECT.  ACCEPT is also issued as a positive response to a CHANGE
   message. It implies that the target accepts the proposed stream
   modification.
   ACCEPT is relayed by the ST agents from the target to the origin
   along the path established by CONNECT (or CHANGE) but in the reverse
   direction. ACCEPT must be acknowledged with ACK at each hop.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 1   |      0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |         LnkReference          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |          MaxMsgSize           |          RecoveryTimeout      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      StreamCreationTime                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   IPHops      |                        0                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           FlowSpec                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           TargetList                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           RecordRoute                         :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           UserData                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     Figure 21: ACCEPT Control Message
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending ACCEPT
    for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   LnkReference is the Reference number from the corresponding CONNECT
    (or CHANGE)
o   MaxMsgSize indicates the smallest MTU along the path traversed by
    the stream. This field is only set when responding to a CONNECT
    request.
o   RecoveryTimeout reflects the nominal number of milliseconds that the
    application is willing to wait for a failed system component to be
    detected and any corrective action to be taken. This field
    represents what can actually be supported by each participating
    agent, and is only set when responding to a CONNECT request.
o   StreamCreationTime is the 32- bits system dependent timestamp copied
    from the corresponding CONNECT request.
o   IPHops is the number of IP encapsulated hops traversed by the
    stream. This field is set to zero by the origin, and is incremented
    at each IP encapsulating agent.
10.4.2  ACK
   ACK (OpCode = 2) is used to acknowledge a request. The ACK message is
   not propagated beyond the previous-hop or next-hop ST agent.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 2   |     0         |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Reference               |           LnkReference = 0    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Checksum                |           ReasonCode          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                       Figure 22: ACK Control Message
o   Reference is the Reference number of the control message being
    acknowledged.
o   ReasonCode is usually NoError, but other possibilities exist, e.g.,
    DuplicateIgn.
10.4.3  CHANGE
   CHANGE (OpCode = 3) is used to change the FlowSpec of an established
   stream. The CHANGE message is processed similarly to CONNECT, except
   that it travels along the path of an established stream. CHANGE must
   be propagated until it reaches the related stream's targets. CHANGE
   must be acknowledged with ACK at each hop.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 3   |G|I|     0     |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Reference           |          LnkReference = 0     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        SenderIPAddress                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                            FlowSpec                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           TargetList                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           RecordRoute                         :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                            UserData                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     Figure 23: CHANGE Control Message
o   G (bit 8) is used to request a global, stream-wide change; the
    TargetList parameter should be omitted when the G bit is specified.
o   I (bit 7) is used to indicate that the LRM is permitted to interrupt
    and, if needed, break the stream in the process of trying to satisfy
    the requested change.
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending CHANGE
    for use in the acknowledging ACK.
10.4.4  CONNECT
   CONNECT (OpCode = 4) requests the setup of a new stream or an
   addition to or recovery of an existing stream. Only the origin can
   issue the initial set of CONNECTs to setup a stream, and the first
   CONNECT to each next-hop is used to convey the SID.
   The next-hop initially responds with an ACK, which implies that the
   CONNECT was valid and is being processed. The next-hop will later
   relay back either an ACCEPT or REFUSE from each target. An
   intermediate ST agent that receives a CONNECT behaves as explained in
   Section 4.5.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 4   |J N|S|    0    |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Reference           |          LnkReference = 0     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Checksum            |          ReasonCode = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           MaxMsgSize          |          RecoveryTimeout      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        StreamCreationTime                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   IPHops      |                        0                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                             Origin                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           FlowSpec                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                          TargetList                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                          RecordRoute                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                             Group                             :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                        MulticastAddress                       :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                            UserData                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     Figure 24: CONNECT Control Message
o   JN (bits 8 and 9) indicate the join authorization level for the
    stream, see Section 4.4.2.
o   S (bit 10) indicates the NoRecovery option (Section 4.4.1). When the
    S-bit is set (1), the NoRecovery option is specified for the stream.
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending CONNECT
    for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   MaxMsgSize indicates the smallest MTU along the path traversed by
    the stream. This field is initially set to the network MTU of the
    agent issues the CONNECT.
o   RecoveryTimeout is the nominal number of milliseconds that the
    application is willing to wait for failed system component to be
    detected and any corrective action to be taken.
o   StreamCreationTime is the 32- bits system dependent timestamp
    generated by the ST agent issuing the CONNECT.
o   IPHops is the number of IP encapsulated hops traversed by the
    stream. This field is set to zero by the origin, and is incremented
    at each IP encapsulating agent.
10.4.5  DISCONNECT
   DISCONNECT (OpCode = 5) is used by an origin to tear down an
   established stream or part of a stream, or by an intermediate ST
   agent that detects a failure between itself and its previous-hop, as
   distinguished by the ReasonCode. The DISCONNECT message specifies the
   list of targets that are to be disconnected. An ACK is required in
   response to a DISCONNECT message. The DISCONNECT message is
   propagated all the way to the specified targets. The targets are
   expected to terminate their participation in the stream.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 5   |G|    0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |     LnkReference = 0          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      GeneratorIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           TargetList                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                            UserData                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                   Figure 25: DISCONNECT Control Message
o   G (bit 8) is used to request a DISCONNECT of all the stream's
    targets. TargetList should be omitted when the G-bit is set (1). If
    TargetList is present, it is ignored.
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
    DISCONNECT for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   ReasonCode reflects the event that initiated the message.
o   GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that first
    generated the DISCONNECT message.
10.4.6  ERROR
   ERROR (OpCode = 6) is sent in acknowledgment to a request in which an
   error is detected. No action is taken on the erroneous request. No
   ACK is expected. The ERROR message is not propagated beyond the
   previous-hop or next-hop ST agent. An ERROR is never sent in response
   to another ERROR. The receiver of an ERROR is encouraged to try again
   without waiting for a retransmission timeout.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 6   |       0       |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |     LnkReference = 0          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |        ReasonCode             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           PDUInError                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                      Figure 26: ERROR Control Message
o   Reference is the Reference number of the erroneous request.
o   ReasonCode indicates the error that triggered the message.
o   PDUInError is the PDU in error, beginning with the ST Header. This
    parameter is optional. Its length is limited by network MTU, and may
    be truncated when too long.
10.4.7  HELLO
   HELLO (OpCode = 7) is used as part of the ST failure detection
   mechanism, see Section 6.1.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 7   |R|    0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Reference = 0           |        LnkReference = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |         Checksum              |          ReasonCode = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                          HelloTimer                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                      Figure 27: HELLO Control Message
o   R (bit 8) is used for the Restarted-bit.
o   HelloTimer represents the time in millisecond since the agent was
    restarted, modulo the precision of the field. It is used to detect
    duplicate or delayed HELLO messages.
10.4.8  JOIN
   JOIN (OpCode = 8) is used as part of the ST steam joining mechanism,
   see Section 4.6.3.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 8   |      0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |         LnkReference = 0      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode = 0       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      GeneratorIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                          TargetList                           :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                      Figure 28: JOIN Control Message
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending JOIN
    for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that
    generated the JOIN message.
o   TargetList is the information associated with the target to be added
    to the stream.
10.4.9  JOIN-REJECT
   JOIN-REJECT (OpCode = 9) is used as part of the ST steam joining
   mechanism, see Section 4.6.3.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 9   |      0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |          LnkReference         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      GeneratorIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                   Figure 29: JOIN-REJECT Control Message
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending the
    REFUSE for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   LnkReference is the Reference number from the corresponding JOIN
    message.
o   ReasonCode reflects the reason why the JOIN request was rejected.
o   GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that first
    generated the JOIN-REJECT message.
10.4.10  NOTIFY
   NOTIFY (OpCode = 10) is issued by an ST agent to inform other ST
   agents of events that may be significant. NOTIFY may be propagated
   beyond the previous-hop or next-hop ST agent depending on the
   ReasonCode, see Section 10.5.3; NOTIFY must be acknowledged with an
   ACK.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 10  |      0        |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |         LnkReference = 0      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      DetectorIPAddress                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |          MaxMsgSize           |          RecoveryTimeout      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           FlowSpec                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           TargetList                          :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       :                           UserData                            :
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     Figure 30: NOTIFY Control Message
o   Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending the
    NOTIFY for use in the acknowledging ACK.
o   ReasonCode identifies the reason for the notification.
o   DetectorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the ST agent that
    detects the event.
o   MaxMsgSize is set when the MTU of the listed targets has changed
    (e.g., due to recovery), or when the notification is generated after
    a successful JOIN. Otherwise it is set to zero (0).
o   RecoveryTimeout is set when the notification is generated after a
    successful JOIN. Otherwise it is set to zero (0).
o   FlowSpec is present when the notification is generated after a
    successful JOIN.
o   TargetList is present when the notification is related to one or
    more targets, or when MaxMsgSize is set
o   UserData is present if the notification is generated after a
    successful JOIN and the UserData parameter was set in the ACCEPT
    message.
10.4.11  REFUSE
   REFUSE (OpCode = 11) is issued by a target that either does not wish
   to accept a CONNECT message or wishes to remove itself from an
   established stream. It might also be issued by an intermediate ST
   agent in response to a CONNECT or CHANGE either to terminate a
   routing loop, or when a satisfactory next-hop to a target cannot be
   found. It may also be a separate command when an existing stream has
   been preempted by a higher precedence stream or an ST agent detects
   the failure of a previous-hop, next-hop, or the network between them.
   In all cases, the TargetList specifies the targets that are affected
   by the condition. Each REFUSE must be acknowledged by an ACK.
   The REFUSE is relayed back by the ST agents to the origin (or
   intermediate ST agent that created the CONNECT or CHANGE) along the
   path traced by the CONNECT. The ST agent receiving the REFUSE will
   process it differently depending on the condition that caused it, as
   specified in the ReasonCode field. No special effort is made to
   combine multiple REFUSE messages since it is considered most unlikely
   that separate REFUSEs will happen to both pass through an ST agent at
   the same time and be easily combined, e.g., have identical
   ReasonCodes and parameters.
        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  OpCode = 11  |G|E|N|    0    |           TotalBytes          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |      Reference                |         LnkReference          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         SenderIPAddress                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            Checksum           |          ReasonCode           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+